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1.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 22-30, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918972

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sphincterotomes are essential for endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and can also be used for cannulation in ERCP.A domestic new pull-type sphincterotome (Optimos™, Taewoong, Goyang, Korea) provides acceptable technical feasibility and safety, but there are no comparison results. Thus, this study compared the clinical performance and safety of Optimos™ sphincterotome to a conventional sphincterotome (CleverCut3™, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) in patients who underwent ERCP. @*Methods@#From April 2021 to July 2021, a randomized prospective comparative study was conducted on 104 consecutive patients who underwent ERCP in three medical centers. The primary endpoint was the clinical performance and safety of sphincterotomes during ERCP. @*Results@#One hundred and four patients were assigned randomly to the Optimos™ group (n=51) or CleverCut3™ group (n=53). All demographic characteristics did not differ between the groups except the BMI. The technical success rate for cannulation, performance of EST, and total procedure time were similar in the two groups. The adverse events did not differ, even though two cases of post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred in CleverCut3™. On the other hand, in questionnaire analysis, CleverCut™ showed a better user’s convenience (median [interquartile range] 4.0 [3.0-4.0] vs. 3.0 [3.0-4.0], p=0.013) and manipulability (median [interquartile range], 4.0 [3.0-4.0] vs. 3.0 [3.0-4.0], p=0.039) than Optimos™, even though the other profiles did not reveal any differences. @*Conclusions@#New domestic pull-type sphincterotome can offer comparable clinical performance and safety profiles to conventional sphincterotome, but it needs refinements to increase the user’s convenience and manipulability. Further improvement and innovation will be required to advance domestic medical devices.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 101-110, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914375

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#The appropriate number of band ligations during the first endoscopic session for acute variceal bleeding is debatable. We aimed to compare the technical aspects of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) in patients with variceal bleeding according to the number of bands placed per session. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed multicenter data from patients who underwent EVL for acute variceal bleeding. Patients were classified into minimal EVL (targeting only the foci with active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding) and maximal EVL (targeting potential bleeding sources in addition to the aforementioned targets) groups. The primary endpoint was 5-day treatment failure. The secondary endpoints were 30-day rebleeding, 30-day mortality, and intraprocedural adverse events. @*Results@#Minimal EVL was associated with lower rates of hypoxia and shock during EVL than maximal EVL (hypoxia, 0.9% vs 2.9%; shock, 1.3% vs 3.4%). However, treatment failure was higher in the minimal EVL group than in the maximal EVL group (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.41). Age ≥60 years, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score ≥15, Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification C, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg at initial presentation were also associated with treatment failure. In contrast, 30-day rebleeding and 30-day mortality did not differ between the minimal and maximal EVL groups. @*Conclusions@#Given that minimal EVL was associated with a high risk of treatment failure, maximal EVL may be a better option for variceal bleeding. However, the minimal EVL strategy should be considered in select patients because it does not affect 30-day rebleeding and mortality.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 354-374, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898451

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a task force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 161-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897748

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in 8 categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

5.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 73-93, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903564

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues.This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice

6.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 125-147, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902372

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 123-131, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875425

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#PPARγ, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and CYP7A1 are associated with solubility of bile. This study was performed to understand a mechanism and interactions of statin-induced PPARγ, PGC-1α and HNF-4α related to the statin-induced activation of FXR and CYP7A1, and verify whether the mevalonate pathway is involved in the mechanism. @*Methods@#MTT assays were performed using cultured human Hep3B cells to determine the effect of atorvastatin on the cell proliferation. Expression levels of indicated proteins were measured using Western blotting assays by inhibiting the protein expression or not. @*Results@#Atorvastatin increased expression of PPARγ, PGC-1α, HNF-4α, FXR, and CYP7A1 in Hep3B cells. PPARγ ligand of troglitazone upregulated the expression of PGC-1α, HNF-4α, FXR, and CYP7A1 in Hep3B cells. Silencing of PPARγ, PGC1α, and HNF4α using respective siRNA demonstrated that atorvastatin-induced FXR and CYP7A1 activation required sequential action of PPARγ /PGC-1α/HNF-4α. The silencing of PPARγ completely inhibited atorvastatin-induced PGC-1α expression, and the PGC1α silencing partially inhibited atorvastatin-induced PPARγ expression. The inhibition of HNF4α did not affect atorvastatin-induced PPARγ expression, but partially inhibited atorvastatin-induced PGC-1α expression. Besides, mevalonate completely reversed the effect of atorvastatin on PPARγ, PGC-1α, HNF-4α, FXR, and CYP7A1. @*Conclusions@#Atorvastatin induces FXR and CYP7A1 activation as a result of sequential action of PPARγ/PGC-1α/HNF-4α in human hepatocytes. We propose that atorvastatin enhances solubility of cholesterol in bile by simultaneously activating of FXR and CYP7A1.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 930-939, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914351

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The endoscopic step-up approach is accepted as the preferred treatment for complicated or symptomatic walled-off necrosis (WON). Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) is an effective therapeutic option, but few reports describe long-term follow-up in this patient population. Thus, we aim to assess the long-term outcomes of DEN following severe necrotizing pancreatitis. @*Methods@#The data of all acute pancreatitis patients who underwent DEN following endoscopic transmural drainage from six referral centers between 2007 and 2017 were retrospectively collected. @*Results@#Sixty patients (76.7% male, mean age 48.3 years) underwent a median of 4 sessions of DEN starting at a median of 45.5 days after the onset of acute pancreatitis. Clinical success was achieved in 51 patients (85%), with a 35% complication rate and a 5% mortality rate. Using multivariate analysis, the risk factor associated with DEN failure or major DEN complications requiring intervention or surgery was an identified bacterial/fungal WON infection (odds ratio, 19.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 261.7). During the median follow-up period of 27 months, complicated WON recurrence was observed in 5.3% of patients, and long-term complications occurred in 24.6% of patients (four exocrine insufficiency, nine newly developed diabetes mellitus, one recurrent small bowel obstruction, one chylous ascites). @*Conclusions@#Considering that long-term complications are similar to those observed after pancreatectomy, DEN should be performed meticulously while minimizing damage to the viable pancreatic parenchyma with adequate antibiotic escalation.

9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 73-93, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895860

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues.This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice

10.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 125-147, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894668

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 354-374, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890747

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a task force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

12.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 161-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890044

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in 8 categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 213-214, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714603

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Necrosis
14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 316-317, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184064

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Drainage
15.
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 310-317, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Statins act as antineoplastic agents through the inhibition of cell proliferation. This study sought to demonstrate the effects of statins on extrahepatic bile duct cancer cell apoptosis and to document the changes in protein expression involved in tumor growth and suppression. METHODS: Human extrahepatic bile duct cancer cells were cultured. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were performed to determine the effect of statins on cell proliferation. Apoptosis was measured by a cell death detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and caspase-3 activity assay, and flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. The protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and Akt was measured by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Simvastatin suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest in bile duct cancer cells. Furthermore, it induced apoptosis via caspase-3 activation, downregulated the expression of the Bcl-2 protein, and enhanced the expression of the Bax protein. Moreover, simvastatin suppressed the expression of the IGF-1 receptor and IGF-1-induced ERK/Akt activation. CONCLUSIONS: Simvastatin induces apoptosis in bile duct cancer cells, which suggests that it could be an antineoplastic agent for bile duct cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bile Duct Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Receptor, IGF Type 1/drug effects , Simvastatin/pharmacology
17.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 194-198, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76762

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of valporic acid (VPA)-induced pancreatitis is a rare condition, predominantly observed in adolescent. Also, the occurrence of VPA-associated with hemorrhagic pseudocyst is extremely rare. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who had been taking VPA for uncontrolled seizures. He was admitted to our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain and diagnosed with acute on chronic pancreatitis. There were no other causes explaining pancreatitis, and it was thought to be due to VPA therapy. Despite of cessation of VPA, there was ongoing severe abdominal pain with fever. The patient underwent follow-up CT, which revealed a large loculated fluid collection that was observed with intra-cystic hemorrhage. After treatment with percutaneous catheter drainage, he was discharged with regression of the pancreatic pseudocyst. VPA-associated pancreatitis with hemorrhagic pseudocyst is rare but possible. Therefore, this possibility should be considered in the cause of hemorrhagic pseudocyst in a patient taking VPA.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Catheters , Drainage , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Pancreatic Pseudocyst , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Seizures , Valproic Acid
18.
Korean Journal of Nephrology ; : 115-119, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177181

ABSTRACT

Takayasu arteritis is a nonspecific granulomatous inflammatory arteriopathy of unknown cause that results in occlusive obliteration and less commonly aneurysmal degeneration of large and medium-sized elastic arteries. The diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis and the assessment of its progression and extent remain challenging, especially in patients presenting with a constellation of non-specific symptoms and laboratory tests. The standard diagnostic procedures include biopsy, arteriography, sonography, and magnetic resonance angiography. However, these procedures are invasive or largely operator-dependent, and document only morphological changes such as stenosis, occlusion and aneurysmal transformation which mainly occur in late stages of the disease. On the other hand, Positron-emission tomography is an operator-independent, non-invasive metabolic imaging modality which plays a major role in diagnosis of nonspecific inflammatory diseases. We report a case in which Positron-emission tomography was applied to the detection of Takayasu arteritis and assessment of its disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aneurysm , Angiography , Arteries , Biopsy , Constriction, Pathologic , Disease Progression , Hand , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Takayasu Arteritis
19.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 121-125, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205447

ABSTRACT

Primary lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Korea. Approximately 50% of patients have metastatic disease at the time of presentation. The preferential sites of extrapulmonary spread include lymph nodes, liver, brain, adrenal glands, and bones. Gastrointestinal metastasis from primary lung cancer is extremely rare and only a few case reports have been published. Herein, we report a case of metastatic colon cancer from primary lung adenocarcinoma, presenting multiple cecal polypoid masses.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Korean Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ; : 30-34, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207719

ABSTRACT

There are many complications following gastrectomy and one of the most frequent complications is anastomosis site leakage. Postoperative leakage is a serious complication in patients after they undergo gastric surgery. It can lead to the progressive deterioration in the patient's condition and quality of life and the mortality rate is nearly 60%. We encountered a case of a 75 year-old man who had the leakage of the jejunal end of the Roux limb after total gastrectomy. We performed treatment of the leakage endoscopic clipping and detachable snaring. Hemoclips were fixed at the margin of both sides of the lesion. A detachable snare was used to bind both hemoclips, so the interval was made narrow. After snare binding, five hemoclips were used for final closure of the small interval. After treatment, the leakage of the afferent loop end was completely stopped. He resumed an oral intake and was discharged without complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Extremities , Gastrectomy , Quality of Life , SNARE Proteins
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