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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#To assess the longitudinal associations of the antioxidant capacity of zinc and body mass index (BMI) with serum uric acid (SUA) in South Korean children. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#Using follow-up data from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we included subjects who were seen at 3 and 7 years of age (n = 183; 90 boys, 93 girls). Daily zinc intake and BMI were assessed at 3 and 7 years of age. SUA measured at 7 years was used as the outcome variable. Using a general linear model, the effects of dietary zinc intake and BMI on SUA were assessed. We also assessed the combined effect of early dietary zinc intake and BMI on SUA in children. @*RESULTS@#The dietary zinc intake at 3 years of age was negatively correlated (ρ = −0.18, P = 0.04), whereas the BMI at 7 years of age was positively correlated (r = 0.18, P = 0.01), with the SUA level at 7 years of age. The dietary zinc intake level at 3 years of age and the BMI level at 7 years of age were, together, significantly related to SUA in children at 7 years of age. SUA was lower in group 1 (normal-weight, high-zinc group) than in the other two groups (group 2: normalweight, low-zinc and overweight, high-zinc group; and group 3: overweight, low-zinc group). Our results demonstrate the combined effect of zinc intake and BMI on SUA. The combined association remained significant in both the crude and adjusted models (P < 0.01). @*CONCLUSIONS@#SUA was related to combined BMI and dietary zinc intake, and increased zinc intake and normal body weight had a beneficial effect on reducing SUA in children.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830626

ABSTRACT

A mucocele is an epithelium-lined, mucus-filled cavity in the paranasal sinuses. Mucocele may develop due to scarring and obstruction of the sinus ostium caused by midface sinus trauma, such as orbital bone fracture or endoscopic sinus surgery. The authors report two cases of orbital mucocele as complications following midface sinus injury (endoscopic sinus surgery in one case, and orbital fracture repair in the other). In both cases, imaging studies showed a large orbital mucocele accompanied by bony erosion and orbital wall remodeling, compressing the ocular muscle. Using an open approach, the lesion was excised and marsupialized. The symptoms resolved, and the postoperative eyeball position was normal. Orbital mucocele may cause serious complications such as ocular symptoms, orbital cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and the formation of an abscess with the potential to invade the brain. Therefore, surgeons should consider the possibility of mucocele as a late complication of surgery and initiate an immediate work-up and surgical treatment if needed.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stem cell engineering is appealing consideration for regenerating damaged endothelial cells (ECs) because stem cells can differentiate into EC-like cells. In this study, we demonstrate that tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) can differentiate into EC-like cells under optimal physiochemical microenvironments.METHODS: TMSCs were preconditioned with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) or EC growth medium (EGM) for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel to observe the formation of a capillary-like network under light microscope. Microarray, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the expression of gene and protein of EC-related markers.RESULTS: Preconditioning TMSCs in EGM for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel induced the formation of a capillary-like network in 3 h, but TMSCs preconditioned with DMEM did not form such a network. Genome analyses confirmed that EGM preconditioning significantly affected the expression of genes related to angiogenesis, blood vessel morphogenesis and development, and vascular development. Western blot analyses revealed that EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating induced the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a mature EC-specific marker, as well as phosphorylated Akt at serine 473, a signaling molecule related to eNOS activation. Gelatin-coating during EGM preconditioning further enhanced the stability of the capillary-like network, and also resulted in the network more closely resembled to those observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that under specific conditions, i.e., EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating for 4 days followed by Matrigel, TMSCs could be a source of generating endothelial cells for treating vascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Eagles , Endothelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gelatin , Genome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Morphogenesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Palatine Tonsil , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serine , Stem Cells
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is the development of nutrition education program for promoting vegetable intakes of school aged children. METHODS: After a pilot study and consultations of experts, a program (composed of five lessons) that was emphasized the sensory and cooking activities based on the social cognitive theory was developed. Specially, we focused on enhance expectation, self-efficacy, and behavioral performance through the intervention. For a outcome evaluation survey tool was developed, too. The lessons once-a-week (total five lessons) and survey (pre and pro) were conducted to 20 school aged children. RESULTS: The distribution of children was 11.5 years (mean age), boys (25%), girls (75%). Compared to pre-survey, the result of post-survey was higher scores for self-efficacy and two items out of ten items in food neophobia category. And one items out of six items (unfamiliar vegetables), three items out of ten items (familiar vegetables) showed positive result in food neophilia category significantly (P<0.1). CONCLUSIONS: The education duration was short(5 weeks) but we could observe visible changes on self-efficacy, behavior performances for cooking and intention to intake vegetables non-preferred ones previously. Continuous applying and supplementing this nutrition education program may promote intake of vegetables among children.


Subject(s)
Child , Cooking , Education , Female , Humans , Intention , Pilot Projects , Referral and Consultation , Vegetables
5.
Immune Network ; : 42-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785819

ABSTRACT

There have been few studies investigating the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and prenatal exposure to heavy metals. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to heavy metals is associated with the development or severity of AD in a birth cohort study. A total of 331 subjects were followed from birth for a median duration of 60.0 months. The presence and severity of AD were evaluated at ages 6 and 12 months, and regularly once a year thereafter. The concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and stimulated for analysis of cytokine production using ELISA. Heavy metal levels in cord blood were not associated with the development of AD until 24 months of age. However, a positive correlation was observed between the duration of AD and lead levels in cord blood (p=0.002). AD severity was also positively associated with chromium concentrations in cord blood (p=0.037), while cord blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium were not significantly associated with AD severity (p=0.562, p=0.054, and p=0.055, respectively). Interleukin-13 production in CBMCs was positively related with lead and chromium levels in cord blood (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). Prenatal exposure to lead and chromium is associated with the persistence and severity of AD, and the immune reaction toward a Th2 polarization.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Cadmium , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fetal Blood , Interleukin-13 , Mass Spectrometry , Metals, Heavy , Parturition , Plasma , Umbilical Cord
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trauma is one of the most common causes of enophthalmos, and post-traumatic enophthalmos primarily results from an increased volume of the bony orbit. We achieved good long-term results by simultaneously using an anatomical absorbable implant and iliac bone graft to correct post-traumatic enophthalmos.METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2016, we performed operations on seven patients with post-traumatic enophthalmos. In all seven cases, reduction surgery for the initial trauma was performed at our hospital. Hertel exophthalmometry, clinical photography, three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and orbital volume measurements using software to calculate the specific volume captured on 3D-CT (ITK-SNAP, Insight Toolkit-SNAP) were performed preoperatively and postoperatively.RESULTS: Patients were evaluated based on exophthalmometry, clinical photographs, 3D-CT, and orbital volume measured by the ITK-SNAP program at 5 days and 1 year postoperatively, and all factors improved significantly compared with the preoperative baseline. Complications such as hematoma or extraocular muscle limitation were absent, and the corrected orbital volume was well maintained at the 1-year follow-up visit.CONCLUSION: We present a method to correct enophthalmos by reconstructing the orbital wall using an anatomical absorbable implant and a simultaneous autologous iliac bone graft. All cases showed satisfactory results for enophthalmos correction. We suggest this method as a good option for the correction of post-traumatic enophthalmos.


Subject(s)
Absorbable Implants , Autografts , Enophthalmos , Follow-Up Studies , Hematoma , Humans , Methods , Orbit , Photography , Transplants
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The aim of the study is the development of nutrition education program for promoting vegetable intakes of school aged children.@*METHODS@#After a pilot study and consultations of experts, a program (composed of five lessons) that was emphasized the sensory and cooking activities based on the social cognitive theory was developed. Specially, we focused on enhance expectation, self-efficacy, and behavioral performance through the intervention. For a outcome evaluation survey tool was developed, too. The lessons once-a-week (total five lessons) and survey (pre and pro) were conducted to 20 school aged children.@*RESULTS@#The distribution of children was 11.5 years (mean age), boys (25%), girls (75%). Compared to pre-survey, the result of post-survey was higher scores for self-efficacy and two items out of ten items in food neophobia category. And one items out of six items (unfamiliar vegetables), three items out of ten items (familiar vegetables) showed positive result in food neophilia category significantly (P<0.1).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The education duration was short(5 weeks) but we could observe visible changes on self-efficacy, behavior performances for cooking and intention to intake vegetables non-preferred ones previously. Continuous applying and supplementing this nutrition education program may promote intake of vegetables among children.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An association between dietary patterns and mental health in children has been suggested in a series of studies, yet detailed analyses of dietary patterns and their effects on ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) are limited. METHODS: We included 4569 children who had dietary intake data as part of the CHEER (Children's Health and Environmental Research) study conducted nationwide from 2005 to 2010. We assessed ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) by the DuPaul's ADHD Rating Scales and dietary intake by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using intake data, we constructed five dietary patterns: “Plant foods & fish,” “Sweets,” “Meat & fish,” “Fruits & dairy products,” and “Wheat based.” RESULTS: The overall proportion of ADHD was 12.3%. Boys (17.8%) showed a higher rate of ADHD than girls (6.5%). The total intake of calories (85 kcal) and plant fat (2g) in the ADHD group was significantly higher than that of the normal group. ADHD was significantly negatively associated with dietary habits such as having breakfast and meal frequency, and positively associated with eating speed, unbalanced diet, overeating, and rice consumption. Regarding dietary patterns, the “Sweets” category was relevant to high ADHD risk (OR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.15 for Q5 vs. Q1) in a linear relationship. An inverse, non-linear association was found between “Fruits & dairy products” and ADHD (OR 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.76 for Q4 vs. Q1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms both positive and negative associations between diet and ADHD in elementary school age children. Moreover, linear or nonlinear associations between diet and ADHD draw attention to the possible threshold role of nutrients. Further studies may consider characteristics of diet in more detail to develop better intervention or management in terms of diet and health.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Breakfast , Child , Diet , Eating , Female , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Hyperphagia , Meals , Mental Health , Plants , Weights and Measures
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An association between dietary patterns and mental health in children has been suggested in a series of studies, yet detailed analyses of dietary patterns and their effects on ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) are limited. METHODS: We included 4569 children who had dietary intake data as part of the CHEER (Children's Health and Environmental Research) study conducted nationwide from 2005 to 2010. We assessed ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) by the DuPaul's ADHD Rating Scales and dietary intake by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using intake data, we constructed five dietary patterns: “Plant foods & fish,” “Sweets,” “Meat & fish,” “Fruits & dairy products,” and “Wheat based.” RESULTS: The overall proportion of ADHD was 12.3%. Boys (17.8%) showed a higher rate of ADHD than girls (6.5%). The total intake of calories (85 kcal) and plant fat (2g) in the ADHD group was significantly higher than that of the normal group. ADHD was significantly negatively associated with dietary habits such as having breakfast and meal frequency, and positively associated with eating speed, unbalanced diet, overeating, and rice consumption. Regarding dietary patterns, the “Sweets” category was relevant to high ADHD risk (OR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.15 for Q5 vs. Q1) in a linear relationship. An inverse, non-linear association was found between “Fruits & dairy products” and ADHD (OR 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.76 for Q4 vs. Q1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms both positive and negative associations between diet and ADHD in elementary school age children. Moreover, linear or nonlinear associations between diet and ADHD draw attention to the possible threshold role of nutrients. Further studies may consider characteristics of diet in more detail to develop better intervention or management in terms of diet and health.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Breakfast , Child , Diet , Eating , Female , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Hyperphagia , Meals , Mental Health , Plants , Weights and Measures
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidant defense and detoxification genes may modulate the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. METHODS: A total of 301 healthy preschool-aged children in the Seoul and Kyung-gi areas were recruited. DNA was extracted from blood for genotyping of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) Val16Ala, glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 Ile105Val, GSTT1 present/null, and GSTM1 present/null polymorphisms by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism or multiplex PCR analyses. In addition to a questionnaire survey, the levels of urinary 8- hydroxyl-2-deoxiguanosine (8-OHdG) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were observed in GSTP1 Ile/Val + Val/Val genotype (p = 0.030), and tended to be higher in Mn-SOD Val/Val genotype (p = 0.065). On the other hand, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) and interaction between ETS and gene polymorphisms did not significantly influence either urinary 8-OHdG concentrations or serum MDA. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, GSTP1 Ile/Val gene polymorphisms might modulate the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy preschool children.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genotype , Glutathione Transferase , Hand , Humans , Malondialdehyde , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxidative Stress , Plasma , Polymorphism, Genetic , Seoul , Smoking , Superoxide Dismutase
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Based on individual and environmental characteristics of low-income children, we developed a nutrition education program for school-aged children from low-income families according to effective use in social welfare centers. METHODS: We conducted in-depth group interviews to assess program needs in 28 participants, 10 low-income school-aged children and 9 of their care givers, 9 social workers and 9 care-givers. Theoretical backgrounds of our program were heath belief model and social cognitive theory considering motivation, action and environment characteristics. RESULTS: Based on the findings of this qualitative study, we developed major program themes and contents. Five selected key themes were 'balanced diet', 'processed food', 'food hygiene and safety', 'Korean healthy traditional diet', and 'family cooking' to induce changes in dietary behaviors. Main findings of in-depth group interviews included 'child's active participation', 'simple and easy to understand messages', and 'environmental constraints' such as a lack of child care at home, limited budget of social welfare centers, and less qualified educators for nutrition and health. Each lesson was constructed as a 1-hour program particularly emphasizing activity-based programs, including cooking and teamwork exercises. Program contents in each session consisted of activities that could induce outcome and value expectations, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and barriers and cues to actions regarding diet behavior. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a nutrition education programthat is rarely available for low-income children in Korea, considering theoretical bases. Further studies are needed to validate our program.


Subject(s)
Budgets , Caregivers , Child Care , Child , Cooking , Cues , Diet , Education , Exercise , Humans , Hygiene , Interviews as Topic , Korea , Motivation , Qualitative Research , Social Welfare , Social Workers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27121

ABSTRACT

Although it has been proposed that trace minerals have anti-oxidative functions and are related to the control of blood pressure, only a limited number of studies directly address the issue. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the intake of copper and manganese, which are trace minerals, and to clarify their relation to blood pressure. In a cross-sectional study, the blood pressure of 640 normotensive adults, from 19 to 69 year-old (320 males and 320 females), was measured, and its correlation with the intake of copper and manganese was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall method. The average value of the blood pressure was 126.4/80.2 mmHg for the males and 117.8/75.8 mmHg for the females. The daily copper intake was 1.3 mg/day for the males and 1.2 mg/day for the females. For manganese, the daily intake was 4.2 mg/day for the males and 4.1 mg/day for the females. Although the copper intake of all subjects showed a positive correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, there was no significant correlation when the potential confounding factors were adjusted. The manganese intake of the male subjects had a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure after adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, and energy intake. In conclusion, the daily manganese intake of the normotensitve adults showed a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure indicating a possibility of a positive effect of manganese on blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Copper , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Male , Manganese , Minerals
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85019

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a multifactorial disease whose genetic and environmental risk factors have been studied for decades. Many pediatric studies have pointed out the familial history of allergy, hygiene hypothesis, breast-feeding, pet ownership, and diets as risk factors of AR. However, most of factors are still up for debate. This preliminary report aimed to confirm the known risk factors and find the novel risk factors for AR in the Korean pediatric population. METHODS: A bi-seasonal, winter and summer, study in 2 elementary schools included all students whose parents completed the questionnaire of medical and social histories, quality of life, infant and early-childhood history, and the living styles. Skin prick tests and endoscopic examinations were conducted on all participants. RESULTS: Among total 1,020 children, 338 participants had AR. The multivariate logistic regression analysis highlighted 6 factors: male gender (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.32-3.33), older age (1.65; 1.03-2.65), previous history of allergic conjunctivitis (14.25; 4.99-40.74), asthma (2.73; 0.96-7.76) and pneumonia (0.39; 0.19-0.82), and an hour increase in daily playing time (0.90; 0.80-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of pneumonia in early childhood and short playing time are newly found risk factors for Korean pediatric AR in this study confirming male gender, older age and previous history of allergic conjunctivitis and asthma as the risk factors.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Diet , Humans , Hygiene Hypothesis , Hypersensitivity , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Ownership , Parents , Pneumonia , Quality of Life , Rhinitis , Risk Factors , Skin , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). METHODS: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. RESULTS: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value) in the seaweed (94.2 mug/kg for Pb; 594 mug/kg for Cd), and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 mug/kg). The dietary exposure level (median value) of Pb was 0.14 mug/kg body weight (bw)/d, 0.18 mug/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 mug/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 mug/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age) were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 mug/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children) were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 mug/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency) was 81.0 % of all the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Weight , Cadmium , Child , Eating , Environmental Monitoring , European Union , Food Safety , Functional Food , Hazardous Substances , Health Surveys , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Korea , Metals, Heavy , Reference Values , Seaweed
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). METHODS: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. RESULTS: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value) in the seaweed (94.2 mug/kg for Pb; 594 mug/kg for Cd), and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 mug/kg). The dietary exposure level (median value) of Pb was 0.14 mug/kg body weight (bw)/d, 0.18 mug/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 mug/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 mug/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age) were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 mug/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children) were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 mug/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency) was 81.0 % of all the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Weight , Cadmium , Child , Eating , Environmental Monitoring , European Union , Food Safety , Functional Food , Hazardous Substances , Health Surveys , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Korea , Metals, Heavy , Reference Values , Seaweed
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The traditional Korean diet is plant-based and rich in antioxidants. Previous studies have investigated the potential health benefits of individual nutrients of Korean foods. However, the cumulative effects of a Korean diet on inflammation remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a plant-based Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: Using data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 75 individual plant food items were selected which represent over 1% of the total diet intake of the Korean diet. These items were classified into ten different food groups, and the vegetable (Veg) and fruit (Fruit) groups were studied based on their high antioxidant capacity. For comparison, a mixture of all ten groups (Mix) was prepared. To produce a model of inflammation with which to test these Veg, Fruit, and Mix plant-based Korean food extracts (PKE), RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RESULTS: Levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were found to be lower following PKE treatment. Furthermore, PKE treatment was found to suppress tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Overall, the Mix group exhibited the greatest anti-inflammatory effects compared with Veg and Fruit PKE group. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by the PKE tested was found to involve an inhibition of NF-kB activation. Moreover, PKE tested have the potential to ameliorate various inflammation-related diseases by limiting the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Diet , Dinoprostone , Fruit , Inflammation , Insurance Benefits , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nutrition Surveys , Plants , Transcription Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vegetables
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS: Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 micromol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS: The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Edible Grain , Diet , Fabaceae , Fruit , Nutrition Surveys , Nuts , Oils , Oxygen , Phenol , Plants , Republic of Korea , Solanum tuberosum , Vegetables
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the vitamin D status and to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and consumption frequencies of vitamin D rich foods in Korean adults and older adults. METHODS: Subjects were 10,374 adults and 2,792 older adults participating in the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Consumption frequencies of vitamin D rich foods were estimated by using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Eleven food items such as beef, egg, mackerel, tuna, yellow corvina, pollack, anchovy, mushroom, milk, yogurt, and ice cream were selected as vitamin D rich foods based on previous research. RESULTS: The proportions of deficiency ( or = 20 ng/mL) of serum 25(OH)D concentrations from June to November and December to May in adults were 8.8%, 42.3%, 48.8%, and 28.2%, 52.8%, 19.1%, respectively. The proportions of deficiency, inadequacy and sufficiency of serum 25 (OH)D concentrations from June to November and December to May in older adults were 10.1%, 32.4%, 57.5%, and 24.1%, 45.4%, 30.5%, respectively. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations in adults were positively related to the consumption frequencies of mackerel, anchovy, all fish, milk and milk.dairy products. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations in older adults were positively related to the consumption frequencies of yellow corvina and negatively related to the consumption frequencies of ice cream. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Korean adults were more deficient in serum 25(OH)D concentrations than older adults. The consumption of vitamin D rich foods may affect vitamin D status in Korean adults. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Adult , Agaricales , Humans , Ice Cream , Korea , Milk , Nutrition Surveys , Ovum , Perciformes , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tuna , Vitamin D , Yogurt
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42979

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen over the last few decades. Many factors, including environmental factors such as those related to diet, have been considered. Among dietary factors, intake of antioxidant-related nutrients has been associated with the risk of allergic disease. We investigated the association of antioxidant nutritional status with allergic rhinitis (AR) in Korean schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. METHODS: Subjects were 4,554 children in Seoul, Korea. The risk of allergic disease was measured using the Korean version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, and dietary intake was measured by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Intake of vitamins A (including retinol and beta-carotene), C, and E was used in the analysis. RESULTS: Vitamin C intake was negatively associated with an increased risk of current symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, 0.886; 95% confidence interval, 0.806-0.973). There was no association between AR and intake of vitamin A, retinol, beta-carotene, or vitamin E. Total serum IgE level and sensitization to allergen did not differ according to nutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: The group of children with increased vitamin C consumption had fewer AR symptoms, despite the lack of a difference in total serum IgE level or allergen sensitization. These findings suggest that nutrient intake, especially that of vitamin C, influences AR symptoms.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Asthma , beta Carotene , Child , Diet , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Nutritional Status , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial , Vitamin A , Vitamin E , Vitamins , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124610

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to investigate the status of vitamin D in Korean adolescents and to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and consumption frequencies of vitamin D food sources by season (June to November and December to May). The subjects were 1,579 adolescents aged 12-18 years participating in the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Consumption frequencies of vitamin D food sources were estimated by using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Thirteen food items were selected as vitamin D food sources including beef, egg, mackerel, tuna, yellow corvine, pollack, anchovy, mushroom, milk, yoghurt, ice cream, all fish and dairy products from the FFQ based on previous research. The data was analyzed using proc survey procedures. The deficiency (5.25-12 ng/mL), inadequacy (12-20 ng/mL) and sufficiency (> 20 ng/mL) proportions of serum 25(OH)D from June to November and December to May were 9.9%, 51.4%, 38.7%, and 39.4%, 51.4%, 9.2%, respectively. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to the consumption frequencies of mackerel, anchovy, all fish and milk. These results suggest high proportion (> 61%) of Korean adolescents were vitamin D deficiency or inadequacy, and serum 25(OH)D was associated with the consumption of vitamin D food sources including fish and milk.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Agaricales , Dairy Products , Humans , Ice Cream , Milk , Nutrition Surveys , Ovum , Perciformes , Seasons , Tuna , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Yogurt , Surveys and Questionnaires
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