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Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 793-799, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828190


Abstract Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent therapeutic use of a limited number of triazoles for the treatment and prophylaxis of many mycoses. Similarities in the mode of action of triazole fungicides used in these two fields may lead to cross-resistance, thus expanding the spectrum of resistance to multiple fungicides and contributing to the perpetuation of resistant strains in the environment. The emergence of fungicide-resistant isolates of human pathogens has been related to the exposure to fungicides used in agroecosystems. Examples include species of cosmopolitan occurrence, such as Fusarium and Aspergillus, which cause diseases in both plants and humans. This review summarizes the information about the most important triazole fungicides that are largely used in human clinical therapy and agriculture. We aim to discuss the issues related to fungicide resistance and the recommended strategies for preventing the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal populations capable of spreading across environments.

Humans , Triazoles/poisoning , Ecosystem , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Agriculture , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Fungi/physiology , Fungicides, Industrial , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Acta sci., Health sci ; 37(1): 63-68, jan.-jun. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-832154


Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element for cellular viability, but concentrations above physiologic level may lead to cellular damage. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro ZnCl2 genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in human leukocyte cells. This was assessed in an unprecedented way that correlated the level of intracellular Zn after cell exposition with the cellular damage. The exposure to increased Zn concentrations (2.5-20 µg mL-1), showed significantly reduced cellular leukocyte viability. However, significant DNA damages were observed only when the Zn exposure concentrations were from 10-20 µg mL-1. The Zn intracellular levels found in leukocytes was from 72.25-268.9 ρ g cell-1, starting to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at concentrations of 95.68 and 126.2 ρg cell-1, respectively. The relationship between the exposure concentration and intracellular levels of Zn suggests that the influx of Zn, in the form of ZnCl2, occurs in human leukocytes under zero-order kinetics.

O Zinco (Zn) é um elemento traço essencial para a viabilidade celular, mas em concentrações acima dos níveis fisiológicos pode conduzir a danos celulares. A proposta do presente estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade do ZnCl2 em leucócitos humanos in vitro. De maneira sem precedentes, foi acessado o nível de Zn intracelular após exposição e relacionado com o nível de dano celular. A exposição a crescentes concentrações de Zn (2,5-20 µg mL-1), mostraram significante redução da viabilidade celular dos leucócitos. Entretanto, danos significativos ao DNA foram encontrados somente a partir das concentrações de exposição ao Zn de 10-20 µg mL-1. Os níveis intracelulares de Zn encontrados nos leucócitos foram de 72,25-268,9 ρg célula-1, começando a induzir citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade nas concentrações de 95,68 and 126,2 ρg célula-1, respectivamente. A relação entre a concentração de exposição e os níveis intracelulares de Zn sugerem que o influxo de Zn, sob a forma de ZnCl2, ocorre em cinética de ordem zero em leucócitos humanos.

Zinc/toxicity , HLA Antigens