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J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 10: e20210031, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375768


Abstract Gaucher disease (GD) is one of the most common lysosomal disorders, occurring in approximately 1 in 40,000 live births worldwide. Since 2014 enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with taliglucerase alfa has been the treatment of choice for adult patients with GD in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of taliglucerase alfa in a cohort of Brazilian patients treated at a referral center for inborn errors of metabolism. All patients who received at least one infusion of the enzyme at the study center were considered eligible to participate. Patients were followed for adverse reactions and events throughout the study period. Platelets, hemoglobin, chitotriosidase activity, bone marrow burden (BMB) score, bone mineral density, and the severity score index (SSI) were analyzed. For patients who were switched to taliglucerase alfa from imiglucerase, the same variables were compared before and after the switch. At 9-year follow-up, all parameters of interest had remained stable or improved. The overall rate of adverse events was lower than in other studies that evaluated long-term ERT with taliglucerase, and no serious adverse events were considered related to treatment. Based on our findings, ERT with taliglucerase alfa is an effective and safe approach for treatment of patients with GD.

Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021306, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285400


Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder caused by a disturbance in the metabolism of glucocerebroside in the macrophages. Most of its manifestations - hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and bone pain - are amenable to a macrophage-target therapy such as enzyme replacement. However, there is increasing evidence that abnormalities of the liver persist despite the specific GD treatment. In this work, we adapted histomorphometry techniques to the study of hepatocytes in GD using liver tissue of treated patients, developing the first morphometrical method for canalicular quantification in immunohistochemistry-stained liver biopsies, and exploring histomorphometric characteristics of GD. This is the first histomorphometric technique developed for canalicular analysis on histological liver biopsy samples.

Humans , Image Cytometry/methods , Gaucher Disease/therapy , Bile Canaliculi , Hepatocytes , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle
CoDAS ; 33(2): e20190246, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249604


ABSTRACT Purpose to verify the efficacy of speech therapy in the early return of oral intake in patients with post-orotracheal intubation dysphagia. Methods It was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial for two years with patients of intensive care units of a hospital. Study inclusion criteria were orotracheal intubation>48hours, age≥18 years old, clinical stability, and dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were tracheotomy, score 4 to 7 in the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), neurological disorders. Patients were randomized into speech treatment or control group (ten days of follow-up). The treated group (TG) received guidance, therapeutic techniques, airway protection and maneuvers, orofacial myofunctional and vocal exercises, diet introduction; the control group (CG) received SHAM treatment. Primary outcomes were oral intake progression, dysphagia severity, and tube feeding permanence. Results In the initial period of study, 240 patients were assessed and 40 (16.6%) had dysphagia. Of this, 32 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 17 (53%) received speech therapy. Tube feeding permanence was shorter in TG (median of 3 days) compared to CG (median of 10 days) (p=0.004). The size effect of the intervention on tube feeding permanence was statistically significant between groups (Cohen's d=1.21). TG showed progress on FOIS scores compared to CG (p=0.005). TG also had a progression in severity levels of Dysphagia protocol (from moderate to mild dysphagia) (p<0.001). Conclusion Speech therapy favors an early progression of oral intake in post-intubation patients with dysphagia. Clinical Trial Registration: RBR-9829jk.

RESUMO Objetivo verificar a eficácia da fonoterapia no retorno precoce da via oral em pacientes com disfagia pós-intubação orotraqueal. Métodos Ensaio clínico controlado, randomizado, duplo-cego, realizado por dois anos com pacientes de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital. Os critérios de inclusão foram intubação orotraqueal>48 horas, idade ≥18 anos, estabilidade clínica e disfagia. Foram excluídos pacientes com traqueotomia, 4 a 7 pontos na Escala Funcional de Ingestão Oral (FOIS), distúrbios neurológicos. Os pacientes foram randomizados para grupo tratado (GT) ou grupo controle (GC) (dez dias de acompanhamento). O GT recebeu orientações, técnicas e manobras terapêuticas, exercícios vocais e miofuncionais orofaciais, introdução da dieta por via oral; o GC recebeu tratamento SHAM. Os desfechos foram progressão da ingestão oral, gravidade da disfagia e via alternativa de alimentação. Resultados Inicialmente foram avaliados 240 pacientes, desses 40 (16,6%) apresentaram disfagia. Trinta e dois pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão e 17 (53%) receberam terapia fonoaudiológica. A permanência da alimentação por sonda foi menor no GT (mediana de 3 dias) em comparação ao GC (mediana de 10 dias) (p=0.004). O tamanho do efeito da intervenção sobre o tempo de permanência com sonda nasoentéroica foi estatisticametne significativo entre os grupos (Cohen's d=1.21). O GT apresentou progresso nos escores FOIS em comparação ao GC (p=0.005). O GT também teve uma progressão nos níveis de gravidade do PARD (de disfagia moderada a leve) (p<0.001). Conclusão A terapia fonoaudiológica favorece uma progressão precoce da ingestão oral em pacientes pós-intubação com disfagia. Registro de Ensaio Clínico: RBR-9829jk.

Humans , Adolescent , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Speech Therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(6): 710-716, Set.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143202


Abstract Objectives: To characterize cases of suspected congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) investigated in a laboratory in southern Brazil using the transferrin isoelectric focusing TfIEF test from 2008 to 2017. Method: Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study. The laboratory records of 1,546 individuals (median age = 36 months, 25-75 IQR = 10-108; males = 810) submitted to the TfIEF test during the period were reviewed. Results: Fifty-one individuals (3%) had an altered TfIEF pattern (5 ± 2.8 cases/year; median age = 24 months, 25-75 IQR = 11-57 months; males = 27, 53%). For 14 of them, data on diagnosis conclusion were available (classic galactosemia = 4; hereditary fructose intolerance = 4; peroxisomal diseases = 2; PMM2-CDG = 2; MPDU1-CDG = 1; SLC35A2-CDG = 1).Comparing the cases with the normal and altered TfIEF patterns, there was a higher prevalence of altered cases in the age group from 11 months to 3 years. There was an increase in the likelihood of change in TfIEF, especially in the presence of inverted nipples or liver disease. Conclusions: The data suggest that the investigation of a case with suspected CDG is a complex problem, being aggravated by the existence of other IEMs (inborn errors of metabolism) associated with altered TfIEF pattern and lack of access to confirmatory tests. The presence of inverted nipples and liver disease, especially in individuals aged 11 months to 3 years, should suggest the need for TfIEF investigation.

Resumo Objetivos: Caracterizar os casos com suspeita de CDG investigados em laboratório do sul do Brasil pelo exame de IEFTF de 2008 a 2017. Metodologia: Estudo observacional, transversal, retrospectivo. Foram revisadas as fichas laboratoriais de 1.546 indivíduos (mediana de idade = 36 meses, IQ 25-75 = 10-108; sexo masculino = 810) que fizeram o exame de IEFTF no período. Resultados: Cinquenta e um indivíduos (3%) apresentaram padrão alterado na IEFTF (5 ± 2,8 casos/ano; mediana de idade = 24 meses, IQ 25-75 = 11-57 meses; sexo masculino = 27, 53%). Para 14 deles, estavam disponíveis dados sobre a conclusão do diagnóstico (galactosemia clássica = 4; intolerância hereditária à frutose = 4; doenças peroxissomais = 2; PMM2-CDG = 2; MPDU1-CDG = 1; SLC35A2-CDG = 1). Comparando os casos com padrão normal e alterado na IEFTF, houve maior prevalência de casos alterados na faixa etária de 11 meses a 3 anos. Verificou-se um aumento na probabilidade de alteração na IEFTF principalmente na presença de mamilos invertidos ou de hepatopatia. Conclusões: Os nossos dados sugerem que a investigação de um caso com suspeita de CDG é complexa, é agravada pela existência de outros EIM associados a padrão alterado na IEFTF e pela falta de acesso a exames confirmatórios. A presença principalmente de mamilos invertidos e de hepatopatia em indivíduos na faixa etária de 11 meses a 3 anos deve sugerir a necessidade de investigação por IEFTF.

Humans , Infant , Transferrin/analysis , Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation/diagnosis , Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation/epidemiology , Isoelectric Focusing , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 8: e20190011, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090989


Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr). Monitoring of patients with PKU requires the measurement of Phe in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or in dried blood spots (DBS) using different techniques to adjust treatment strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate Phe levels in DBS measured by two different methods and compare them with Phe levels measured in plasma by HPLC. We analyzed 89 blood samples from 47 PKU patients by two different methods: fluorometric method developed in-house (method A) and the commercially available PerkinElmer® Neonatal Phenylalanine Kit (method B) and in plasma by HPLC. The mean Phe levels by method A, method B, and HPLC were 430.4±39.9μmol/L, 439.3±35.4μmol/L, and 442.2±41.6μmol/L, respectively. The correlation values between HPLC and methods A and B were 0.990 and 0.974, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Our data suggest that methods A and B are useful alternatives for monitoring Phe levels in patients with PKU, with method A being in closer agreement with the reference standard (HPLC).

Clin. biomed. res ; 39(3): 200-208, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052965


Introduction: Microcephaly is a clinical finding that can arise from congenital anomalies or emerge after childbirth. Maternal infections acquired during pregnancy can result in characteristic brain damage in the newborn (NB), which may be visible even in the fetal stage. To describe the epidemiological profile of newborns with reported microcephaly and diagnosed with congenital infections in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2015 and 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on data collected from the Public Health Event Registry as well as from medical records. The investigation included serologies for toxoplasmosis and rubella; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Zika virus (ZIKV) in the blood and cytomegalovirus in the urine; non-treponemal tests for syphilis; and brain imaging tests. Results: Of the 257 reported cases of microcephaly, 39 were diagnosed with congenital infections. Severe microcephaly was identified in 13 patients (33.3%) and 51.3% of the cases showed alterations in brain imaging tests. In relation to the diagnosis of congenital infections, three patients (7.7%) were diagnosed with ZIKV, nine (23.1%) with cytomegalovirus, nine (23.1%) with toxoplasmosis, and 18 (46.1%) with congenital syphilis. The three cases of ZIKV showed calcification in brain imaging tests, signs of arthrogryposis, excess occipital skin and irritability, characterizing the typical phenotype of ZIKV infection. Conclusions: Most cases of congenital infection had severe neurological lesions, particularly the cases of ZIKV, which can cause neurodevelopmental delays and sequelae in these infants throughout early childhood.

Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Microcephaly/diagnostic imaging , Rubella/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/blood , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/blood
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 7: e20190007, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090979


Abstract Genetic homocystinurias are a group of inborn errors of metabolism that result in the massive excretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in the urine due to Hcy accumulation in the body, usually causing neurological and cardiovascular complications. The three most frequent causes are classical homocystinuria [deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS)], methylmalonic aciduria with homocystinuria, cblC type (cblC deficiency) and severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency. In this review, we highlight the similarities and differences among these disorders. Briefly, their joint manifestation is the accumulation of tHcy, however, the other sulfur amino acids show various and even invers profiles. Vascular disease, developmental delay and seizures are found in all homocystinurias, nevertheless, the complications of CNS differ in a wide variety of presentations and severities and are apparently less pronounced in CBS deficiency. Moreover, patients with remethylation defects typically do not present ectopia lentis and bone disturbances, tall stature and osteoporosis. Whereas hematological alterations, such as megaloblastic anemia, thrombocytopenia neutropenia and life-threatening microangiopathy, are specific findings of cblC deficiency.

Clin. biomed. res ; 39(1): 24-31, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026077


Introdução: Redução da densidade mineral óssea (DMO) está associada à Fenilcetonúria (PKU), mas a causa desta associação não é completamente entendida. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a ingestão de nutrientes relacionados ao metabolismo ósseo (cálcio, fósforo, magnésio, potássio), e sua associação com a DMO em pacientes com PKU. Métodos: Estudo transversal, observacional. Foram incluídos 15 pacientes (PKU Clássica=8; Leve=7; mediana de idade=16 anos, IQ=15-20), todos em tratamento com dieta restrita em fenilalanina (Phe) e 13 em uso de fórmula metabólica. Foi realizado recordatório alimentar de 24 horas de um dia e demais dados (histórico de fraturas, parâmetros antropométricos, DMO e níveis plasmáticos de Phe, Tyr, cálcio) foram obtidos por revisão de prontuário. Resultados: Nenhum paciente apresentou histórico de fraturas e seis realizavam suplementação de cálcio (alteração prévia da DMO=5; baixa ingestão=1). A mediana dos níveis de Phe foi 11,6 mg/dL (IQ=9,3-13,3). Em relação ao recordatório alimentar, dez indivíduos apresentaram inadequado consumo de carboidratos; 14, de lipídeos; 9, de cálcio; 11, de magnésio; 13, de fósforo; e todos de potássio. A mediana da DMO foi de 0,989 g/cm2 (IQ=0,903-1,069), sendo duas classificadas como reduzidas para idade, ambas de pacientes com PKU Leve que recebiam suplementação de cálcio. Não foi observada correlação entre níveis de Phe, DMO e demais variáveis analisadas. Conclusão: Redução da DMO não foi frequente na amostra, embora ingestão inadequada de cálcio assim o seja. Estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer o efeito da Phe e da ingestão dietética sobre o metabolismo ósseo na PKU. (AU)

Introduction: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with phenylketonuria (PKU), but this association is not completely understood. This research aimed to evaluate intake of nutrients related to bone metabolism (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium) and its association with BMD in patients with PKU. Methods: In this cross-sectional, observational study, 15 patients with PKU (Classical=8, Mild=7; median age=16 years, IQ=15-20 years) were included, all of them on phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet and 13 being supplemented with a metabolic formula. A 24-hour dietary recall was performed and remaining data (history of fractures, anthropometric parameters, BMD and plasma Phe, tyrosine and calcium levels) were obtained through medical chart review. Results: No patient had any fractures and six received calcium supplements, five due to previous change in BMD and one due to inadequate nutritional intake. Median Phe level was 11.6 mg/dL (IQ=9.3-13.3). In relation to dietary recall, all individuals had inadequate intake of some nutrient (carbohydrate=10; lipids=14; calcium=9; magnesium=11; phosphorus=13; potassium=15). The median BMD was 0.989 g/cm2 (IQ=0.903-1.069). Two cases were classified as low BMD for age, both in patients with mild PKU receiving calcium supplements. Conclusion: Reduced BMD was not common in this sample, although inadequate calcium intake was frequently reported. Additional studies are needed to clarify the effect of Phe and dietary intake on bone metabolism in patients with PKU.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Phenylketonurias/complications , Phenylketonurias/diet therapy , Bone Density , Densitometry
Clin. biomed. res ; 38(2): 123-127, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024914


Introduction: Newborn screening allows the screening of diseases that are still in the asymptomatic period and whose early diagnosis and treatment are associated with reduced infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the public National Newborn Screening Program in the municipality of Carazinho, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective, descriptive study. We collected and transcribed data from a database of the Carazinho municipal laboratory, which is affiliated with the referral center for newborn screening in RS. The records of all individuals undergoing newborn screening from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed, and information was collected on the program coverage, time elapsed between birth and screening (first collection), and test results. Results: The program had a coverage of 75.5%. One suspected case of phenylketonuria, three suspected cases of congenital hypothyroidism and no suspected cases of hemoglobinopathy were identified. In addition, there were 18 positive results for hemoglobin S heterozygosity, five for hemoglobin D heterozygosity, two for hemoglobin C heterozygosity, and one for a rare variant hemoglobin. When analyzing the newborn's age at the time of blood collection, it was observed that 63.1% were within the recommended age range. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for optimization of public newborn screening in the evaluated municipality. The strategies to be adopted should include education of the population and especially of managers and health professionals about the importance of newborn screening. (AU)

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Phenylketonurias/epidemiology , Neonatal Screening/methods , Hemoglobinopathies/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(1): 23-26, 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788746


Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial genetic disorder that occurs in approximately one in a thousand adults per year. Because there is no laboratory test or clinical marker useful for predicting which patients with Fabry disease may develop thrombotic events, this study aimed to determine whether there is a hereditary predisposition to hypercoagulation in these patients. Methods: The prevalence of p.R506Q mutation in the factor V gene and of c.G20210A mutation in Factor II (prothrombin) gene was evaluated in 39 patients with Fabry disease from Southern Brazil and correlated with clinical findings. The DNA analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA using TaqMan probes. Results: In this group of patients, the frequency of mutation in the prothrombin gene was 1.28%, whereas no patient showed mutation in the factor V gene; additionally, there was no correlation between these mutations and the incidence of thrombotic events. Conclusion: Hereditary thrombophilia due to mutations in factor V and prothrombin genes does not seem to be related to thrombotic events in Fabry patients in our cohort, although studies in larger cohorts and the inclusion of additional factors may be required to determine if a correlation exists.

Fabry Disease/complications , Prothrombin , Venous Thromboembolism
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(3): 292-298, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752410


OBJECTIVE: To characterize a sample of Brazilian patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients were identified through a national reference laboratory for the diagnosis of MSUD and through contact with other medical genetics services across Brazil. Data were collected by means of a chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients from 75 families were enrolled in the study (median age, 3 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.57-7). Median age at onset of symptoms was 10 days (IQR 5-30), whereas median age at diagnosis was 60 days (IQR 29-240, p = 0.001). Only three (3.6%) patients were diagnosed before the onset of clinical manifestations. A comparison between patients with (n = 12) and without (n = 71) an early diagnosis shows that early diagnosis is associated with the presence of positive family history and decreased prevalence of clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, but not with a better outcome. Overall, 98.8% of patients have some psychomotor or neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, patients with MSUD are usually diagnosed late and exhibit neurological involvement and poor survival even with early diagnosis. We suggest that specific public policies for diagnosis and treatment of MSUD should be developed and implemented in the country. .

OBJETIVO: Caracterizar uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com a doença da urina de xarope de bordo (DXB) diagnosticados entre 1992 e 2011. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes foram identificados por meio de um laboratório de referência nacional para o diagnóstico de DXB e por meio do contato com outros serviços de genética médica no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de uma revisão de prontuários. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 83 pacientes de 75 famílias (idade média: três anos; intervalo interquartil (IQR): 0,57-7). A idade média no surgimento dos sintomas era de 10 dias (IQR: 5-30), ao passo que a idade média no diagnóstico era de 60 dias (IQR: 29-240; p = 0,001). Somente três (3,6%) pacientes foram diagnosticados antes do surgimento de manifestações clínicas. Uma comparação entre pacientes com (n = 12) e sem (n = 71) um diagnóstico precoce mostra que o diagnóstico precoce está associado à presença de histórico familiar positivo e à redução na prevalência de manifestações clínicas no momento do diagnóstico, porém sem melhor resultado. Em geral, 98,8% dos pacientes têm algum atraso no desenvolvimento psicomotor ou neurológico. CONCLUSÃO: No Brasil, os pacientes com DXB normalmente recebem um diagnóstico tardio e exibem um envolvimento neurológico e baixa sobrevivência, mesmo com um diagnóstico precoce. Sugerimos que políticas públicas específicas para o diagnóstico e tratamento da DXB sejam desenvolvidas e implementadas no país. .

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/epidemiology , Neonatal Screening , Brazil/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Longitudinal Studies , Leucine/blood , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/diagnosis , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/genetics , Retrospective Studies
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(5): 1607-1616, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747208


Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes the use of a metabolic formula which should be provided free of charge by the Unified Health System (SUS). This retrospective, observational study sought to characterize judicial channels to obtain PKU treatment in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Lawsuits filed between 2001- 2010 and having as beneficiaries PKU patients requesting treatment for the disease were included. Of 20 lawsuits filed, corresponding to 16.8% of RS patients with PKU, 19 were retrieved for analysis. Of these, only two sought to obtain therapies other than metabolic formula. In all the other 17 cases, prior treatment requests had been granted by the State Department of Health. Defendants included the State (n = 19), the Union (n = 1), and municipalities (n = 4). In 18/19 cases, the courts ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. Violation of the right to health and discontinuation of State-provided treatment were the main reasons for judicial recourse. Unlike other genetic diseases, patients with PKU seek legal remedy to obtain a product already covered by the national pharmaceutical assistance policy, suggesting that management failures are a driving factor for judicialization in Brazil.

O tratamento da fenilcetonúria (PKU) inclui o uso de uma fórmula metabólica (FM) fornecida sem custos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar o uso da via judicial para obter tratamento para PKU no estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil, através de um estudo retrospectivo e observacional, analisando ações judiciais. Foram incluídas ações judiciais arquivadas entre 2001-2010 que possuíam como beneficiários indivíduos com PKU solicitando alguma forma de tratamento para PKU. Foram localizados 20 casos, correspondendo a 16,8% dos pacientes com PKU no RS, sendo 19 obtidos para análise. Somente dois procuravam obter outras terapias que a FM. Nos outros 17 casos, uma solicitação de tratamento anterior fora concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Saúde. Os réus incluem o Estado (n = 19), União (n = 1) e municípios (n = 4). Em 18/19 casos, os tribunais decidiram a favor dos demandantes. Violação do direito à saúde e interrupção do tratamento prestado pelo Estado foram os principais motivos para recorrer aos tribunais. Diferente de outras doenças genéticas, os pacientes com PKU buscam o meio jurídico para obter um produto já incluso na política de assistência farmacêutica nacional, sugerindo que falhas de gestão são um dos fatores desencadeantes da judicialização no país.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Young Adult , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Phenylketonurias/drug therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 3: e140006, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090865


Abstract Introduction: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by the deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Aim: To identify the factors associated with treatment adherence among patients with PKU seen at a southern Brazil reference center. Methodology: A cross-sectional, outpatient-based study including 56 patients with PKU (median age, 12 years) for whom a Phe-restrict diet plus specific metabolic formula have been prescribed. Patients were considered adherent or nonadherent depending on the median phenylalanine concentration for the 12 months prior to study and target levels of phenylalanine for each age range (<13 years = ≤360 µmol/L; ≥13 years = ≤900 µmol/L). Data were collected through a review of patient's medical records and a set of interviews with patients and their relatives. Results: Eighteen patients (32.1%; ≥13 years, 11) were classified as treatment adherent. Among all factors analyzed, only mental retardation, living with parents, and level of maternal education were associated with adherence to treatment. Conclusion: Our findings reinforce the importance of the family as promoting factor for treatment adherence.

J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 3: e150001, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090869


Abstract The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of rare genetic diseases caused by a deficiency of specific enzymes involved in catabolism of glycosaminoglycans, which causes multisystem abnormalities. Quality of life (QoL) is directly associated with physical, mental, and psychological well-being and with social relationships, including family and friends. Aims: To evaluate the QoL of caregivers of patients with MPS. Methods: Cross-sectional study using a convenience sampling strategy. The sample comprised mothers of patients with MPS seen at the Medical Genetics Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to assess QoL. Results: Eleven mothers of 12 patients with MPS (MPS-I = 1; MPS-II = 3; MPS-III = 3; MPS-IV = 4; and MPS-VI = 1) were included. The average WHOQOL-BREF score was 46.59, with the physical health domain scoring highest and the environmental domain scoring lowest. The lower QoL of mothers of children with MPS-II seems to be related to the worse clinical condition of these children, with more severe symptoms and greater need for help with daily activities as well as with a feeling of responsibility due to the inheritance pattern of the disease.

Clin. biomed. res ; 34(1): 11-20, 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834455


Introdução: A mucopolissacaridose tipo I (MPS I) é uma doença lisossômica (DL) para a qual está disponível a terapia de reposição enzimática (TRE) com laronidase. Objetivo: caracterizar o efeito da TRE em pacientes com MPS I avaliados por um único centro de referências para DL a partir da análise da frequência de intervenções médicas. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo e exploratório com comparações pré e pós-intervenção. O número/ano/paciente de consultas, medicamentos usados, internações, cirurgias e exames realizados, foi obtido por meio de revisão de prontuário médico. Essas variáveis foram, então, comparadas entre dois períodos: pré-TRE e pós-TRE. Resultados: Nove pacientes (graves=3, atenuados=6) foram incluídos no estudo. A mediana de idade de início da TRE foi 9 anos e a mediana de duração da TRE foi 4 anos. Em média, os pacientes realizaram 90% das infusões previstas para o período. Somente o número de cirurgias/ano/paciente foi dependente do tempo de doença (p=0,0004) e da gravidade do fenótipo (p=0,014). Com relação às comparações pré e pós-TRE, as variáveis que apresentaram diferença significativa (média do número/ano/paciente) foram: exames (pré-TRE=10,2±2,7; pós-TRE=22,5±2,1; p=0,005) e internações (pré-TRE=0,05±0,04; pós-TRE=0,30±0,11; p=0,013). Conclusão: Nossos dados sugerem que a TRE não alterou a história natural da MPS I em relação aos desfechos analisados. Este achado pode ser devido à idade relativamente avançada de início do tratamento no nosso centro.

Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPSI) is a lysosomal disorder (LSD) which can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with laronidase. Aim: To describe the effect of ERT on MPSI patients evaluated at a single referral center for LSD by assessing the frequency of medical interventions. Methods: An exploratory, retrospective study with pre- and post-intervention assessments. We reviewed medical records to collect data on the number of medical appointments/year/patient, medications used, hospital admissions, surgeries, and exams performed. These variables were then compared between the pre- and the post-ERT periods.Results: Nine patients (severe=3; attenuated=6) were included in the study.The median age for the start of ERT was 9 years, and the median time on ERT was 4 years. On average, patients received 90% of the infusions predicted for the study period. Only the number of surgeries/year/patient was found to be dependent on length of disease (p=0.0004) and on severity of phenotype (p=0.014). Regarding pre- and post-ERT comparisons, there was a significant difference (mean number/year/patient in exams (pre-ERT, 10.2±2.7; post-ERT, 22.5±2.1; p=0.005) and hospital admissions (pre-ERT, 0.05±0.04; post-ERT, 0.30±0.11; p=0.013). Conclusion: Our data suggest ERT didn’t alter the natural history of MPSI the outcomes assessed in this study. This may be due to the relatively advanced age of patients when they started treatment at our Center.

Humans , Iduronidase/therapeutic use , Mucopolysaccharidosis I/drug therapy , Enzyme Replacement Therapy/economics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(2): 122-131, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-997832


The implementation of a specific policy for rare diseases in the Brazilian Unified Health System presents challenges in terms of its rationale. Recognizing the importance of rarity in the context of public health means understanding genetics as one of the dimensions of disease and accepting that Brazil is undergoing a period of transition in health indicators. Although most rare diseases lack pharmacological treatment and genetic counseling constitutes the best strategy for their prevention, the cost of "orphan drugs" and their consequent lack of cost-effectiveness are still claimed as hurdles to the implementation of public policies in this field. Epidemiological aspects should not be used as isolated criteria for prioritization in public policies

Humans , Pharmaceutical Services/history , Rare Diseases/economics , Rare Diseases/drug therapy , Health Policy , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/drug therapy , Orphan Drug Production/legislation & jurisprudence , Research Support as Topic , Bioethics , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Biomedical Research , Resource Allocation/organization & administration , Genetics, Medical/history , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/epidemiology
Audiol., Commun. res ; 18(4): 231-232, out.-dez. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-697610
Cad. saúde pública ; 29(supl.1): s45-s58, Nov. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-690737


A mucopolissacaridose tipo II (MPS II) é uma doença genética de amplo espectro clínico, caracterizada por deficiência da enzima iduronato-2sulfatase. Revisão sistemática avaliou a eficácia e segurança da terapia de reposição enzimática (TRE) com idursulfase (IDS) na MPS II. As bases de dados PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS e Biblioteca Cochrane foram pesquisados até 30 de novembro de 2012. Apenas cinco estudos preencheram os critérios de inclusão (ensaios clínicos randomizados - ECRs, ECRs abertos ou séries de caso prospectivas, incluindo cinco ou mais pacientes e avaliando desfechos relevantes). Metanálise foi realizada para capacidade vital forçada (CVF; valores absolutos e em %) e para a distância percorrida no teste da caminhada dos seis minutos, com mudanças significativas em ambas as variáveis; também foi encontrado risco aumentado de reações leves relacionadas à infusão e de desenvolvimento de anticorpos IgG à IDS. Em face dos dados apresentados neste estudo, conclui-se que a TRE com IDS é segura e tem benefício potencial em MPS II, mas estudos adicionais são necessários.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a genetic disease of broad clinical spectrum, characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme iduronate2-sulfatase. The aim of this study was to assess whether enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (IDS) for MPS II is effective and safe. PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and Cochrane Library were searched until November 30, 2012. Only five articles met the inclusion criteria (randomized controlled trials - RCTs, or open-label trials/prospective case series including > 5 patients and evaluating relevant outcomes). A meta-analysis was performed for forced vital capacity (FVC; absolute and %) and for distance walked on the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). There was a statistically significant increase, but not clinically relevant, in both variables; an increased risk for development of mild infusion-related reactions and IgG antibodies to IDS were also found. The data suggest that ERT with IDS is safe and has a potential benefit for MPS II patients, but further studies are required.

La mucopolisacaridosis tipo II (MPS II) es una enfermedad genética de amplio espectro clínico, caracterizada por una deficiencia de la enzima iduronato-2-sulfatasa. El objetivo fue evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de la Terapia de Reemplazo Enzimático (TRE) con idursulfasa (IDS) en la MPS II. En las bases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS y Cochrane Library se inició la búsqueda hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2012. Sólo cinco estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión (ensayos controlados aleatorios -ECA, o ECA abiertos o series de casos prospectivo incluyendo > 5 pacientes y evaluación de los resultados pertinentes). El metaanálisis se realizó para la capacidad vital forzada (FVC; absoluta y %) y la distancia caminada en 6 minutos, con cambios significativos en ambas variables; el riesgo también se encuentra aumentado por reacciones leves y anticuerpos IgG, relacionados con la infusión con IDS. El TRE con IDS es seguro y tiene un beneficio potencial en la MPS II, pero se necesitan estudios adicionales.

Humans , Enzyme Replacement Therapy/methods , Iduronate Sulfatase/therapeutic use , Mucopolysaccharidosis II/drug therapy , Iduronate Sulfatase/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 18(4): 1079-1088, Abr. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-674782


O artigo avalia a hipótese de se a judicia­lização de medicamentos para o tratamento das mucopolissacaridoses no Brasil seria uma ação das elites econômicas. Debatem-se estudos prévios que defendem a tese da judicialização pelas elites em outros medicamentos. Discute-se, a metodologia desses estudos e as inferências dela derivadas e o respaldo empírico dessa tese no caso de um dos medicamentos judicializados de mais alto custo para o SUS. Foram analisados os 196 processos julgados entre fevereiro de 2006 e dezembro de 2010 que determinam a provisão gratuita dos medicamentos para mucopolissacaridoses pelo Ministério da Saúde. Há evidências de que os custos advocatícios sejam financiados por entidades interessadas nos resultados da judicialização, como as empresas distribuidoras ou indústrias farmacêuticas, de que pode haver migração dos pacientes para diagnóstico e tratamentos em centros universitários de referência para a inovação médica no país, e de que a opção por serviços públicos se dá por sua capacidade técnica e científica supe­rior à de outras instituições. Logo, a advocacia privada, indicadores de exclusão social do local de residência dos pacientes e uso de serviços públicos não são informações de classe que corroborem ou refutem a tese da judicialização pelas elites.

This paper evaluates the hypothesis that the judicialization of medicine for mucopolysaccharidosis in Brazil is an action promoted by economic elites. Previous studies upholding the thesis of judicialization by elites in the case of other types of medication that are more costly for the Unified Health Service are discussed. An analysis of all 196 processes containing information about judicial processes brought to court between February 2006 and December 2010 that ended by determining that the State should provide such medication free of charge to patients was conducted. There is evidence that attorneys' fees were covered by entities interested in the results of judicialization, such as the distributors or pharmaceutical industries. Patients may also be migrating for diagnosis and treatment to university centers that are a benchmark for medical innovation in the country, as the option for public health services is related to their higher technical and scientific capacity. Therefore, the resort to private lawyers, indicators of social exclusion based on the address of patients and the use of public health services, are not adequate class information to corroborate or refute the thesis of judicialization by the elites.

Humans , Mucopolysaccharidoses/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Class , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Services/economics
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(10): 2717-2728, out. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-653922


A judicialização do acesso a medicamentos de alto custo para doenças genéticas raras, como a doença de Fabry (deficiência de alfa-galactosidase A), é um fenômeno crescente e pouco estudado de forma sistemática. Realizou-se um estudo observacional, transversal e retrospectivo para caracterizar as ações judiciais relativas ao acesso ao tratamento da doença de Fabry por terapia de reposição enzimática no estado do Rio Grande do Sul até 2007. Foram identificadas 13 ações e 17 demandantes. Onze solicitaram alfa e 6 betagalsidase. Figuraram como réus o estado do RS, a União e 5 municípios, em litisconsórcio ou não. Houve 13 pedidos de antecipação da tutela, 12 concedidos, e 2 sentenças, ambas procedentes. "Risco de morte" foi alegado, por médicos, em 4 prescrições e, por advogados, nas 13 ações. Os dados sugerem a ausência de discussões que envolvam conjuntamente aspectos de eficácia e segurança médicas, custo-efetividade, impacto econômico e argumentos jurídico-constitucionais, sendo necessária uma política específica para doenças genéticas raras que padronize o acesso aos tratamentos.

Court-ordered access to high-cost drugs for rare genetic diseases, such as Fabry Disease (alpha-galactosidase-A deficiency), is a growing phenomenon as yet lacking systematic study. An observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted to characterize the lawsuits related to access to treatment for Fabry Disease by Enzyme Replacement Therapy in the State of Rio Grande do Sul prior to 2007. The study identified 13 lawsuits and 17 plaintiffs, 11 requesting alfa and 6 betagalsidase. The State of RS, the Federal Government, and 5 municipalities figured as defendants, in the form of joinder of parties or otherwise. There were 13 requests for interlocutory relief of which 12 were granted, and 2 sentences were handed down, both favorable. "Risk of death" was alleged by doctors in 4 prescriptions and by lawyers in the 13 lawsuits. The data suggest the lack of discussions combining aspects of medical efficacy and safety, cost-effectiveness, economic impact, and legal and constitutional arguments, which requires a specific policy for rare genetic diseases to standardize access to treatment.

Humans , Drug Costs , Fabry Disease/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Pharmaceutical Services , Right to Health , Brazil , Patient Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Rare Diseases/drug therapy , Judicial Role , Drugs, Essential/administration & dosage