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1.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e53-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001923

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 (MRV3), which is responsible for gastroenteritis in many mammalian species including pigs, has been isolated from piglets with severe diarrhea. However, the use of pig-derived cells as an infection model for swineMRV3 has rarely been studied. @*Objectives@#This study aims to establish porcine intestinal organoids (PIOs) and examine their susceptibility as an in vitro model for intestinal MRV3 infection. @*Methods@#PIOs were isolated and established from the jejunum of a miniature pig.Established PIOs were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) to confirm the expression of small intestine-specific genes and proteins, such as Lgr5, LYZI, Mucin-2, ChgA, and Villin. The monolayered PIOs and threedimensional (3D) PIOs, obtained through their distribution to expose the apical surface, were infected with MRV3 for 2 h, washed with Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline, and observed. Viral infection was confirmed using PCR and IFA. We performed quantitative realtime reverse transcription-PCR to assess changes in viral copy numbers and gene expressions linked to intestinal epithelial genes and antiviral activity. @*Results@#The established PIOs have molecular characteristics of intestinal organoids. Infected PIOs showed delayed proliferation with disruption of structures. In addition, infection with MRV3 altered the gene expression linked to intestinal epithelial cells and antiviral activity, and these effects were observed in both 2D and 3D models. Furthermore, viral copy numbers in the supernatant of both models increased in a time-dependent manner. @*Conclusions@#We suggest that PIOs can be an in vitro model to study the infection mechanism of MRV3 in detail, facilitating pharmaceutical development.

2.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 379-384, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the intratympanic steroid injections might be an effective initial treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We assessed a total of 167 patients with DM and SSNHL who visited a tertiary referral otolaryngology department between January 2010 and April 2018. Forty-two patients with DM and SSNHL received intratympanic steroid injections; 48 patients with DM and SSNHL received systemic steroid treatment; and 77 patients with DM and SSNHL received a combination of systemic and intratympanic treatment. Initial and post treatment hearing levels and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were assessed, and correlations between hearing gain and the duration of DM, HbA1c, FBS were investigated. RESULTS: After steroid treatment, hearing levels were 38.87±25.35 dB in the intratympanic injection group, 41.09±28.49 dB in the systemic steroid treatment group, and 47.81±27.12 dB in the combined treatment group. Final hearing levels and hearing gain in the three groups did not differ significantly. FBS after treatment in the systemic steroid treatment and combined steroid treatment group worsened relative to the intratympanic injection group (202.00±9.40 mg/dL to 326.63±7.85 mg/dL). FBS, duration of DM, and HbA1c levels did not affect the hearing gain in patients with DM and SSNHL. CONCLUSION: Intratympanic steroid injections are comparable to the systemic steroid treatment modality for SSNHL in patients with DM. Thus, intratympanic steroid injections may serve as an effective initial treatment modality for SSNHL in patients with DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Hearing , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Injection, Intratympanic , Methods , Otolaryngology , Referral and Consultation , Steroids
3.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 379-384, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#We investigated whether the intratympanic steroid injections might be an effective initial treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We assessed a total of 167 patients with DM and SSNHL who visited a tertiary referral otolaryngology department between January 2010 and April 2018. Forty-two patients with DM and SSNHL received intratympanic steroid injections; 48 patients with DM and SSNHL received systemic steroid treatment; and 77 patients with DM and SSNHL received a combination of systemic and intratympanic treatment. Initial and post treatment hearing levels and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were assessed, and correlations between hearing gain and the duration of DM, HbA1c, FBS were investigated.@*RESULTS@#After steroid treatment, hearing levels were 38.87±25.35 dB in the intratympanic injection group, 41.09±28.49 dB in the systemic steroid treatment group, and 47.81±27.12 dB in the combined treatment group. Final hearing levels and hearing gain in the three groups did not differ significantly. FBS after treatment in the systemic steroid treatment and combined steroid treatment group worsened relative to the intratympanic injection group (202.00±9.40 mg/dL to 326.63±7.85 mg/dL). FBS, duration of DM, and HbA1c levels did not affect the hearing gain in patients with DM and SSNHL.@*CONCLUSION@#Intratympanic steroid injections are comparable to the systemic steroid treatment modality for SSNHL in patients with DM. Thus, intratympanic steroid injections may serve as an effective initial treatment modality for SSNHL in patients with DM.

4.
Journal of Audiology & Otology ; : 140-144, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty makes the graft easy, and reduces operating time. The present study aimed to investigate the outcomes of microscopic versus endoscopic inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the outcomes of 63 patients who underwent inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty with small to medium chronic tympanic membrane perforation were evaluated. Twenty-four patients underwent conventional microscopic tympanoplasty and 39 underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty. The outcomes were analyzed in terms of the hearing gain and graft success rate. RESULTS: The surgical success rate was 95.8% in the patients who underwent conventional microscopic tympanoplasty and 92.3% in those who underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty. In both groups of patients, the postoperative air-bone gap (ABG) was significantly lower than the preoperative ABG. There were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative ABG values in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic inlay tympanoplasty using the butterfly cartilage technique appears to be an effective alternative to microscopic tympanoplasty and results in excellent hearing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Butterflies , Cartilage , Endoscopy , Hearing , Inlays , Microscopy , Retrospective Studies , Transplants , Tympanic Membrane Perforation , Tympanoplasty
5.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 360-366, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The traditional canal wall down mastoidectomy (CWDM) procedure commonly has potential problems of altering the anatomy and physiology of the middle ear and mastoid. This study evaluated outcomes in patients who underwent modified canal wall down mastoidectomy (mCWDM) and mastoid obliteration using autologous materials. METHODS: Our study included 76 patients with chronic otitis media, cholesteatoma, and adhesive otitis who underwent mCWDM and mastoid obliteration using autologous materials between 2010 and 2015. Postoperative hearing air-bone gap and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: During the average follow-up of 64 months (range, 20 to 89 months), there was no recurrent or residual cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media. No patient had a cavity problem and anatomic integrity of the posterior canal wall was obtained. There was a significant improvement in hearing with respect to the postoperative air-bone gap (P<0.05). A retroauricular skin depression was a common complication of this technique. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that our technique can prevent various complications of the classical CWDM technique using autologous tissues for mastoid cavity obliteration. It is also an appropriate method to obtain adequate volume for safe obliteration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adhesives , Cartilage , Cholesteatoma , Depression , Ear, Middle , Follow-Up Studies , Hearing , Mastoid , Methods , Otitis , Otitis Media , Physiology , Skin
6.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 177-181, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss refers to a condition wherein thresholds increase only at low frequencies in pure-tone audiometry. Systemic steroid treatment is commonly used for acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss without vertigo, but there has been no established treatment in most clinical researches. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the short-term effects of high- and half-dose oral steroid therapy on patients suffering from acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss without vertigo. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Forty-six patients diagnosed with acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss were divided into two groups and treated with high-dose (24 patients) and half-dose (22 patients) steroids, respectively. A retrospective analysis was conducted on their medical records. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the following: age, sex ratio, duration of symptoms before treatment, pure-tone hearing thresholds, low frequency hearing thresholds and speech intelligibility. However, both groups showed significant differences in hearing thresholds before and after treatment. In addition, no significant difference was noted in the recovery and recurrence rate between the two groups. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, there is no difference in treatment effect between the high- and half-dose groups. Therefore, half-dose steroids may be used as a treatment option for acute low tone sensorineural hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Hearing , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Medical Records , Methods , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Ratio , Speech Intelligibility , Steroids , Therapeutic Uses , Vertigo
7.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 9-14, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) are not actively evaluated by physicians. The diagnostic tool for evaluation of USNHL is also controversial, and no strategy for diagnosing USNHL through imaging studies has been established. We examined the results of temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on children with USNHL.SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Eighty-nine patients with USNHL were reviewed. Of these patients, 21 underwent both TBCT and MRI, 51 underwent temporal MRI only, and 17 underwent TBCT only.@*RESULTS@#The etiology of USNHL were determined through imaging studies in 20 patients. The most common abnormal finding (65%) was a narrow internal auditory canal identified on TBCT and cochlear nerve aplasia on temporal MRI. Incomplete partition (20%), common cavity (10%), and labyrinthitis ossificans (5%) were also observed in imaging studies. The hearing threshold was lower in USNHL patients with normal findings (76.1±28.7 dB) than in USNHL patients with abnormal findings on TBCT or temporal MRI (100.1±22.3 dB).@*CONCLUSION@#Cochlear and cochlear nerve abnormalities can be detected through imaging studies in approximately 25% of patients with USNHL. Therefore, we suggest that children should undergo TBCT when USNHL is confirmed through audiologic evaluation.

8.
Journal of the Korean Balance Society ; : 90-94, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761276

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vertigo combined with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is known as a poor prognostic factor. We investigated clinical findings and vestibular function tests in patients of SSNHL with vertigo to find the prognostic factors. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data on the patients diagnosed with SSNHL with vertigo at Bucheon Soonchunhyang University Hospital from March 2009 to February 2018. We reviewed medical records and the results of vestibular function tests and audiometry. RESULTS: Of the 68 patients, 30 (44.1%) showed profound hearing loss and 53 (77.9%) showed poor recovery. Age and the degree of initial hearing loss showed negative prognostic factor in hearing recovery. Abnormal results of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) also showed significantly differences between good and poor recovery groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, most of the patients of SSNHL with vertigo showed poor recovery. Age, degree of initial hearing loss, and the abnormal result of the cVEMP have a negative effect on the prognosis of hearing recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiometry , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Medical Records , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vertigo , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials , Vestibular Function Tests
9.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 9-14, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) are not actively evaluated by physicians. The diagnostic tool for evaluation of USNHL is also controversial, and no strategy for diagnosing USNHL through imaging studies has been established. We examined the results of temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on children with USNHL. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Eighty-nine patients with USNHL were reviewed. Of these patients, 21 underwent both TBCT and MRI, 51 underwent temporal MRI only, and 17 underwent TBCT only. RESULTS: The etiology of USNHL were determined through imaging studies in 20 patients. The most common abnormal finding (65%) was a narrow internal auditory canal identified on TBCT and cochlear nerve aplasia on temporal MRI. Incomplete partition (20%), common cavity (10%), and labyrinthitis ossificans (5%) were also observed in imaging studies. The hearing threshold was lower in USNHL patients with normal findings (76.1±28.7 dB) than in USNHL patients with abnormal findings on TBCT or temporal MRI (100.1±22.3 dB). CONCLUSION: Cochlear and cochlear nerve abnormalities can be detected through imaging studies in approximately 25% of patients with USNHL. Therefore, we suggest that children should undergo TBCT when USNHL is confirmed through audiologic evaluation.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cochlear Nerve , Ear, Inner , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Labyrinthitis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Temporal Bone
10.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 228-235, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Malignant external otitis (MEO) is a potentially fatal infection of the external auditory canal, temporal bone, and skull base. Despite treatment with modern antibiotics, MEO can lead to skull base osteomyelitis. Until now, there have been few studies on the prognostic factors of MEO. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to identify prognostic factors of MEO, and a meta-analysis of other articles investigating MEO. On the basis of disease progression the 28 patients in our study were divided into ‘controlled’ and ‘uncontrolled’ groups, consisting of 12 and 16 patients, respectively. We identified three categories of prognostic factors: those related to patient, disease, and treatment. We compared these prognostic factors between the controlled and uncontrolled groups. RESULTS: In our study, the duration of diabetes mellitus (DM), presence of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate), and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings influenced the prognosis of MEO. In contrast, prognosis was unrelated to age, gender, mean glucose level, hemoglobin A1c level, pathogen, comorbidity, or cranial nerve involvement. No factor related to treatment modality was correlated with prognosis, such as surgery, steroid therapy, or interval to the first appropriate treatment. Cranial nerve involvement has been proven to be associated with disease progression, but the relationship between cranial nerve involvement and the prognosis of MEO remains controversial. As a part of this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of cranial nerve involvement as a prognostic factor of MEO. We found that cranial nerve involvement has a statistically significant influence on the prognosis of MEO. CONCLUSION: We found that glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, cranial nerve involvement, and the extent of disease determined from various imaging modalities influence the prognosis of MEO. We suggest that significant prognostic factors should be monitored to determine the prognosis of patients with MEO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Blood Sedimentation , Comorbidity , Cranial Nerves , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Progression , Ear Canal , Glucose , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osteomyelitis , Otitis Externa , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base , Temporal Bone
11.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 174-178, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-656825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have an effect on the quality of life (QOL) such as behavior, school performance, emotional distress and daytime function. We aim to verify changes in sleep disordered breathing based on polysomnographic findings and disease specific health related QOL before and after adenotonsillectomy in Korean children with OSA. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A total 20 children aged 3 through 13 years old (mean age=6.7 years old and male/female=14/6) with OSA were included. We evaluated respiratory disturbances in patients using the standard polysomnography and the OSA-specific health related QOL based on Korean Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18 Survey (KOSA-18). RESULTS: There were significant improvements in apnea-hypopnea index (from 9.4±7.4 to 1.1±0.8 events/hour, p<0.001) and total score of KOSA-18 (71.3±26.0 to 33.6±10.7, p<0.001) after adenotonsillectomy. CONCLUSION: Sleep disordered breathing and QOL improve significantly after adenotonsillectomy in Korean OSA children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adenoidectomy , Methods , Polysomnography , Quality of Life , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Tonsillectomy
12.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 517-521, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) frequently occurs as multifocal and bilateral tumors. However, multifocality and bilaterality are not easy to detect preoperatively and contralateral remnant tumor might lead to reoperation after hemithyroidectomy. We aimed to demonstrate the frequency of bilaterality and predictive factors for occult contralateral PTC when a frozen biopsy of hemithyroidectomy shows multifocal PTCs in one of the lobes. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: One hundred and thirty patients with PTC were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent hemithyroidectomy and frozen biopsy, followed by total thyroidectomy because of ipsilateral multifocality. Medical records, pathologic results, and preoperative ultrasound results were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups depending on bilaterality (unilateral or bilateral). RESULTS: Bilaterality was detected in 74 of 130 patients (56.9%). Bilateral group showed more number of carcinomas (3.9±1.4 vs. 2.3±0.9) and more tendency of existence of contralateral nodule (87.8% vs. 55.3%). Tumor size of 1 cm or more and contralateral nodules were significant predictive factors for the existence of occult contralateral PTC. The suspicious sonographic feature of contralateral nodule had 75.7% sensitivity and 75% specificity for detecting bilaterality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of bilateral PTC is high in patients with ipsilateral multiple tumors. When the frozen biopsy result shows multifocality in one of the lobes, the remnant tumor may lead to reoperation under recent guidelines on thyroid surgical extent. Characteristics of contralateral nodule can help physicians and patients to make the decision regarding surgical extent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Frozen Sections , Incidence , Medical Records , Methods , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Thyroidectomy , Ultrasonography
13.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 138-140, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68487

ABSTRACT

Vocal cord polyps are generally removed using a direct laryngoscope and surgical microscope. In some case of laryngeal microsurgery, laryngeal exposure with surgical microscope is difficult because of severalfactors. We experienced a case of vocal polyp with difficult laryngeal exposure in a 56 year old male patient. The vocal cord polyp was removed successfully through endoscopic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Endoscopy , Laryngoscopes , Larynx , Microsurgery , Polyps , Vocal Cords
14.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 361-365, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Various hearing tests and vestibular function tests are used to diagnose acoustic neuroma. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and the results of audiovestibular function tests between patients of intrameatal and extrameatal acoustic neuroma. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Reviewing the medical records for 64 patients with acoustic neuroma between March 2007 and February 2014, we divided the patients into two groups, intrameatal (31 patients) and extrameatal acoustic neuroma (33 patients) according to the involvement of cerebropontine angle. We compared the clinical characteristics, pure tone audiograms, speech audiometry, caloric test, and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) between the two groups. RESULTS: While hearing loss was the most frequent presenting symptom in patients with intrameatal acoustic neuroma, dizziness was the most common symptom in patients with extrameatal acoustic neuroma. Hearing thresholds measured by pure tone audiometry and speech discrimination scores were significantly worse for patients with extrameatal acoustic neuroma. Abnormal unilateral canal paresis of caloric test was significantly higher for extrameatal acoustic neuroma than for intrameatal acoustic neuroma. Most patients with acoustic neuroma showed abnormal findings in the VEMP test, but the number of patients between intrameatal and extrameatal acoustic neuroma did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms and the results of audiovestibular function tests differed according to the tumor size of acoustic neuroma. Physicians should counsel patients presenting with audiovestibular symptoms of the possibility of acoustic neuroma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acoustics , Audiometry , Audiometry, Speech , Caloric Tests , Dizziness , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Tests , Medical Records , Methods , Neuroma, Acoustic , Paresis , Speech Perception , Vestibular Function Tests
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