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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10465, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153508

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. We selected 280 IUGR cases and 256 controls for analysis. Logistic regression was used to jointly analyze the SNPs as well as factors such as maternal smoking, age, and schooling. We found that the PPARγ rs41516544 increased the risk of IUGR for male offspring (OR 27.83, 95%CI 3.65-212.32) as well as for female offspring (OR=8.94, 95%CI: 1.96-40.88). The FTO rs9939609 TA genotype resulted in a reduced susceptibility to IUGR for male offspring only (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, we demonstrated that PPARγ SNP had a positive effect and FTO SNP had a negative effect on IUGR occurrence, and these effects were gender-specific.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , PPAR gamma/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Genotype
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10161, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142567

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the timing of the first dental visit and investigate the association of socioeconomic and behavioral factors with dental visit delay among 10/11-year-old children from two live-birth population cohorts with extremely contrasting socioeconomic profiles. Follow-up data (2004-2005) from cohorts of Ribeirão Preto (RP) (n=790) and São Luís (SL) (n=673) were evaluated. Delay in dental visit was defined as not visiting a dentist before the age of 7. Covariates included family socioeconomic characteristics, mother-related health behavior, and child-related characteristics. Prevalence ratios with robust standard errors were estimated. In both cohorts, less than 5% of children had visited a dentist before the age of two and about 35% of them had not visited a dentist before the age of seven. Lower mother's schooling and lack of private health insurance were associated with the delay in first dental visit for both cohorts. A small number of mother's prenatal care visits and being from a single-father family or a family without parents were only associated in the RP cohort, while having ≥4 siblings and lifetime dental pain were associated in the SL cohort. The association with dental pain probably reveals a preventive care-seeking behavior. Therefore, the percentage of delayed first dental visit of children was very high even among those with the most educated mothers. Further studies are necessary to analyze recent changes and underlying factors related to access to first dental visit after the implementation of the National Oral Health Policy in 2006.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Care for Children/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cohort Studies , Educational Status
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): 10252-0, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142565

ABSTRACT

Fetuses exposed to alcohol and/or tobacco are at risk for perinatal adversities. However, little is currently known about the association of the separate or concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco with infant motor and cognitive development. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal consumption of alcohol and/or tobacco during pregnancy and the motor and cognitive development of children starting from the second year of life. The study included 1006 children of a cohort started during the prenatal period (22-25 weeks of pregnancy), evaluated at birth and reevaluated during the second year of life in 2011/2013. The children were divided into four groups according to the alcohol and/or tobacco consumption reported by their mothers at childbirth: no consumption (NC), separate alcohol consumption (AC), separate tobacco consumption (TC), and concomitant use of both (ACTC). The Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition screening tool was used for the assessment of motor and cognitive development. Adjusted Poisson regression models were used to determine the association between groups and delayed development. The results indicated that only the ACTC group showed a higher risk of motor delay, specifically regarding fine motor skills, compared to the NC group (RR=2.81; 95%CI: 1.65; 4.77). Separate alcohol or tobacco consumption was not associated with delayed gross motor or cognitive development. However, the concomitant use of the two substances increased the risk of delayed acquisition of fine motor skills.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Child Development , Tobacco Use , Cohort Studies
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10115, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132561

ABSTRACT

The introduction of early complementary feeding (ECF) is determined by different factors depending on when it occurs. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the introduction of ECF in two different moments of the infant's life: from zero to three and from four to five months of age. A cohort with 3,306 dyads studied in the BRISA survey in São Luis/MA in 2010 was used. Questionnaires were applied at birth and at follow-up when the infants were 15 to 36 months of age of women with more than 20 weeks of gestational age, residing in this municipality. A multivariate model of multinomial logistic regression was used to verify associations between independent variables and ECF at 0 to 3 months and at 4 to 5 months of age. A hierarchical analysis model was used to select variables for confounding adjustment. Variables with a P-value <0.05 were considered significant. For ECF introduced between 0-3 months, the variables "use of pacifier", "maternal paid activity", "smoking", and "postpartum pregnancy" were identified as risk factors. The variables "use of pacifier" and "maternal paid activity" remained associated as a risk for ECF introduced from 4-5 months. The variable 'mother without partner' (RR=1.26 and P=0.04) represented a risk factor for ECF only for the 4-5 months period. Although each period presented specific risk factors, the use of pacifier and maternal professional activity were associated in the two periods studied, indicating their importance for the introduction of ECF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Time Factors , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Smoking , Cesarean Section , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Pacifiers , Employment
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