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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913817

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming essential in the fields of precision oncology. With implementation of NGS in daily clinic, the needs for continued education, facilitated interpretation of NGS results and optimal treatment delivery based on NGS results have been addressed. Molecular tumor board (MTB) is multidisciplinary approach to keep pace with the growing knowledge of complex molecular alterations in patients with advanced solid cancer. Although guidelines for NGS use and MTB have been developed in western countries, there is limitation for reflection of Korea’s public health environment and daily clinical practice. These recommendations provide a critical guidance from NGS panel testing to final treatment decision based on MTB discussion.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831716

ABSTRACT

Background@#Accurate prediction of tumor invasion depth in superficial esophageal squamous carcinoma (SESC) is essential for deciding the appropriate treatment strategy.We proposed novel endoscopic criteria to differentiate between mucosal and submucosal esophageal cancers and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and usefulness of the criteria. @*Methods@#A total of 352 patients who underwent endoscopic or surgical resection for SESC between 1991 and 2010 were included. First, the novel endoscopic criteria were created based on the endoscopic features of 60 randomly selected patients as follows: for T1m cancers, I.flat or slightly elevated or depressed lesion with smooth/even surface of any size, II. slightly elevated lesion of ≤ 1 cm with granular or uneven surface, III. hyperemic flat lesion of ≤ 3 cm with granular or uneven surface, IV. slightly depressed lesion of ≤ 2 cm with uneven surface and for T1sm cancers, I. irregularly (unevenly) nodular or protruded lesion of any size, II. slightly elevated lesion of > 1 cm with granular or uneven surface, III. hyperemic flat lesion of > 3 cm with granular or uneven surface, IV. irregularly (unevenly) depressed lesion of > 2 cm, and V. ulcerative lesion of any size. Next, the endoscopic findings of the remaining 292 patients were reviewed according to the criteria. @*Results@#The accuracy of novel endoscopic criteria was 79.5% (232/292). The sensitivity and specificity of mucosal cancers were 78.4% and 81.0%, respectively, whereas those for submucosal cancers were 81.0% and 78.4%, respectively. The accuracy for mucosal cancers was high (97.3%, 72/74) when the lesions were flat or slightly elevated/depressed with smooth/even surface regardless of size, whereas that for submucosal cancers was high (85.7%, 18/21) when the lesions were irregularodular protrusions regardless of size. In multivariate analysis, macroscopic type IIb lesion was identified as an independent factor affecting accuracy (P < 0.05). The difference in recurrence-free survival rates between endoscopically mucosal and submucosal cancers was significant (P = 0.026). @*Conclusion@#The novel endoscopic criteria appear to be accurate and useful in predicting invasion depth in SESC. Our criteria might help not only to decide the treatment strategy between surgery and endoscopic resection but also to predict the outcomes of SESC.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834557

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reports of metastatic sarcoma to the pancreas are limited. We reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of such cases. @*Methods@#We reviewed 124 cases of metastatic tumors to the pancreas diagnosed at Asan Medical Center between 2000 and 2017. @*Results@#Metastatic tumors to the pancreas consisted of 111 carcinomas (89.5%), 12 sarcomas (9.6%), and one melanoma (0.8%). Primary sarcoma sites were bone (n = 4); brain, lung, and soft tissue (n = 2 for each); and the uterus and pulmonary vein (n = 1 for each). Pathologically, the 12 sarcomas comprised 2 World Health Organization grade III solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas, and one case each of synovial sarcoma, malignant solitary fibrous tumor, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, intimal sarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, subtype uncertain, and high-grade spindle-cell sarcoma of uncertain type. The median interval between primary cancer diagnosis and pancreatic metastasis was 28.5 months. One case manifested as a solitary pancreatic osteosarcoma metastasis 15 months prior to detection of osteosarcoma in the femur and was initially misdiagnosed as sarcomatoid carcinoma of the pancreas. @*Conclusions@#The metastatic sarcoma should remain a differential diagnosis when spindle-cell malignancy is found in the pancreas, even for solitary lesions or in patients without prior history.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766022

ABSTRACT

Liquid biopsy for detection of mutation from circulating tumor DNA is a new technology which is attractive in that it is non-invasive. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is an effective first line drug for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating EGFR mutation. During the course of treatment, resistance against TKI arises which can be contributed to EGFR T790M mutation in about 50–60% of patients. Third generation TKI may overcome the resistance. In patients who cannot undergo tissue biopsy due to variable reasons, liquid biopsy is an excellent alternative for the detection of EGFR T790M mutation. However, this relatively novel method requires standardization and vigorous quality insurance. Thus, a standard set of guideline recommendations for liquid biopsy for EGFR mutation testing suitable for the Korean medical community is necessary. In this article, we propose a set of provisional guideline recommendations that was discussed and approved by the Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , DNA , Genes, erbB-1 , Humans , Insurance , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Methods , Pathology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Development of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been lagging. Screening of candidate therapeutic agents by using patient-derived preclinical models may facilitate drug discovery for HCC patients. METHODS: Four primary cultured HCC cells from surgically resected tumor tissues and six HCC cell lines were used for high-throughput screening of 252 drugs from the Prestwick Chemical Library. The efficacy and mechanisms of action of the candidate anti-cancer drug were analyzed via cell viability, cell cycle assays, and western blotting. RESULTS: Guanabenz acetate, which has been used as an antihypertensive drug, was screened as a candidate anti-cancer agent for HCC through a drug sensitivity assay by using the primary cultured HCC cells and HCC cell lines. Guanabenz acetate reduced HCC cell viability through apoptosis and autophagy. This occurred via inhibition of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34, increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, increased activating transcription factor 4, and cell cycle arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Guanabenz acetate induces endoplasmic reticulum stress–related cell death in HCC and may be repositioned as an anti-cancer therapeutic agent for HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 4 , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival , DNA , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Guanabenz , Humans , Mass Screening , Peptide Initiation Factors , Phosphorylation , Primary Cell Culture
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessment of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemical staining is used for treatment decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regarding use of PD-L1/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immunotherapy. The reliability of the PD-L1 22C3 pharmDx assay is critical in guiding clinical practice. The Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists investigated the interobserver reproducibility of PD-L1 staining with 22C3 pharmDx in NSCLC samples.METHODS: Twenty-seven pathologists individually assessed the tumor proportion score (TPS) for 107 NSCLC samples. Each case was divided into three levels based on TPS: <1%, 1%–49%, and ≥50%.RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient for TPS was 0.902±0.058. Weighted κ coefficient for 3-step assessment was 0.748±0.093. The κ coefficients for 1% and 50% cut-offs were 0.633 and 0.834, respectively. There was a significant association between interobserver reproducibility and experience (formal PD-L1 training, more experience for PD-L1 assessment, and longer practice duration on surgical pathology), histologic subtype, and specimen type.CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that PD-L1 immunohistochemical staining provides a reproducible basis for decisions on anti–PD-1 therapy in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cell Death , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Observer Variation , Pathology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis is becoming increasingly important in many types of tumor including colorectal cancer (CRC). The commonly used MSI tests are either time-consuming or labor-intensive. A fully automated MSI test, the Idylla MSI assay, has recently been introduced. However, its diagnostic performance has not been extensively validated in clinical CRC samples.METHODS: We evaluated 133 samples whose MSI status had been rigorously validated by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) cancer panel test, or both. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Idylla MSI assay in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, as well as various sample requirements, such as minimum tumor purity and the quality of paraffin blocks.RESULTS: Compared with the gold standard results confirmed through both PCR MSI test and NGS, the Idylla MSI assay showed 99.05% accuracy (104/105), 100% sensitivity (11/11), 98.94% specificity (93/94), 91.67% positive predictive value (11/12), and 100% negative predictive value (93/93). In addition, the Idylla MSI assay did not require macro-dissection in most samples and reliably detected MSI-high in samples with approximately 10% tumor purity. The total turnaround time was about 150 minutes and the hands-on time was less than 2 minutes.CONCLUSIONS: The Idylla MSI assay shows good diagnostic performance that is sufficient for its implementation in the clinic to determine the MSI status of at least the CRC samples. In addition, the fully automated procedure requires only a few slices of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and might greatly save time and labor.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Paraffin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741350

ABSTRACT

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), previously known as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, is a rare developmental lung abnormality associated with rhabdomyosarcoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung. We report an unusual case of a 10-day-old male newborn with a left lower lobe pulmonary cyst who underwent lobectomy, which revealed type II CPAM complicated by multifocal mucinous adenocarcinoma. KRAS sequencing revealed a somatic mutation in Codon12 (GGT → GAT), suggesting the development of a mucinous adenocarcinoma in the background of mucinous metaplasia. Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the most common lung tumor associated with CPAM, but it generally occurs in older children and adults. Further, all cases in the literature are of type I CPAM. This case in a neonate indicates that malignant transformation can occur very early in type II CPAM.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Adult , Child , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung , Male , Metaplasia , Mucins , Rhabdomyosarcoma
10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 129-136, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44440

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1–2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals (1,650 mg/m²/day). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
Capecitabine , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38104

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has recently emerged as an essential component of personalized cancer medicine due to its high throughput and low per-base cost. However, no sufficient guidelines for implementing NGS as a clinical molecular pathology test are established in Korea. To ensure clinical grade quality without inhibiting adoption of NGS, a taskforce team assembled by the Korean Society of Pathologists developed laboratory guidelines for NGS cancer panel testing procedures and requirements for clinical implementation of NGS. This consensus standard proposal consists of two parts: laboratory guidelines and requirements for clinical NGS laboratories. The laboratory guidelines part addressed several important issues across multistep NGS cancer panel tests including choice of gene panel and platform, sample handling, nucleic acid management, sample identity tracking, library preparation, sequencing, analysis and reporting. Requirements for clinical NGS tests were summarized in terms of documentation, validation, quality management, and other required written policies. Together with appropriate pathologist training and international laboratory standards, these laboratory standards would help molecular pathology laboratories to successfully implement NGS cancer panel tests in clinic. In this way, the oncology community would be able to help patients to benefit more from personalized cancer medicine.


Subject(s)
Consensus , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Korea , Pathology, Molecular , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quality Control
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38101

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapies guided by molecular diagnostics have become a standard treatment of lung cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements are currently used as the best predictive biomarkers for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors, respectively. Besides EGFR and ALK, the list of druggable genetic alterations has been growing, including ROS1 rearrangements, RET rearrangements, and MET alterations. In this situation, pathologists should carefully manage clinical samples for molecular testing and should do their best to quickly and accurately identify patients who will benefit from precision therapeutics. Here, we grouped molecular biomarkers of lung cancers into three categories—mutations, gene rearrangements, and amplifications—and propose expanded guidelines on molecular testing of lung cancers.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Lymphoma , Pathology, Molecular , Phosphotransferases , Precision Medicine , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cetuximab demonstrates improved efficacy outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring wild-type KRAS exon 2. Resistance to cetuximab is mediated by activating less frequent mutations in the RAS genes beyond KRAS exon 2. We performed extended RAS Mutational analysis using a high-throughput genotyping platform (OncoMap) and evaluated extended RAS analysis for predicting cetuximab efficacy in patients harboring wild-type KRAS exon 2 tumors following Sanger sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extended RAS analysis was performed on 227 wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC patients who received cetuximab as salvage treatment using OncoMap ver. 4.0. Targeted genes included exon 2, exon 3, and exon 4, both in KRAS and NRAS, and included BRAF exon 15. We assessed efficacy by the new RAS mutation status. RESULTS: The OncoMap detected 57 additional mutations (25.1%): 25 (11%) in KRAS exon 2 and 32 (14.1%) beyond KRAS exon 2. Survival differences were observed after dividing patients into the wild-type RAS group (n=170) and mutant RAS group (n=57) using OncoMap. Progression-free survival was 4.8 months versus 1.8 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.61), and overall survival was 11.9 months versus 8.4 months (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.88). CONCLUSION: Sanger sequencing is not sufficient for selecting candidates for cetuximab treatment. High-throughput extended RAS genotyping is a feasible approach for this purpose and identifies patients who might benefit from cetuximab treatment.


Subject(s)
Cetuximab , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Exons , Genes, ras , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Salvage Therapy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the mutation status of KRAS is highly concordant in primary and metastatic lesions, it has not been generalized to other major pathway genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 41 genes were evaluated and the mutational profiles were compared in 46 colorectal cancer patients with paired surgical specimens of primary and metastatic lesions: synchronous (n=27) and metachronous (n=19) lesions. A high-throughput mass spectrometry-based genotyping platform validated by orthogonal chemistry, OncoMap v.4.4, was used to evaluate the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens. The patients’ demographics, tumor characteristics, and microsatellite instability status were analyzed by a retrospective chart review. RESULTS: In this study,with OncoMap, mutationswere identified in 80.4% of patientswith the following frequency: KRAS (39.1%), TP53 (28.3%), APC (28.3%), PIK3CA (6.5%), BRAF (6.5%), and NRAS (4.3%). Although 19.6% (9/46) of the patients showed no gene mutations, 43.5% (20/46) and 37.0% (17/46) had mutations in one and two or more genes, respectively. The synchronous and metachronous lesions showed similar mutational profiles. Paired samples between primary and metastatic tumors differed in 7.4% (2/27) and 10.5% (2/19) for synchronous and metachronous according to OncoMap. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the major pathway genes, including KRAS, TP53, APC, PIK3CA, BRAF, and NRAS, are often concordant between the primary and metastatic lesions regardless of the temporal relationship of metastasis.


Subject(s)
Chemistry , Colorectal Neoplasms , Demography , Genomics , Humans , Microsatellite Instability , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225695

ABSTRACT

Lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) is typically found in smokers and has a very low incidence in non-smokers, indicating differences in the tumor biology of lung SCC in smokers and non-smokers. However, the specific mutations that drive tumor growth in non-smokers have not been identified. To identify mutations in lung SCC of non-smokers, we performed a genetic analysis using arrays comparative genomic hybridization (ArrayCGH). We analyzed 19 patients with lung SCC who underwent surgical treatment between April 2005 and April 2015. Clinical characteristics were reviewed, and DNA was extracted from fresh frozen lung cancer specimens. All of copy number alterations from ArrayCGH were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) copy number variation (CNV) data of lung SCC. We examined the frequency of copy number changes according to the smoking status (non-smoker [n = 8] or smoker [n = 11]). We identified 16 significantly altered regions from ArrayCGH data, three gain and four loss regions overlapped with the TCGA lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) patients. Within these overlapped significant regions, we detected 15 genes that have been reported in the Cancer Gene census. We also found that the proto-oncogene GAB2 (11q14.1) was significantly amplified in non-smokers patients and vice versa in both ArrayCGH and TCGA data. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that GAB2 protein was relatively upregulated in non-smoker than smoker tissues (37.5% vs. 9.0%, P = 0.007). GAB2 amplification may have an important role in the development of lung SCC in non-smokers. GAB2 may represent a potential biomarker for lung SCC in non-smokers.


Subject(s)
Biology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Censuses , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , DNA , Epithelial Cells , Genes, Neoplasm , Genome , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Neoplasms, Squamous Cell , Proto-Oncogenes , Smoke , Smoking
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173629

ABSTRACT

We recently established a novel disease entity presented as progressive respiratory failure associated with the inhalation of humidifier disinfectants. In April 2011, we encountered a series of peripartum patients with complaints of respiratory distress of unknown etiology, which was an uncommon phenomenon. Accordingly, we created a multidisciplinary team comprising intensivists, radiologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Further, we defined the disease entity and performed a case-control study, epidemiologic investigation, and animal study to determine the etiology. The study findings indicated that the lung injury outbreak was related to the inhalation of humidifier disinfectants and showed that household chemical inhalation can cause severe respiratory failure. Following the withdrawal of humidifier disinfectants from the Korean market in 2012, no such cases were reported. This tragic event is a warning that appropriate safety regulations and monitoring for potential toxic household chemicals are critical to protect public health.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Case-Control Studies , Disinfectants , Family Characteristics , Humans , Humidifiers , Inhalation , Korea , Lung Injury , Lung , Peripartum Period , Public Health , Respiratory Insufficiency , Social Control, Formal
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Analysis of mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) is important for predicting response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The overall rate of EGFR mutations in Korean patients is variable. To obtain comprehensive data on the status of EGFR mutations in Korean patients with lung cancer, the Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists initiated a nationwide survey. METHODS: We obtained 1,753 reports on EGFR mutations in patients with lung cancer from 15 hospitals between January and December 2009. We compared EGFR mutations with patient age, sex, history of smoking, histologic diagnosis, specimen type, procurement site, tumor cell dissection, and laboratory status. RESULTS: The overall EGFR mutation rate was 34.3% in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 43.3% in patients with adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutation rate was significantly higher in women, never smokers, patients with adenocarcinoma, and patients who had undergone excisional biopsy. EGFR mutation rates did not differ with respect to patient age or procurement site among patients with NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: EGFR mutation rates and statuses were similar to those in published data from other East Asian countries.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diagnosis , Epidermal Growth Factor , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Mutation Rate , Pathology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Smoke , Smoking
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20014

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49449

ABSTRACT

Extrauterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumors constitute an extremely rare gestational trophoblastic disease. We report the case of an extrauterine trophoblastic tumor that was incidentally detected in the left lung. Squamous cell carcinoma was suspected after microscopically examining the specimen obtained upon preoperative needle biopsy. After surgery, the tumor was confirmed by microscopic findings and immunohistochemical features.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy, Needle , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Female , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Trophoblastic Neoplasms , Trophoblasts
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