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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(6): 883-894, Nov.-Dec. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403256


ABSTRACT The management of diabetes mellitus (DM) requires maintaining glycemic control, and patients must keep their blood glucose levels close to the normal range to reduce the risk of microvascular complications and cardiovascular events. While glycated hemoglobin (A1C) is currently the primary measure for glucose management and a key marker for long-term complications, it does not provide information on acute glycemic excursions and overall glycemic variability. These limitations may even be higher in some special situations, thereby compromising A1C accuracy, especially when wider glycemic variability is expected and/or when the glycemic goal is more stringent. To attain adequate glycemic control, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is more useful than self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), as it is more convenient and provides a greater amount of data. Flash Glucose Monitoring (isCGM /FGM) is a widely accepted option of CGM for measuring interstitial glucose levels in individuals with DM. However, its application under special conditions, such as pregnancy, patients on hemodialysis, patients with cirrhosis, during hospitalization in the intensive care unit and during physical exercise has not yet been fully validated. This review addresses some of these specific situations in which hypoglycemia should be avoided, or in pregnancy, where strict glycemic control is essential, and the application of isCGM/FGM could alleviate the shortcomings associated with poor glucose control or high glycemic variability, thereby contributing to high-quality care.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(2): 238-243, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383855


ABSTRACT Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises the spectrum between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), a condition whose prevalence in countries such as Brazil has increased significantly in recent years. Changes in the intestinal epithelial barrier function and, consequently, an increase in intestinal permeability, have been suggested as important factors in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune conditions, including IBD. Therefore, there is a need for a practical tool to assess gut barrier integrity in these patients. Objective: To study factors associated with serum zonulin levels, a marker of intestinal permeability, in patients with IBD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study that included 117 patients with IBD and 32 healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed by the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) in UC and by the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) in CD subjects. Zonulin levels were measured by ELISA and inflammatory cytokines by Cytometric Bead Array, using commercially available kits. Results: The mean age of IBD patients was 44.0±15.9 years, 66.7% were female, 57 subjects were diagnosed with CD and 60 with UC. At evaluation, clinical remission was observed in 56.7% of CD patients and in 59.2% of UC subjects. No differences were observed in zonulin levels when comparing IBD patients with the control group (95.28 ng/mL vs 96.61 ng/mL, P=0.573) and when comparing patients with CD to those with UC (79.68 ng/mL vs 106.10 ng/mL, P=0.887). Among IBD group, zonulin concentrations were higher among females, correlated positively with body mass index (BMI) and age; and negatively with hemoglobin and hematocrit. In patients with UC, zonulin correlated negatively with hemoglobin, hematocrit, and albumin; and positively with BMI and SCCAI. Among CD patients, zonulin was positively correlated with age and BMI, but not with HBI. No correlations were observed between zonulin and circulating cytokines in IBD patients. Conclusion: In this cohort mostly comprised of patients in clinical remission, serum zonulin levels were not higher in patients with IBD than healthy controls, and correlated with variables not linked to baseline disease, such as sex, age and BMI. However, zonulin correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters of disease severity and activity among subjects with UC, but not among patients with CD. These findings indicate a potential role for zonulin as a biomarker in IBD, particularly in UC.

RESUMO Contexto: A doença inflamatória intestinal (DII) compreende o espectro entre a doença de Crohn (DC) e a colite ulcerativa, condição esta cuja prevalência em países como o Brasil vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos. Alterações na função da barreira epitelial intestinal e, consequentemente, um aumento da permeabilidade intestinal, têm sido sugeridos como fatores importantes envolvidos na patogênese de diferentes condições autoimunes, dentre elas, a DII. Desta forma, existe a necessidade de uma ferramenta prática para avaliar a integridade da barreira epitelial intestinal nestes pacientes. Objetivo: Estudar os fatores associados com os níveis séricos de zonulina, um marcador da permeabilidade intestinal, em pacientes com DII. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal que incluiu 117 pacientes com DII e 32 indivíduos que compuseram o grupo controle. A atividade da doença foi avaliada pelo Simple Cliniical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) na colite ulcerativa e pelo índice de Harvey-Bradshaw (IHB) em pacientes com DC. Os níveis de zonulina foram quantificados por ELISA e os níveis das citocinas inflamatórias pelo Cytometric Bead Array, utilizando kits comercialmente disponíveis. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes com DII foi de 44,0±15,9 anos, 66,7% eram do sexo feminino, 57 pacientes eram portadores de DC e 60 pacientes eram portadores de colite ulcerativa. No momento da avaliação clínico-laboratorial, 56,7% dos pacientes com DC encontravam-se em remissão clínica e, dentre os pacientes com colite ulcerativa, 59,2% deles assim se encontravam. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis séricos de zonulina entre pacientes com DII e grupo controle (95,28 ng/mL vs 96,61 ng/mL; P=0,573), assim como entre pacientes com DC e pacientes com colite ulcerativa (79,68 ng/mL vs 106,10 ng/mL, P=0,887). Dentre os pacientes com DII, as concentrações de zonulina foram mais elevadas no sexo feminino e correlacionaram-se positivamente com o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e com a idade, correlacionando-se negativamente com os níveis de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Nos pacientes com colite ulcerativa, as concentrações de zonulina correlacionaram-se negativamente com os parâmetros hemoglobina, hematócrito e albumina e, positivamente, com o IMC e com o SCCAI. Dentre os pacientes com DC, a zonulina sérica correlacionou-se positivamente com a idade e com o IMC, mas não com o IHB. Não foram observadas correlações entre os níveis de zonulina e as citocinas circulantes nos pacientes com DII. Conclusão: Nesta coorte constituída majoritariamente por pacientes em remissão clínica, os níveis séricos de zonulina não se mostraram aumentados em pacientes com DII em relação a indivíduos controles e correlacionaram-se com variáveis não relacionadas à doença de base, como com o sexo, com a idade e com o IMC. No entanto, os níveis séricos de zonulina correlacionaram-se com parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais de gravidade e atividade da doença dentre os pacientes com colite ulcerativa, mas não dentre os pacientes com DC. Estes achados indicam um potencial papel da zonulina sérica como um biomarcador na DII, principalmente na colite ulcerativa.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 131-138, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285331


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Individuals with cirrhosis have a chronic systemic inflammation associated with an immune dysfunction, affecting the progression of the liver disease. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was proposed as a marker of systemic inflammatory response and survival in patients with cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the prognostic role of NLR in cirrhotic patients and its relation with inflammatory cytokines(IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17). METHODS: In this prospective study two groups were evaluated: 1) Stable cirrhotic in outpatient follow-up (n=193); 2) Hospitalized cirrhotic for acute decompensation for at least 48 hours (n=334) with admission and 48 hours tests evaluation. Circulating inflammatory cytokines were available for 130 hospitalized patients. RESULTS: In outpatients with stable cirrhosis, NLR correlated with MELD score and other variables associated with severity of disease. However, after a median of 32 months of follow up NLR was not associated with mortality (HR 1.058, 95%CI 0.900-1.243; P=0.495). In hospitalized patients, NLR at 48-hour after admission was independently associated with 90-day survival (HR 1.061, 95%CI 1.020-1.103; P=0.003) in multivariate Cox-regression analysis. The 90-day Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 87% for patients with a 48-hour NLR <3.6 and 62% for NLR ≥3.6 (P<0.001). Elevation of NLR in the first 48 hours was also independently associated with mortality (HR 2.038, 95%CI 1295-3207; P=0.002). The 90-day Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 83% when NLR did not increase and 62% when NLR increased (P<0.001). IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 at admission were positively correlated with both admission and 48-hour NLR. Lower levels of baseline IL-10 were associated with NLR increase during first 48-hour. CONCLUSION: NLR evaluated at 48 hours of hospitalization and its early increase after admission were independently associated with short-term mortality in patients hospitalized for acute decompensation of cirrhosis.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Na cirrose há um quadro crônico de inflamação sistêmica associada a disfunção imune, que impactam na progressão da doença hepática. A razão neutrófilo-linfócito (RNL) foi proposta como um marcador de resposta inflamatória sistêmica e sobrevida em pacientes com cirrose hepática. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel de RNL como marcador prognóstico em portadores de cirrose hepática e sua relação com citocinas inflamatórias (IL-6, IL-10 e IL-17). MÉTODOS: É um estudo prospectivo com duas coortes: 1) pacientes cirróticos estáveis em acompanhamento ambulatorial (n=193); 2) pacientes cirróticos hospitalizados por descompensação aguda por no mínimo 48 horas (n=334) com avaliação de exames de admissão de 48 horas. Citocinas inflamatórias séricas estavam disponíveis em 130 pacientes hospitalizados. RESULTADOS: Nos pacientes ambulatoriais com cirrose estável, RNL se correlacionou com MELD e outras variáveis associadas com gravidade da doença. Entretanto, após uma mediana de 32 meses de seguimento, RNL não apresentou associação com mortalidade (HR 1.058, 95%CI 0.900-1.243; P=0.495). Nos pacientes hospitalizados, RNL de 48 horas após a admissão apresentou associação independente com sobrevida em 90 dias (HR 1.061, 95%CI 1.020-1.103; P=0.003) na regressão multivariada de Cox. A probabilidade de sobrevivência pela curva de Kaplan-Meier em 90 dias foi de 87% em pacientes com RNL de 48 horas <3.6 e 62% nos pacientes com RNL ≥3.6 (P<0.001). A elevação de RNL nas primeiras 48 horas também foi um fator independente associado a mortalidade (HR 2.038, 95%CI 1295-3207; P=0.002). A avaliação de sobrevida em 90 dias pela curva de Kaplan-Meier foi de 83% nos pacientes em que RNL não apresentou elevação e 62% nos que apresentaram elevação de RNL (P<0.001). IL-6, IL-10 e IL-17 na admissão se correlacionaram positivamente com RNL de admissão e de 48 horas. Níveis mais baixos de IL-10 basal foram associados com elevação de RNL nas primeiras 48 horas. CONCLUSÃO: RNL avaliada em 48 horas de hospitalização e sua elevação precoce após a admissão foram fatores independentemente associados a mortalidade em curto prazo nos pacientes hospitalizados com descompensação aguda da cirrose.

Humans , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(supl.1): 1-20, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098067


ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The Brazilian Society of Hepatology (SBH) published in 2015 its first recommendations about the management of HCC. Since then, new data have emerged in the literature, prompting the governing board of SBH to sponsor a single-topic meeting in August 2018 in São Paulo. All the invited experts were asked to make a systematic review of the literature reviewing the management of HCC in subjects with cirrhosis. After the meeting, all panelists gathered together for the discussion of the topics and the elaboration of updated recommendations. The text was subsequently submitted for suggestions and approval of all members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology through its homepage. The present manuscript is the final version of the reviewed manuscript containing the recommendations of SBH.

RESUMO O carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) é uma das principais causas de mortalidade relacionada a câncer no Brasil e no mundo. A Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia (SBH) publicou em 2015 suas primeiras recomendações sobre a abordagem do CHC. Desde então, novas evidências sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento do CHC foram relatadas na literatura médica, levando a diretoria da SBH a promover uma reunião monotemática sobre câncer primário de fígado em agosto de 2018 com o intuito de atualizar as recomendações sobre o manejo da neoplasia. Um grupo de experts foi convidado para realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura e apresentar uma atualização baseada em evidências científicas visando que pudesse nortear a prática clínica multidisciplinar do CHC. O texto resultante foi submetido a avaliação e aprovação de todos membros da SBH através de sua homepage. O documento atual é a versão final que contêm as recomendações atualizadas e revisadas da SBH.

Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(2): 101-107, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782153


Objective Thyroid disease affects 6.6% of the general population. The liver is fundamental in metabolizing thyroid hormones, and hepatocytes are often affected in thyroid disease. We aimed to compare clinical and laboratory parameters among thyroid disease patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels above vs. below the upper tertile. Subjects and methods A retrospective cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the endocrinology clinic at Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital. Patients with thyroid disease between August 2012 and January 2014 were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected from medical records. Results One hundred patients were included, of which 14.0% were male, with a mean age of 49.1 ± 14.4 years. ALT levels ranged from 9 to 90 U/L, and the ALT upper tertile was defined as 0,64 times the upper normal limit (xUNL). Patients with ALT levels above the upper tertile exhibited a higher proportion of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), a higher mean abdominal circumference and a higher frequency of elevated TSH levels than did patients with ALT levels below the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis, ALT ≥ 0.64 (xUNL) was independently associated with abdominal circumference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.087, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0012-0167, P = 0.022). ALT (xUNL) correlated positively with total cholesterol (r = 0.213, P = 0.042). Conclusions In patients with thyroid diseases, it was observed that those with ALT above the upper tertile are associated with abdominal circumference and ALT levels correlate with total cholesterol.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Reference Values , Thyrotropin/blood , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Dyslipidemias/blood , Waist Circumference , Hypertension/blood , Liver Diseases/blood
Rev. patol. trop ; 44(4): 441-452, dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912353


Introduction: Intestinal parasitoses lead to high morbidity and mortality rates, mainly in endemic areas; however, little is known about their prevalence in the Southern region of Brazil. The aim of the current study is to report the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and to assess such prevalence according to gender. Methods: Analytical, transversal and retrospective design including parasitological stool tests performed in a university hospital. Results: We included 3,126 parasitological stool test results in the study ­ 44% of them were from men and 10.1% of the total were positive. Commensal protozoa were the most frequent parasites (7.7%) and Endolimax nana was the most prevalent protozoan (3.7%). Giardia lamblia was the most frequent pathogenic parasite (1.3%), and it was followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Men presented higher positive result rates (13.0% vs. 7.8%; p<0.001) for commensal (7.2% vs. 5.1%; p=0.016) and pathogenic parasites (4.5% vs. 1.8%; p<0.001); as well as for protozoa (10.7% vs. 6.4%; p<0.001) and for nematodes (1.4% vs. 0.6%; p=0.036). Similarly, men presented a higher positive result ratio for E. nana (5.2% vs. 2.6%; p<0.001), Entamoeba coli (3.5% vs. 1.6%; p<0.001), G. lamblia (2.2% vs. 0.6%; p<0.001) and S. stercoralis (1.1% vs. 0.3%; p=0.013) than women. Conclusion: parasites were found in 10% of the examined samples and commensal parasites were the most prevalent. Men showed higher enteroparasitosis rates than women.

Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Giardia lamblia , Helminths
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 30(4): 412-418, oct.-dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-772415


Introducción: la enfermedad celíaca es una enfermedad autoinmune provocada por la ingestión de gluten que afecta aproximadamente al 0,5%-1% de la población mundial. Las señales extraintestinales incluyen elevados niveles de alanina-aminotransferasa (ALT). Objetivo: evaluar los efectos de una dieta libre de gluten en los niveles ALT en pacientes con enfermedad celíaca. Métodos: este estudio transversal se llevó a cabo en la clínica ambulatoria de gastroenterología de un hospital universitario. Resultados: se incluyeron veintiséis pacientes con enfermedad celíaca con edad de 34,1 ± 11,4 años; 15,4% fueron hombres. Los sujetos del estudio tenían un nivel promedio de ALT de 54,6 ± 36,3 (mediana 40,5) U/L. Hubo una mayor proporción de individuos con hepatitis B en el grupo con ALT ≥50 U/L en comparación con sujetos con ALT <50 U/L. Entre los pacientes evaluados después del tratamiento con dieta libre de gluten se observó una reducción significativa de los valores de ALT (36,0 versus 31,0 U/l; p= 0,008). Conclusión: el treinta y cinco por ciento de los pacientes con enfermedad celíaca tenía ALT por encima del tercil superior. Se encontraron niveles más altos de ALT en pacientes con hepatitis viral B y en aquéllos que no se adhirieron a la dieta. Hubo una reducción de aminotransferasas como resultado de una dieta libre de gluten.

Introduction: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease triggered by ingestion of gluten. It affects approximately 0.5% to 1% of the world population. Extra intestinal manifestations include elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a gluten-free diet on ALT levels in patients with celiac disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Results: Twenty-six patients with celiac disease were included. Average patient age was 34.1 ± 11.4 years, and 15.4% of the patients were men. Study subjects had a mean ALT level of 54.6 ± 36.3 U/L (median 40.5). There was a higher proportion of individuals with hepatitis B in the group with ALT ≥ 50 U/L than in the group of subjects with ALT < 50 U/L. Among patients tested after treatment with a gluten-free diet, we observed a significant reduction in ALT values (36.0 vs. 31.0 U/L; P = 0.008). Conclusion: Thirty-five percent of celiac disease patients had ALT levels above the upper tertile. Higher ALT levels were found in patients with viral hepatitis B and in those who do not adhere to the diet. There was a reduction of aminotransferases with a gluten-free diet.

Humans , Male , Female , Alanine Transaminase , Celiac Disease , Diet, Gluten-Free , Transaminases
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(5): 524-531, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763325


ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:Since women are frequently the minority among blood donors worldwide, studies evaluating this population usually reflect male features. We assessed the features of female blood donors with positive serology for HBV and compared them with those of men.METHODS The study comprised consecutive blood donors referred to a specialized liver disease center to be evaluated due to HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive tests.RESULTS: The study encompassed 1,273 individuals, 219 (17.2%) of whom were referred due to positive HBsAg test and 1,054 (82.8%) due to reactive anti-HBc test. Subjects' mean age was 36.8±10.9 years, and 28.7% were women. Female blood donors referred for positive HBsAg screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of healthcare workers (9.3% vs 2.5%) and lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors (15.1% vs 41.1%) and alcohol abuse (1.9% vs 19.8%) compared to men. Women had lower ALT (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN), AST (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN), direct bilirubin (0.2 vs 0.3mg/dL), and alkaline phosphatase (0.5 vs 0.6×ULN) levels and higher platelet count (223,380±50,293 vs 195,020±53,060/mm3). Women also had a higher prevalence of false-positive results (29.6% vs 17.0%). No differences were observed with respect to liver biopsies. Female blood donors referenced for reactive anti-HBc screening tests presented similar clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical characteristics to those reported for positive HBsAg screening tests and similarly had a higher prevalence of false-reactive results.CONCLUSIONS: Compared to men, female blood donors with positive HBsAg and/or anti-HBc screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of professional risk and false-positive results and reduced alteration of liver chemistry.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , False Positive Reactions , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Sex Factors
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 30(3): 285-290, jul.-sep. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-765605


Introducción: hasta hace poco, el tratamiento estándar de oro para la hepatitis C eran los interferones pegilados (Peg-IFN) en combinación con la ribavirina (RBV). Con la llegada de nuevos fármacos, se propuso evaluar los resultados del tratamiento y a los pacientes en espera de la nueva terapia. Materiales y métodos: este estudio analítico transversal evaluó el resultado del tratamiento en individuos con hepatitis C crónica, y luego comparó a individuos que tienen experiencia en no responder al tratamiento basado en interferón (IFN) con individuos sin experiencia de tratamiento previo. Resultados: el estudio incluyó 192 individuos. Entre 87 pacientes sometidos a tratamiento, se observaron bajas tasas de respuesta viral sostenida (RVS). La comparación de los 105 pacientes no tratados previamente y los 87 que habían recibido tratamiento con IFN previamente evidenció que entre los pacientes en espera de nuevas terapias, los individuos sin tratamiento previo presentaron mayor proporción de genotipo 1 (68% frente a 49%; p = 0,028), menores niveles de ALT (91,1 ± 73,0 frente a 126,0 ± 73,40 U/L; p = 017), de AST (70,1 ± 51,3 frente a 89,7 ± 47,40 U/L; p = 050), de GGT (85,3 ± 85,1 frente a 148,4 ± 123,9 U/L; p = 0,007) y menor proporción de fibrosis significativa (24,3 frente a 83,3; p <0,001). Conclusiones: las tasas de RVS fueron bajas. La mayoría de posibles candidatos para el tratamiento por VHC no lo han tenido y son de genótipo-1 con histología leve.

Introduction: Until recently, treatment with a combination of pegylated interferons (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) was the gold standard treatment for hepatitis C. In anticipation of the arrival of new drugs, we evaluate current treatment outcomes and patients waiting for the new therapy. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study evaluated treatment outcomes among chronic hepatitis C patients, and then compared chronic non-responders and treatment naïve patients who were given interferon based-treatment. Results: The study included 192 individuals among whom were 87 patients who received treatment. Among treated patients, we observed low rates of sustained viral response. A comparison of 105 treatment-naïve patients and 87 who had previously received IFN treatment showed that among patients waiting for new therapies, naïve individuals presented a higher proportion of genotype 1 (68% vs. 49%; p = 0.028) than did previously treated patients, lower ALT (91.1 ± 73.0 vs. 126.0 ± 73.40 U/L; p =017), lower AST (70.1 ± 51.3 vs. 89.7 ± 47.40 U/L; p = 050), lower GGT (85.3 ± 85.1 vs. 148.4 ± 123.9 U/L; p = 0.007) levels and a lower proportion of significant fibrosis (24.3% vs. 83.3%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: SVR rates were low. Among potential candidates for HCV treatment, the majority are naïve, genotype-1 with mild histology.

Humans , Hepatitis C , Interferon-alpha , Treatment Outcome
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(6): 364-371, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726375


CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3%) were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6%) were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7%) for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence. .

CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A doença celíaca é uma doença autoimune, com prevalência média de 1% na Europa e nos Estados Unidos. Em função da forte ascendência europeia no sul do Brasil, este estudo objetiva relatar a soroprevalência de doença celíaca em indivíduos com tireoidite autoimune. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal em um hospital público universitário. MÉTODOS: Este estudo transversal de prevalência incluiu pacientes com tireoidite autoimune que foram submetidos a testes de anticorpos antiendomísio e antitransglutaminase entre agosto de 2010 e julho de 2011. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 53 pacientes com tireoidite autoimune, 92,5% mulheres, com idade média de 49,0 ± 13,5 anos. Cinco (9,3%) pacientes apresentaram sorologia positiva para doença celíaca, sendo três (5,6%) com anticorpo antiendomísio positivo e dois (3,7%) com antitransglutaminase positivo. Nenhum paciente apresentou anemia e um apresentou diarreia. Apenas dois pacientes realizaram endoscopia: um com histologia normal e outro apresentou infiltrado linfocitário e atrofia vilositária. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de doença celíaca entre pacientes com doença autoimune da tireoide foi de 9,3%; um paciente queixou-se de diarreia e ninguém apresentou anemia. Em populações de risco, como é o caso de pacientes com tireoidite autoimune, a presença de diarreia ou anemia não devem ser utilizados como critério para indicar investigação de doença celíaca, que deve ser feita em todos os indivíduos com tireoidite autoimune devido a sua alta prevalência. .

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Duodenum/pathology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Autoantibodies/analysis , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Celiac Disease/complications , Celiac Disease/pathology , Hospitals, Public , Hospitals, University , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/complications , Thyrotropin/blood , Transglutaminases/immunology
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(4): 205-210, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714883


CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication that occurs in 8-27% of hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites, with high mortality rates. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics associated with SBP. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. METHODS: The study consecutively included individuals with liver cirrhosis and ascites between September 2009 and March 2012. Forty-five patients were included: mean age 53.2 ± 12.3 years, 82.2% male, 73.8% Caucasian, mean Model of End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 19.5 ± 7.2, and 33.3% with SBP. The subjects were divided into two groups: SBP and controls. RESULTS: Comparison between individuals with SBP and controls showed that those with SBP had lower mean prothrombin activity time (36.1 ± 16.0% versus 47.1 ± 17.2%; P = 0.044) and lower median serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) (1.2 versus 1.7, P = 0.045). There was a tendency towards higher mean MELD in the SBP group, not significant (22.2 ± 7.6 versus 17.9 ± 6.7; P = 0.067). There was a strong positive correlation between the neutrophil count in ascitic fluid and serum leukocyte count (r = 0.501; P = 0.001) and a negative correlation between the neutrophil count in ascitic fluid with prothrombin activity time (r = -0.385; P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: A few characteristics are associated with the presence of SBP, especially liver dysfunction, SAAG and peripheral leukocytosis. .

CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Peritonite bacteriana espontânea (PBE) é uma complicação grave que ocorre em 8-27% dos pacientes hospitalizados com cirrose hepática e ascite, e apresenta altas taxas de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar as características clínicas associadas à PBE. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal, conduzido em uma universidade pública. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu, consecutivamente, indivíduos com cirrose hepática e ascite entre setembro 2009 e março 2012. Foram incluídos 45 indivíduos com média de idade de 53,2 ± 12,3 anos, sendo 82,2% homens, 73,8% brancos, com MELD (Modelo para Doença Hepática Terminal) de 19,5 ± 7,2, e 33,3% com PBE. Os indivíduos foram divididos em dois grupos: PBE e controles. RESULTADOS: Quando se compararam os indivíduos com PBE aos controles, observou-se menor média de tempo de atividade da protrombina (TAP; 36,1 ± 16,0% versus 47,1 ± 17,2%; P = 0,044) e menor mediana de gradiente albumina soro-ascite (GASA; 1,2 versus 1,7; P = 0,045). Houve tendência do grupo com PBE de apresentar maior média de MELD, sem significância estatística (22,2 ± 7,6 versus 17,9 ± 6,7; P = 0,067). Foi observada forte correlação positiva entre neutrófilos do líquido ascítico e contagem sérica de leucócitos (r = 0,501; P = 0,001) e correlação negativa de neutrófilos do líquido ascítico com TAP (r = -0,385; P = 0,011). CONCLUSÃO: Poucas características estão associadas à presença de PBE, em especial a disfunção hepática, o GASA e a leucocitose periférica. .

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascites/complications , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Ascitic Fluid , Brazil , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, University , Leukocytes , Medical Records , Neutrophils/pathology , Prothrombin Time , Paracentesis/methods , Peritonitis/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
Rev. chil. nutr ; 41(2): 139-148, June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722907


Context and objective: Protein-energy malnutrition is described Context and objective: Protein-energy malnutrition is described in 25-100% of patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of cirrhotic patients, to identify clinical and laboratory variables associated with moderate to severe malnutrition and to correlate them with cirrhosis prognostic factors (Child-Pugh Classification). Design and setting: This cross-sectional study evaluated cirrhotic individuals admitted to University Hospital from December 2011 to August 2012. Methods: Nutritional status was evaluated by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), total lymphocyte count and serum albumin. Bivariate analysis was used to identify variables associated with Child C and with moderate to severe malnutrition in different nutritional classifications. Results: Sixty-seven patients were included (mean age 54.4 ± 11.7 years; 74.6% men). The mean MELD score was 14.5 ± 6.5, and almost 30% of the individuals were classified as Child C. With respect to nutritional status, 20.9% showed severe malnutrition by SGA, 14.9% malnutrition by total lymphocyte count, and 40.3% by albumin levels. In all methods employed, moderate to severe malnutrition was correlated with Child classification grade C. The rate of moderate to severe malnutrition by SGA was lower than that evidenced by laboratory methods. Nevertheless, SGA indicated a greater proportion of Child C patients with moderate to severe malnutrition. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and its correlation to the severity of cirrhosis, the nutritional evaluation ofcirrhotic patients is an essential step that can be performed through simple methods in routine hospital care.

Contexto y objetivo: la desnutrición proteico-calórica es reportada en 25 a 100 % de los pacientes con cirrosis. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el estado nutricional de los pacientes cirróticos e identificar las variables clínicas y de laboratorio asociadas a la desnutrición moderada a severa y correlacionarlas con los factores de pronósticos de la cirrosis (clasificación de Child-Pugh). Diseño y montaje: Este es un estudio transversal que evaluó pacientes cirróticos ingresados en el Hospital Universitario de diciembre 2011 a agosto 2012. Métodos: El estado nutricional se consiguió mediante la Evaluación Subjetiva Global (ESG), recuento total de linfocitos (RTL) y albúmina sérica. Un análisis bivariado se utilizó para identificar las variables asociadas con el Child C y con la desnutrición Moderada-severa en diferentes clasificaciones nutricionales. Resultados: 67 pacientes fueron incluidos con una edad media de 54,4 ± 11,7 años, 74,6 % hombres. La media del registro MELD fue de 14,5 ± 6,5 y casi 30% de los individuos eran Child C. En cuanto al estado nutricional, el 20,9 % tenían desnutrición severa por ESG, 14,9 % por RTL, y el 40,3 % por albúmina. Para todos los métodos, la malnutrición moderada severa se correlacionó con Child C. La tasa de malnutrición moderada a grave detectada en la población por ESG fue más baja que la demostrada por los métodos de laboratorio. Sin embargo, el ESG indica una mayor proporción de pacientes Child C y con desnutrición moderada a severa. Conclusiones: Dada la alta prevalencia de desnutrición y su correlación con la gravedad de la cirrosis, la evaluación nutricional de los pacientes con cirrosis hepática es un paso esencial que se puede lograr a través de métodos simples y de rutina del hospital.

Humans , Patients , Nutritional Status , Malnutrition , Liver Cirrhosis , Nutrition Assessment
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(2): 158-164, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710348


Introduction Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver steatosis (LS) are the most common causes of chronic liver disease, and their coexistence is frequently observed in clinical practice. Although metabolic syndrome is the main cause of LS, it has not been associated with HBV infection. The aims of this study were to describe the lipid profile and prevalence of LS among HBV carriers and to identify the characteristics associated with LS in this group. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients evaluated during 2011 and 2012. Results Of the 83 patients included, the mean age was 46.4±12.5 years, 53% were men, and 9.1% were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) -positive. These patients exhibited the following lipid profile: total cholesterol = 175.4±38.8mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) = 113.0±32.7mg/dL, and triglycerides = 91.1±45.2mg/dL. Their fasting glucose was 95.3±14.5g/dL, and fasting insulin was 6.1±5.9µIU/mL. Liver steatosis was observed on abdominal ultrasound in 11.3% of individuals. Factors associated with the presence of LS included higher levels of total cholesterol, prothrombin activity, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) as well as lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Conclusions These findings suggest that LS in patients with chronic HBV appears to be a consequence of metabolic alterations and insulin action rather than of viral factors. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dyslipidemias/virology , Fatty Liver/virology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Lipids/blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyslipidemias/blood , Fatty Liver/blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Retrospective Studies
Acta cir. bras ; 28(8): 614-618, Aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680617


PURPOSE:To investigate the impact of cafeteria diet on ghrelin expression in rectal tissue and identify the morphologic cell type. METHODS:Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups of six animals each: RC1 (rat chow 1) and CAF1 (cafeteria diet 1) for a period of 30 days; RC2 (rat chow 2) and CAF2 (cafeteria diet 2) for a period of 60 days. The animal and rectal weight, the number and the type of immunoreactive ghrelin cells were recorded and compared between the subgroups. The statistical study was established by ANOVA and Student's t test. RESULTS:There was no difference in the total of immunoreactive cells (p=0.685) between the subgroups nor between weight and presence or absence of ghrelin expression (p=0.993). All the immunoreactive cells identified were closed-type. CONCLUSION:The cafeteria diet did not have influence on the amount of immunoreactive rectal cells of ghrelin and only one type (closed-type) of immunoreactive cells was expressed in the rectum.

Animals , Male , Rats , Diet , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Ghrelin/biosynthesis , Rectum/cytology , Cell Count , Immunohistochemistry , Organ Size , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Time Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 397-402, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683323


Introduction Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that involves gluten intolerance and can be triggered by environmental factors including hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of celiac disease in individuals with HBV infection and to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of celiac disease associated with HBV. Methods This cross-sectional study included 50 hepatitis B patients tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibodies (EMAs) and tissue anti-transglutaminase (TTG) between August 2011 and September 2012. Results Fifty patients were included with a mean age of 46.0 ± 12.6 (46.0) years; 46% were female and 13% were HBeAg+. Six patients had positive serology for celiac disease, four were EMA+, and five were TTG+. When individuals with positive serology for celiac disease were compared to those with negative serology, they demonstrated a higher prevalence of abdominal pain (100% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.008), lower median creatinine (0.7mg/dL vs. 0.9mg/dL, p = 0.007) and lower mean albumin (3.6 ± 0.4g/L vs. 3.9 ± 0.3g/L, p = 0.022). All individuals with positive serology for celiac disease underwent upper digestive endoscopy, and three of the patients exhibited a macroscopic pattern suggestive of celiac disease. Histologically, five patients demonstrated an intra-epithelial lymphocytic infiltrate level > 30%, and four patients showed villous atrophy associated with crypt hyperplasia on duodenal biopsy. Conclusions An increased prevalence of celiac disease was observed among hepatitis B patients. These patients were symptomatic and had significant laboratory abnormalities. These results indicate that active screening for celiac disease among HBV-infected adults is warranted. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies/blood , Celiac Disease/virology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Prevalence , Transglutaminases/immunology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 281-287, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679512


Introduction Few Latin American studies have assessed the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in elderly individuals, in whom the highest rates are expected. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection in elderly residents in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina. Methods This cross-sectional study included 820 individuals (aged ≥ 60 years) who were selected by simple random sampling. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies was tested by chemiluminescence, and HCV RNA detection was performed for the anti-HCV-reactive subjects. Those individuals who were anti-HCV reactive but had undetectable HCV RNA levels were tested using a third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay. The variables were compared using the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, and those variables with p < 0.05 were included in the logistic regression model. Results The mean patient age was 68.6 years (SD 7.0 years); 39% were men, and 92% were Caucasian. Eighteen subjects were anti-HCV positive. Among these individuals, 4 were characterized as false-positives, leaving 14 (1.7%) individuals with confirmed infections for analysis. HCV infection was associated with an age older than 65 years, households with 3 or more residents and the previous transfusion of blood products. In the logistic regression analysis, the following variables were independently associated with HCV infection: households with 3 or more residents (OR 7.9, 95% CI 1.7–35.9, p = 0.008) and previous blood transfusion (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.1–18.6, p = 0.001). Conclusions The HCV prevalence in the elderly population in the municipality of Tubarão was higher than that found in previous studies of blood donors in the same region. Although exposure to contaminated blood products remained important, other transmission routes, such as household transmission, could play a role in HCV infection. .

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Blotting, Western , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cities/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Luminescence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , RNA, Viral/analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(3): 269-273, May-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593349


INTRODUCTION: Positive serological tests for hepatitis viruses B and C at blood banks are an important reason for blood deferral. Additionally, high residual risk for transfusing hepatitis-contaminated blood has been estimated in southern Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors for positive serological tests for viral hepatitis (VH) in blood donors (BD). METHODS: A case-control study included consecutive BD with positive serology for VH, between 2008 and 2009. Cases and controls (BD with negative serology for VH) were paired 1:1 by sex and donation date. Assessment of clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to viral hepatitis was conducted. RESULTS: Among 1,282 blood donors (641 cases and 641 controls), those with positive serology for viral hepatitis had higher mean age (p<0.001); higher proportion of replacement donation (p<0.001); first donation (p<0.001); and interviewer deferment (p=0.037), compared to controls. Furthermore, donors with positive tests were less regular donors (p<0.001), had less previous history of rejection (p=0.003) and showed lower hematocrit median before donation (p=0.019). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age (OR=1.056, 95 percentCI 1.042-1.069, p<0.001), replacement donation (OR=1.545, 95 percentCI 1.171-2.038, p=0.002) and first donation (OR=9.931, 95 percentCI 7.486-13.173, p<0.001) were independently associated with positivity of serological tests for viral hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific characteristics of blood donors were associated with positive serology for viral hepatitis. These peculiarities should be taken into account when assessing candidates for blood donation.

INTRODUÇÃO: Testes sorológicos positivos para os vírus de hepatites B e C nos bancos de sangue são importante causa de descarte de bolsas de sangue. Além disso, estima-se um alto risco residual de transfundir sangue contaminado com vírus de hepatite no sul do Brasil. Este estudo objetiva identificar fatores de risco para sorologias positivas para hepatites virais (HV) em doadores de sangue (DS). MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle que incluiu, consecutivamente, DS com sorologias positivas para HV entre 2008 e 2009. Casos e controles (DS com sorologias negativas para HV) foram pareados 1:1 de acordo com gênero e data da doação. RESULTADOS: Entre 1.282 doadores de sangue incluídos (641 casos e 641 controles), aqueles positivos para HV, quando comparados aos controles, apresentaram maior média de idade (p<0,001), maior proporção de doações direcionadas (p<0,001), primeira doação (p<0,001) e recusa pelo entrevistador (p=0,037). Outrossim, doadores positivos eram, com menos frequência, doadores regulares de sangue (p<0,001), apresentavam menos história prévia de rejeição na doação (p=0,003) e evidenciaram menor mediana de hematócrito (p=0,019). Análise multivariada demonstrou que idade (OR=1,056; IC95 por cento 1,042-1,069; p<0,001), doação direcionada (OR=1,545; IC95 por cento 1,171-2,038; p=0,002) e primeira doação (OR=9,931; IC95 por cento 7,486-13,173; p<0,001) foram independentemente associadas a testes positivos para HV. CONCLUSÕES: Características específicas de DS foram associadas com sorologias positivas para HV. Estas peculiaridades devem ser levadas em consideração na avaliação de candidatos a doação de sangue.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Blood Donors , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 57(1): 107-112, jan.-fev. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-576159


A hepatite C é uma das principais causas de doença hepática crônica em todo o mundo. Existe grande variação na prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) de acordo com a região geográfica estudada, refletindo não só características epidemiológicas distintas entre as populações, mas diferenças nas metodologias utilizadas para a realização das estimativas. Apesar dos dados escassos, estimativas indicam que o Brasil é um país com prevalência intermediária, variando entre 1 por cento e 2 por cento. Os principais fatores de risco para a infecção pelo HCV são a transfusão de hemoderivados de doadores não rastreados com anti-HCV, uso de drogas intravenosas, transplante de órgãos, hemodiálise, transmissão vertical, exposição sexual e ocupacional. Pela ausência de vacina ou profilaxia pós-exposição eficaz, o foco principal da prevenção está no reconhecimento e controle desses fatores de risco. Neste artigo será feita uma revisão da literatura com enfoque na prevalência da hepatite C, especialmente no Brasil. Além disso, serão discutidos aspectos relacionados à distribuição da infecção pelo HCV de acordo com as faixas etárias e também os principais fatores de risco para a hepatite C.

Hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. There is a significant variation in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection according to the geographic region studied. These discrepancies reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among the populations, but also differences in the methodologies used for the estimates. Despite scarce data, estimates indicate that Brazil is a country with an intermediate prevalence of HCV infection, ranging from 1 percent to 2 percent. The most important risk factors for HCV acquisition include injection drug use, blood product transfusion, organ transplantation, hemodialysis, occupational injury, sexual transmission and vertical transmission. Because there is no vaccine and no post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the focus of primary prevention efforts should be identification and removal of the risk factors. In this article we review literature regarding the prevalence of HCV infection, particularly in Brazil. In addition, we discuss the pattern of HCV infection according to the age groups and risk factors for HCV acquisition.

Humans , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/transmission , Prevalence , Risk Factors