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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892215

ABSTRACT

Background@#Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) due to the estrogen effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of SERMs on VTE compared to bisphosphonates (BPs) using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study. Women over 50 years old who were first prescribed BPs or SERMs for osteoporosis treatment in 2012 were included. The difference in VTE incidence between the SERMs and BP groups was compared. Both groups were followed up for VTE or PE occurrence, death, or until December 2016. The study population was analyzed by 3:1 matching according to age using a multivariate Cox model. @*Results@#The hazard ratio (HR) for VTE was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–1.28) in the SERMs group compared to BP group. Older age (60–69 vs. 50–59 years: HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.07–6.86 and 70–79 vs. 50–59 years: HR, 5.88; 95% CI, 3.14–11.02), major osteoporotic fracture (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.16- 2.70), atrial fibrillation (HR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.35–8.11), and estrogen replacement (HR, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.01–5.73) all increased VTE risk. In subgroup analysis of the SERMs group, past hospitalization (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.02–4.92), estrogen replacement (HR, 5.75; 95% CI, 2.29–14.39), and glucocorticoid replacement (HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.05–7.0) increased VTE risk. @*Conclusion@#SERMs did not increase the risk of VTE compared to BPs in Koreans with osteoporosis. However, old age and estrogen replacement both increased VTE risk.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899919

ABSTRACT

Background@#Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) due to the estrogen effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of SERMs on VTE compared to bisphosphonates (BPs) using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study. Women over 50 years old who were first prescribed BPs or SERMs for osteoporosis treatment in 2012 were included. The difference in VTE incidence between the SERMs and BP groups was compared. Both groups were followed up for VTE or PE occurrence, death, or until December 2016. The study population was analyzed by 3:1 matching according to age using a multivariate Cox model. @*Results@#The hazard ratio (HR) for VTE was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–1.28) in the SERMs group compared to BP group. Older age (60–69 vs. 50–59 years: HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.07–6.86 and 70–79 vs. 50–59 years: HR, 5.88; 95% CI, 3.14–11.02), major osteoporotic fracture (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.16- 2.70), atrial fibrillation (HR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.35–8.11), and estrogen replacement (HR, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.01–5.73) all increased VTE risk. In subgroup analysis of the SERMs group, past hospitalization (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.02–4.92), estrogen replacement (HR, 5.75; 95% CI, 2.29–14.39), and glucocorticoid replacement (HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.05–7.0) increased VTE risk. @*Conclusion@#SERMs did not increase the risk of VTE compared to BPs in Koreans with osteoporosis. However, old age and estrogen replacement both increased VTE risk.

3.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 279-296, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914806

ABSTRACT

Antiresorptives are the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis. They are also used in malignant bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and Paget's disease, and provide therapeutic efficacy on those diseases. However, it was reported that the occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) could be related to antiresorptive exposures, and there have been many cases regarding this issue. Therefore, a clearer definition and treatment guidelines were needed for this disease. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Amnerican Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons reported statements on bisphosphonate-related ONJ (BRONJ), and a revised version was recently presented. In the revised edition, the diagnosis BRONJ was changed to medication-related ONJ (MRONJ), which reflects consideration of the fact that ONJ also occurs for denosumab, a bone resorption inhibitor of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand antibody family, and bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenesis inhibitor. The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons had collectively formed a task force for the preparation of an official statement on MRONJ based on a previous position paper in 2015. The task force reviewed current knowledge and coordinated dental and medical opinions to propose the guideline customized for the local Korean situation.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832406

ABSTRACT

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is caused by congenital or acquired causes and occurs in childhood or adulthood. GH replacement therapy brings benefits to body composition, exercise capacity, skeletal health, cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life. Before initiating GH replacement, GH deficiency should be confirmed through proper stimulation tests, and in cases with proven genetic causes or structural lesions, repeated GH stimulation testing is not necessary. The dosing regimen of GH replacement therapy should be individualized, with the goal of minimizing side effects and maximizing clinical improvements. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology have developed a position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency. This position statement is based on a systematic review of evidence and expert opinions.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831808

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although metabolic syndrome has been associated with increasing medical costs worldwide, there have been no studies using a nationwide and longitudinal South Korean dataset. We investigated trends in subsidized medical costs among Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. @*Methods@#This study was based on the National Sample Cohort database of South Korea. We used data of national health checkups in 2009 as well as data of subsidized prescription drugs and the Korean Classification of Disease diagnosis codes from claims in 2007 to 2008 to identify underlying diseases. We calculated the direct medical costs, which were subsidized by the Korean National Health Insurance, among 204,768 individuals older than 20 years from 2009 to 2013. @*Results@#The proportion of subjects with metabolic syndrome was 27.2%. Direct medical costs for 5 years differed by a magnitude of 2.16 between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. The costs increased by approximately 41.8% in the metabolic syndrome group in 5 years. Direct medical costs increased with every additional risk factor, even if a subject had less than three risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome per se and all of its components, except low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, resulted in a significant increase in medical costs. @*Conclusions@#The medical costs of subjects with metabolic syndrome were higher than that of those without metabolic syndrome and it increased with the number of risk factors. Further research using cumulative data of more than 10 years, including unsubsidized and indirect costs, is needed in the future.

6.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 281-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891217

ABSTRACT

Background@#The socioeconomic burdens of osteoporosis and related fractures have increased in parallel with population aging. The Korea Society of Bone and Mineral Research published fact sheets on these topics in 2017, 2018, and 2019. This study provides complied epidemiological data based on these fact sheets for understanding current status of osteoporosis in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) performed by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from National Health Information database (2008-2016) by National Health Insurance Service of Korea was used for analyzing the prevalence and incidence of osteoporosis and related fractures, respectively, fatality rates after fractures, and prescription status of anti-osteoporotic medications (AOMs). @*Results@#Among Korean adults aged ≥50 years, 22.4% and 47.9% had osteopenia or osteoporosis, respectively. Incidences of osteoporotic hip, vertebral, humerus, and distal radius fractures plateaued in 2013. The cumulative incidence of subsequent fractures gradually increased over 4 years of follow-up once an osteoporotic fracture occurred. Crude fatality rates in the first 12 months after hip fracture were 14.0% for women and 21.0% for men. Only 33.5% of patients with osteoporosis took AOMs, and even after an osteoporotic fracture, only 41.9% of patients took AOMs within the following 12 months. Despite a steady increase in AOM prescriptions of ~6% per annum, only 33.2% of patients were medication compliant (medication possession ratio ≥80%) at 12 months after treatment initiation. @*Conclusions@#Continuous efforts are required to diagnose patients at high risk of fracture and ensure proper management in Korea.

7.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 281-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898921

ABSTRACT

Background@#The socioeconomic burdens of osteoporosis and related fractures have increased in parallel with population aging. The Korea Society of Bone and Mineral Research published fact sheets on these topics in 2017, 2018, and 2019. This study provides complied epidemiological data based on these fact sheets for understanding current status of osteoporosis in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) performed by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from National Health Information database (2008-2016) by National Health Insurance Service of Korea was used for analyzing the prevalence and incidence of osteoporosis and related fractures, respectively, fatality rates after fractures, and prescription status of anti-osteoporotic medications (AOMs). @*Results@#Among Korean adults aged ≥50 years, 22.4% and 47.9% had osteopenia or osteoporosis, respectively. Incidences of osteoporotic hip, vertebral, humerus, and distal radius fractures plateaued in 2013. The cumulative incidence of subsequent fractures gradually increased over 4 years of follow-up once an osteoporotic fracture occurred. Crude fatality rates in the first 12 months after hip fracture were 14.0% for women and 21.0% for men. Only 33.5% of patients with osteoporosis took AOMs, and even after an osteoporotic fracture, only 41.9% of patients took AOMs within the following 12 months. Despite a steady increase in AOM prescriptions of ~6% per annum, only 33.2% of patients were medication compliant (medication possession ratio ≥80%) at 12 months after treatment initiation. @*Conclusions@#Continuous efforts are required to diagnose patients at high risk of fracture and ensure proper management in Korea.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938598

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.

10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786308

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Expert Testimony , Growth Hormone , Humans , Octreotide , Pituitary Neoplasms , Somatostatin
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158486

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone strength, leading to an increased risk of fracture. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density (BMD) of 2.5 standard deviations below that of a young adults (T-score of -2.5 or lower). Severe osteoporosis is differentiated from osteoporosis by the presence of one or more fragility fractures in addition to this T-score. However, the current WHO definition may be insufficient to reflect the diverse spectrum of osteoporosis or severe osteoporosis, which can encompass various number and severity of prevalent fractures. To overcome these shortcomings of the WHO definition of osteoporosis, we propose a concept of 'advanced severe osteoporosis', which is defined by the presence of proximal femur fragility fracture or two or more fragility fractures in addition to BMD T-score of -2.5 or less. Based on the previous clinical trials and post-hoc analyses, we recommend selective estrogen receptor modulators, bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) monoclonal antibody, and parathyroid hormone for the medical treatment of severe osteoporosis. In cases of advanced severe osteoporosis or osteoporosis that does not respond to previous anti-osteoporotic treatments, we also recommend parathyroid hormone, bisphosphonates, and RANKL monoclonal antibody. In conclusion, we need more precise assessment of osteoporosis and further stratification of the disease by number of prevalent fractures in addition to BMD. More aggressive managements should be provided for those with advanced severe osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Diphosphonates , Femur , Humans , Osteoporosis , Parathyroid Hormone , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , World Health Organization , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sclerostin is a secreted Wnt inhibitor produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which inhibits bone formation. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), which reduce the conversion of steroids to estrogen, are used to treat endocrine-responsive breast cancer. As AIs lower estrogen levels, they increase bone turnover and lower bone mass. We analyzed changes in serum sclerostin levels in Korean women with breast cancer who were treated with an AI. METHODS: We included postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer (n=90; mean age, 57.7 years) treated with an AI, and compared them to healthy premenopausal women (n=36; mean age, 28.0 years). The subjects were randomly assigned to take either 5 mg alendronate with 0.5 microg calcitriol (n=46), or placebo (n=44) for 6 months. RESULTS: Postmenopausal women with breast cancer had significantly higher sclerostin levels compared to those in premenopausal women (27.8+/-13.6 pmol/L vs. 23.1+/-4.8 pmol/L, P0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum sclerostin levels increased with absolute deficiency of residual estrogens in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer who underwent AI therapy with concurrent bone loss.


Subject(s)
Alendronate , Aromatase Inhibitors , Bone Density , Breast Neoplasms , Calcitriol , Estrogens , Female , Hip , Humans , Osteocytes , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Spine , Steroids
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227435

ABSTRACT

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of HNPP have not been clearly defined. We report the sonographic findings and comparative electrodiagnostic data in a 73-year-old woman with HNPP, confirmed by genetic analysis. The cross-sectional areas of peripheral nerves were enlarged at typical nerve entrapment sites, but enlargement at non-entrapment sites was uncommon. These sonographic features may be helpful for diagnosis of HNPP when electrodiagnostic studies are suspicious of HNPP and/or gene study is not compatible.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diagnosis , Electrophysiology , Female , Humans , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Neuromuscular Diseases , Paralysis , Peripheral Nerves , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121044

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Humans , Hypogonadism , Male , Testosterone
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106563

ABSTRACT

Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is widely used for the treatment of Graves disease. After RAI therapy, 44% become hypothyroid and up to 28% remain hyperthyroid. The development of thyrotoxicosis after RAI therapy is believed to be mediated by 2 different mechanisms: a transient increased release of thyroid hormone due to radiation thyroiditis and the rare development of Graves disease due to the formation of antibodies to the thyroid-associated antigens released from the damaged follicular cells. A 55-year-old woman was hospitalized with severe headache, weight loss, and palpitation. She received a dose of 7 mCi of RAI (I-131) about 6 weeks earlier. Thyroid function test showed 7.98 ng/dL free T4, >8 ng/mL T3, <0.08 microIU/L thyroid stimulating hormone, and high titer thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) (85.8 IU/L). She improved with propylthiouracil, propranolol, and steroid treatment. The TSI, however, was persistently elevated for 11 months.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Female , Graves Disease , Headache , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating , Iodine , Middle Aged , Propranolol , Propylthiouracil , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroiditis , Thyrotoxicosis , Thyrotropin , Weight Loss
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122840

ABSTRACT

Lofgren's syndrome is an acute form of sarcoidosis characterized by erythema nodosum, bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (BHL), and polyarthralgia or polyarthritis. This syndrome is common among Caucasians but rare in the Korean population. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of polyarthralgia. A chest radiograph revealed BHL and nodular shadows. Angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were within the normal range. Tissue biopsy from a mediastinum lymph node showed noncaseating granulomas. We diagnosed her with Lofgren's syndrome, an acute form of sarcoidosis.


Subject(s)
Arthralgia , Arthritis , Biopsy , Erythema Nodosum , Female , Granuloma , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Mediastinum , Reference Values , Sarcoidosis , Thorax
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760787

ABSTRACT

The importance of vitamin D for skeletal health is well known. Vitamin D deficiency causes secondary hyperparathyroidism, high bone turnover, bone loss, and osteoporotic fractures. We report a case of a 60-year-old women presenting with brown tumor in the proximal femur secondary to vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. She took calcium supplements and vitamin D3 for 1 year and half dose of risedronate was prescribed for 5 months. After 1 year, pain in the pelvis was much improved and Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck increased by 37% and 29%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Calcium , Cholecalciferol , Etidronic Acid , Female , Femur , Femur Neck , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Pelvis , Spine , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamins , Risedronic Acid
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