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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6373, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889016

ABSTRACT

Cyclosporin-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS) and macitentan (MAC) antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR) were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg) for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg) or MAC (25 mg/kg) by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR), and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Cyclosporine/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Immunosuppressive Agents/toxicity , Urea/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoblotting , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Creatinine/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Bosentan , Hemodynamics , Kidney/drug effects
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(1): 51-56, 01/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-730438

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol (Resv) is natural polyphenol found in grapes. This study evaluated the protective effect of Resv against the effects of uric acid (UA) in immortalized human mesangial cells (ihMCs). ihMCs were preincubated with Resv (12.5 µM) for 1 h and treated with UA (10 mg/dL) for 6 or 12 h. The intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i was quantified by fluorescence using flow cytometry. Angiotensinogen (AGT) and pre-pro endothelin-1 (ppET-1) mRNA were assayed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were assayed by ELISA. UA significantly increased [Ca2+]i. Pre-incubation with Resv significantly reduced the change in [Ca2+]i induced by UA. Incubation with UA for 6 or 12 h also increased AGT mRNA expression and AII protein synthesis. Resv blunted these increases in AGT mRNA expression and AII protein. Incubation with UA in the ihMCs increased ppET-1 expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h. When ihMCs were pre-incubated with Resv, UA had a significantly diminished effect on ppET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h, respectively. Our results suggested that UA triggers reactions including AII and ET-1 production in mesangial cells. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of renal function and chronic kidney disease. Resv can minimize the impact of UA on AII, ET-1 and the increase of [Ca2+]i in mesangial cells, suggesting that, at least in part, Resv can prevent the effects of soluble UA in mesangial cells.

3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(10): 824-830, 24/set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688561

ABSTRACT

Interest in the role of extracellular vesicles in various diseases including cancer has been increasing. Extracellular vesicles include microvesicles, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and argosomes, and are classified by size, content, synthesis, and function. Currently, the best characterized are exosomes and microvesicles. Exosomes are small vesicles (40-100 nm) involved in intercellular communication regardless of the distance between them. They are found in various biological fluids such as plasma, serum, and breast milk, and are formed from multivesicular bodies through the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Microvesicles are 100-1000 nm vesicles released from the cell by the outward budding of the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles is very broad, with applications including a route of drug delivery and as biomarkers for diagnosis. Extracellular vesicles extracted from stem cells may be used for treatment of many diseases including kidney diseases. This review highlights mechanisms of synthesis and function, and the potential uses of well-characterized extracellular vesicles, mainly exosomes, with a special focus on renal functions and diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Communication/physiology , Cell Membrane/physiology , Exosomes/physiology , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(10): 957-963, Oct. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-561221

ABSTRACT

Hyperuricemia is associated with renal stones, not only consisting of uric acid (UrAc) but also of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are well-known inhibitors of growth and aggregation of CaOx crystals. We analyzed the effect of noncrystalline UrAc on GAG synthesis in tubular distal cells. MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells were exposed to noncrystalline UrAc (80 µg/mL) for 24 h. GAGs were labeled metabolically and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression of proteoglycans and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was assessed by real-time PCR. Necrosis, apoptosis and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by acridine orange, HOESCHT 33346, and ELISA, respectively. CaOx crystal endocytosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Noncrystalline UrAc significantly decreased the synthesis and secretion of heparan sulfate into the culture medium (UrAc: 2127 ± 377; control: 4447 ± 730 cpm) and decreased the expression of perlecan core protein (UrAc: 0.61 ± 0.13; control: 1.07 ± 0.16 arbitrary units), but not versican. Noncrystalline UrAc did not induce necrosis or apoptosis, but significantly increased COX-2 and PGE2 production. The effects of noncrystalline UrAc on GAG synthesis could not be attributed to inflammatory actions because lipopolysaccharide, as the positive control, did not have the same effect. CaOx was significantly endocytosed by MDCK cells, but this endocytosis was inhibited by exposure to noncrystalline UrAc (control: 674.6 ± 4.6, CaOx: 724.2 ± 4.2, and UrAc + CaOx: 688.6 ± 5.4 geometric mean), perhaps allowing interaction with CaOx crystals. Our results indicate that UrAc decreases GAG synthesis in MDCK cells and this effect could be related to the formation of UrAc and CaOx stones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Endocytosis/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/chemistry , Glycosaminoglycans/biosynthesis , Kidney Tubules, Distal/cytology , Proteoglycans/biosynthesis , Uric Acid/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , /biosynthesis , Dinoprostone/biosynthesis , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Kidney Tubules, Distal/metabolism , Necrosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(12): 1150-1155, Dec. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532295

ABSTRACT

Acute renal failure (ARF) is a frequent complication of Gram-negative sepsis, with a high risk of mortality. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARF is associated with hemodynamic changes that are strongly influenced by the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) through the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of inducible NO synthase. LPS-induced reductions in systemic vascular resistance paradoxically culminate in renal vasoconstriction. Collagen XVIII is an important component of the extracellular matrix expressed in basement membranes. Its degradation by matrix metalloproteases, cathepsins and elastases results in the formation of endostatin, claimed to have antiangiogenic activity and to be a prominent vasorelaxing agent. We evaluated the expression of endostatin/collagen XVIII in an endotoxemic ARF model. ARF was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) followed by sacrifice 4 and 12 h later. Kidney tissue was the source of RNA and protein and the subject of histological analysis. As early as 4 h after LPS administration, blood urea, creatinine and NO levels were significantly increased compared to control. Endostatin/collagen XVIII mRNA levels were 0.71 times lower than sham-inoculated mice 4 h after LPS inoculation, returning to normal levels 12 h after LPS inoculation. Immunohistological examination revealed that acute injury caused by LPS leads to an increase of endostatin basement membrane staining in association with the decrease of CD31 endothelial basement membrane staining. These results indicate that in the early phase of endotoxemic ARF the endostatin levels were not regulated by gene expression, but by the metabolism of collagen XVIII.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury , Collagen Type XVIII/metabolism , Endostatins/metabolism , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Gene Expression , Blotting, Western , Collagen Type XVIII/genetics , Creatinine/blood , Endostatins/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Nitric Oxide/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Urea/blood
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(7): 614-620, July 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-517802

ABSTRACT

Nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of antibiotics such as gentamicin. Preconditioning has been reported to protect against injuries as ischemia/reperfusion. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of preconditioning with gentamicin on LLC-PK1 cells. Preconditioning was induced in LLC-PK1 cells by 24-h exposure to 2.0 mM gentamicin (G/IU). After 4 or 15 days of preconditioning, cells were again exposed to gentamicin (2.0 mM) and compared to untreated control or G/IU cells. Necrosis and apoptosis were assessed by acridine orange and HOESCHT 33346. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 were assessed by the Griess method and available kit. Heat shock proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. After 15 days of preconditioning, LLC-PK1 cells exhibited a significant decrease in necrosis (23.5 ± 4.3 to 6.5 ± 0.3%) and apoptosis (23.5 ± 4.3 to 6.5 ± 2.1%) and an increase in cell proliferation compared to G/IU. NO (0.177 ± 0.05 to 0.368 ± 0.073 ìg/mg protein) and endothelin-1 (1.88 ± 0.47 to 2.75 ± 0.53 pg/mL) production significantly increased after 15 days of preconditioning compared toG/IU. No difference in inducible HSP 70, constitutive HSC 70 or HSP 90 synthesis in tubular cells was observed afterpreconditioning with gentamicin. The present data suggest that preconditioning with gentamicin has protective effects on proximal tubular cells, that involved NO synthesis but not reduction of endothelin-1 or production of HSP 70, HSC 70, or HSP 90. We conclude that preconditioning could be a useful tool to prevent the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Endothelin-1/biosynthesis , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Heat-Shock Proteins/biosynthesis , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , LLC-PK1 Cells , Necrosis/chemically induced , Swine
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(7): 949-955, July 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-455984

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001), anxiety trait (P = 0.005) and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95 percentCI = 1.31-10.62). The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5 percent of respondents with moderate and 6 percent with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002) and depression (P < 0.001) and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001). These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anxiety/psychology , Colic/psychology , Depression/psychology , Nephrolithiasis/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Recurrence , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(12): 1513-1520, Dec. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439696

ABSTRACT

Brazilian scientific output exhibited a 4-fold increase in the last two decades because of the stability of the investment in research and development activities and of changes in the policies of the main funding agencies. Most of this production is concentrated in public universities and research institutes located in the richest part of the country. Among all areas of knowledge, the most productive are Health and Biological Sciences. During the 1998-2002 period these areas presented heterogeneous growth ranging from 4.5 percent (Pharmacology) to 191 percent (Psychiatry), with a median growth rate of 47.2 percent. In order to identify and rank the 20 most prolific institutions in these areas, searches were made in three databases (DataCAPES, ISI and MEDLINE) which permitted the identification of 109,507 original articles produced by the 592 Graduate Programs in Health and Biological Sciences offered by 118 public universities and research institutes. The 20 most productive centers, ranked according to the total number of ISI-indexed articles published during the 1998-2003 period, produced 78.7 percent of the papers in these areas and are strongly concentrated in the Southern part of the country, mainly in São Paulo State.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bibliometrics , Biology/statistics & numerical data , Research/standards , Universities/standards , Brazil , Biomedical Research/economics , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Bibliographic/statistics & numerical data , Research Support as Topic , Research/economics
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(4): 577-582, Apr. 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-398185

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of physical exercise as well as the influence of hydration with an isotonic sports drink on renal function in male Wistar rats. Four groups were studied over a period of 42 days: 1) control (N = 9); 2) physical exercise (Exe, N = 7); 3) isotonic drink (Drink, N = 8); 4) physical exercise + isotonic drink (Exe + Drink, N = 8). Physical exercise consisted of running on a motor-driven treadmill for 1 h/day, at 20 m/min, 5 days a week. The isotonic sports drink was a commercial solution used by athletes for rehydration after physical activity, 2 ml administered by gavage twice a day. Urine cultures were performed in all animals. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at the beginning and at the end of the protocol period. Urinary and plasma parameters (sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, calcium) did not differ among groups. However, an amorphous material was observed in the bladders of animals in the Exe + Drink and Drink groups. Characterization of the material by Western blot revealed the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein and angiotensin converting enzyme. Physical exercise and the isotonic drink did not change the plasma or urinary parameters measured. However, the isotonic drink induced the formation of intravesical matrix, suggesting a potential lithogenic risk.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Beverages/adverse effects , Isotonic Solutions/adverse effects , Kidney Calculi/chemically induced , Kidney/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Rehydration Solutions/adverse effects , Blotting, Western , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/urine , Mucoproteins/urine , Rats, Wistar , Risk Factors
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 36(2): 219-225, Feb. 2003. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-326427

ABSTRACT

As a consequence of the proinflammatory environment occurring in dialytic patients, cytokine overproduction has been implicated in hemodialysis co-morbidity. However, there are discrepancies among the various studies that have analyzed TNF-alpha synthesis and the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) priming in this clinical setting. We measured bioactive cytokine by the L929 cell bioassay, and evaluated PBMC TNF-alpha production by 32 hemodialysis patients (HP) and 51 controls. No difference in TNF-alpha secretion was observed between controls and HP (859 ± 141 vs 697 ± 130 U/10(6) cells). Lipopolysaccharide (5 æg/ml) did not induce any further TNF-alpha release, showing no PBMC priming. Paraformaldehyde-fixed HP PBMC were not cytotoxic to L929 cells, suggesting the absence of membrane-anchored TNF-alpha. Cycloheximide inhibited PBMC cytotoxicity in HP and controls, indicating lack of a PBMC TNF-alpha pool, and dependence on de novo cytokine synthesis. Actinomycin D reduced TNF-alpha production in HP, but had no effect on controls. Therefore, our data imply that TNF-alpha production is an intrinsic activity of normal PBMC and is not altered in HP. Moreover, TNF-alpha is a product of de novo synthesis by PBMC and is not constitutively expressed on HP cell membranes. The effect of actinomycin D suggests a putative tighter control of TNF-alpha mRNA turnover in HP. This increased dependence on TNF-alpha RNA transcription in HP may reflect an adaptive response to hemodialysis stimuli


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Cytokines , Renal Dialysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors , Case-Control Studies , Cycloheximide , Dactinomycin
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 35(6): 669-675, June 2002. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-309515

ABSTRACT

Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old), whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day), received an oral calcium load (1 g/day) for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15), diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9) or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26). On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05) but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h). The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC) tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Calcium , Calcium, Dietary , Kidney Calculi , Oxalates , Calcium , Calcium, Dietary , Kidney Calculi , Oxalates
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 35(1): 17-24, Jan. 2002. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-304196

ABSTRACT

Renin is an enzyme involved in the stepwise generation of angiotensin II. Juxtaglomerular cells are the main source of plasma renin, but renin activity has been detected in other cell types. In the present study we evaluated the presence of renin mRNA in adult male Wistar rat and mouse (C-57 Black/6) mesangial cells (MC) and their ability to process, store and release both the active and inactive forms of the enzyme. Active renin and total renin content obtained after trypsin treatment were estimated by angiotensinogen consumption analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and quantified by angiotensin I generation by HPLC. Renin mRNA, detected by RT-PCR, was present in both rat and mouse MC under basal conditions. Active renin was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the cell lysate (43.5 +/- 5.7 ng h-1 10(6) cells) than in the culture medium (12.5 +/- 2.5 ng h-1 10(6) cells). Inactive prorenin content was similar for the intra- and extracellular compartments (9.7 +/- 3.1 and 3.9 +/- 0.9 ng h-1 10(6) cells). Free active renin was the predominant form found in both cell compartments. These results indicate that MC in culture are able to synthesize and translate renin mRNA probably as inactive prorenin which is mostly processed to active renin inside the cell. MC secrete both forms of the enzyme but at a lower level compared with intracellular content, suggesting that the main role of renin synthesized by MC may be the intracellular generation of angiotensin II


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Glomerular Mesangium , Renin , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme Activation , Glomerular Mesangium , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Rats, Wistar , Renin , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 34(6): 745-51, Jun. 2001. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-285847

ABSTRACT

Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66 per cent of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 + or - 12 per cent to 29 + or - 12 per cent in DTPA and from 21 + or - 15 per cent to 24 + or - 12 per cent in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29 per cent). In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Ureteral Obstruction/diagnosis , Urinary Calculi/diagnosis , Kidney/physiopathology , Radiopharmaceuticals , Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid , Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Ureteral Obstruction , Ureteral Obstruction , Urinary Calculi , Urinary Calculi
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 33(1): 111-8, Jan. 2000. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-252264

ABSTRACT

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals adhere to and are internalized by tubular renal cells and it seems that this interaction is related (positively or negatively) to the appearance of urinary calculi. The present study analyzes a series of mechanisms possibly involved in CaOx uptake by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. CaOx crystals were added to MDCK cell cultures and endocytosis was evaluated by polarized light microscopy. This process was inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium by means of ionomycin (100 nM; N = 6; 43.9 percent inhibition; P<0.001) or thapsigargin (1 µM; N = 6; 33.3 percent inhibition; P<0.005) administration, and via blockade of cytoskeleton assembly by the addition of colchicine (10 µM; N = 8; 46.1 percent inhibition; P<0.001) or cytochalasin B (10 µM; N = 8; 34.2 percent inhibition; P<0.001). Furthermore, CaOx uptake was reduced when the activity of protein kinase C was inhibited by staurosporine (10 nM; N = 6; 44 percent inhibition; P<0.01), or that of cyclo-oxygenase by indomethacin (3 µM; N = 12; 17.2 percent inhibition; P<0.05); however, the uptake was unaffected by modulation of potassium channel activity with glibenclamide (3 µM; N = 6), tetraethylammonium (1 mM; N = 6) or cromakalim (1 µM; N = 6). Taken together, these data indicate that the process of CaOx internalization by renal tubular cells is similar to the endocytosis reported for other systems. These findings may be relevant to cellular phenomena involved in early stages of the formation of renal stones


Subject(s)
Dogs , Animals , Calcium Oxalate/metabolism , Endocytosis/physiology , Cell Culture Techniques , Crystallization , Endocytosis/drug effects , Kidney/cytology , Kidney/metabolism , Microscopy, Polarization
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 45(1): 71-8, jan.-mar. 1999. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-233212
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(8): 1023-31, Aug. 1997. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-197261

ABSTRACT

The role of catecholamines in the distribution of intrarenal blood flow and in single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) was evaluated in anesthetized Wistar rats by the Hanssen technique. Epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NOR) were infused to produce elevations of 20-30 mmHg in mean arterial pressure. Superficial and juxtamedullary nephron perfusion and filtration were determined by the presence of Prussian blue dye. In the control group, 100 per cent of the nephrons presented a homogeneous pattern of perfusion and filtration. In contrast, a heterogenous distribution of the dye was found even in the larger arteries (arciform and radial), indicating variable perfusion and filtration in both superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons. The effects of EPI and NOR were also evaluated in the superficial cortex by the micropuncture technique in two additional groups of Munich-Wistar rats. Mean SNGFR was 27 per cent and 54 per cent lower in the EPI-and NOR-treated groups, respectively. No change in mean intraglomerular hydraulic pressure was observed after EPI or NOR infusion in spite of a highly scattered pattern, indicating an important variability in perfusion along the superficial cortex, and/or different sensitivity of the pre-and post-glomerular arterioles. The present data suggest that EPI and NOR may affect intrarenal hemodynamics by modifying perfusion and filtration in both superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli and not by shifting blood folow from superficial to juxtamedullary nephrons. The heterogenous pattern of perfusion was a consequence of differential vasoconstriction along the intrarenal arteries, probably due to different density and/or sensitivity of the adrenergic receptor subtypes present in the intrarenal vascular tree.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Catecholamines/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Renal Plasma Flow/drug effects
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 27(6): 1431-1444, June 1994.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-319757

ABSTRACT

1. Acute renal failure is a very common consequence of septic abortion. Whole kidney and glomerular hemodynamics were evaluated in virgin (V), pregnant (PREG) and aborted (ABOR) euvolemic Munich-Wistar rats before and after E. coli (0111-B4) endotoxin (LPS) infusion in order to evaluate the effect of septic abortion on the renal microcirculation. 2. Abortion induced by RU 486 blunted the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) induced by normal pregnancy (0.86 +/- 0.03 vs 0.63 +/- 0.07 ml/min, P < 0.05). In virgin rats, RU 486 did not modify the parameters of renal function. Significant alterations occurred in whole kidney and single nephron function. However, the changes in whole kidney function in the ABOR group were significantly higher than those observed for the V group (reductions in GFR were 42 in V and 80 in ABOR, RPF decreased 34 in V and 76 in ABOR, TRVR increased 82 in V and 400 in ABOR). 3. Mean single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) was reduced in all groups after LPS (44 in V, 43 in V+RU, 55 in PREG, 60 in ABOR), due to significant decreases in glomerular plasma flow rate, QA (42 in V, 55 in V+RU, 53 in PREG, 57 in ABOR) and in glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, Kf (46 in V, 47 in V+RU, 45 in PREG, 67 in ABOR). 4. These data show that LPS induced significant alterations in renal function in all groups. However, aborted rats were more sensitive to the effects of LPS than V rats. These results indicate that abortion may potentiate the effects of endotoxemia on renal function elevating the extent of acute renal failure and thus the mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Abortion, Septic/physiopathology , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology , Abortion, Induced , Analysis of Variance , Kidney Glomerulus/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides , Mifepristone , Rats, Wistar , Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects
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