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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 531-541, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914825

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remains controversial in patients with breast cancer who are initially lymph nodepositive. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on breast cancer recurrence and survival in patients who converted from lymph node-positive to pathological node-negative (ypN0) after NAC. @*Methods@#This single-center retrospective study included 223 patients who converted to axillary lymph node-negative status after NAC and underwent breast and axillary surgery between January 2006 and December 2015. This study compared the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), ipsilateral axillary lymph node recurrence rates and incidence of postoperative complications, especially, arm lymphedema and shoulder stiffness between SLNB and ALND. @*Results@#This study included 223 patients with axillary pathological complete response (pCR) after NAC and surgery. The SLNB and ALND groups included 94 and 129 patients, respectively. The median follow-up time was 57 (range, 6–155) in the SLNB group and 99 (range 2–159) months in the ALND group. The corresponding 5-year OS and DFS rates were 96.3% and 94.2% (p = 0.392), and 89.2% and 86.4% (p = 0.671), respectively. Four patients (4.3%) in the SLNB group and nine (7.0%) in the ALND group developed locoregional recurrences. Ipsilateral axillary lymph node recurrence and distant metastasis were observed in one (1.1%) and three (2.3%) patients, and in 10 (10.6%) and 11 (8.5%) patients, respectively. Patients in the ALND group were more likely than their SLNB counterparts to experience complications, such as shoulder stiffness (9 [7.0%] vs. 4 [4.3%] patients, p = 0.57). The rate of lymphedema in the ALND group was three times that in the SLNB group (35 [27.1%] vs. 8 [8.5%] patients, p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#As an alternative to ALND, SLNB has oncological safety in patients with axillary pathological complete response after NAC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fracture risk induced by anti-estrogen therapy in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the risk of osteoporotic fracture in patients with breast cancer.METHODS: A systematic search was performed to identify studies that included any osteoporotic fracture (hip fracture and vertebral fracture) in patients breast cancer. Main outcome measures were occurrence and risk of osteoporotic fractures including hip and vertebral fractures in patients and controls.RESULTS: A systematic search yielded a total of 4 studies that included osteoporotic fracture outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Meta-analysis showed a higher risk of osteoporotic fracture in patients with breast cancer. Analysis of these 4 studies involving a total of 127,722 (23,821 cases and 103,901 controls) patients showed that the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was higher in the breast cancer group than in the control group. The pooled estimate of crude relative risk for osteoporotic fracture was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–1.42; P<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Although studies were limited by a small number, results suggested a possible association between anti-estrogen therapy and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Hip , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Osteoporotic Fractures , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Spinal Fractures
3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891255

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898959

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836501

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The ACOSOG Z0011 trial has proven the oncological safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLBx) for node negative breast cancer. Accordingly, treatment paradigm including axilla surgery was changed. We retrospectively reviewed breast cancer patients to evaluate the clinical effect of paradigm shift in breast cancer surgery after applying the Z0011 criteria. @*Methods@#All women who underwent breast-conserving surgery at the National Cancer Center between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, were enrolled and classified according to the Z0011 criteria. The primary endpoint of the study was the disease-free survival rates, and the secondary was the adverse events, especially arm lymphedema. @*Results@#Total 361 patients were enrolled the study (271 axillary lymph node dissection [ALND] group, 90 SLBx group). After the Z0011 guideline was adopted in our institute, the use of ALND decreased, and lymph node sampling (removing only a few axillary lymph nodes) replaced ALND. The total mean number of retrieved nodes were more in ALND group (13.02) than SLBx group (3.43). However, there was no difference in the mean number of positive nodes between two groups (2.34 in ALND group vs. 1.12 in SLBx group, P=0.001). During follow-up, 25 patients experienced disease recurrence: 22 from the ALND group and three from the SLBx group. All of died seven patients were from the ALND group. The ALND group had more complications than the SLBx group (P=0.02). Arm edema occurred more frequently in the ALND group (29.5%) than in the SLBx group (5.6%), although without statistical significance (P=0.07). @*Conclusion@#In our study, we concluded that SLBx can be used safely in Z0011-eligible cohort without increased risk of locoregional recurrence. Moreover, we found that omission of ALND is favored to reduce some serious complications such as arm lymphedema.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831566

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) play an important role in the endocrine therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer patients, with a recent tendency to extend the duration of their use. However, AIs may increase the risk of osteoporotic bone fractures. This meta-analysis evaluated the risk of osteoporotic fractures of the hip, spine, and other locations in breast cancer patients using AIs. @*Methods@#We performed a systematic search to identify randomized controlled clinical trials that investigated osteoporotic fractures in breast cancer patients on AI therapy. The main outcomes were the incidence and risk of osteoporotic fractures in general and of hip, vertebral, and non-vertebral fractures in AI users and controls. @*Results@#The systematic review found a total of 30 randomized controlled trials including 117,974 participants. The meta-analysis showed a higher incidence of osteoporotic fracture in AI users: The crude risk ratio for all osteoporotic fractures was 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–1.42;P < 0.001), for hip fractures 1.18 (95% CI, 1.02–1.35; P < 0.001), for vertebral fractures 1.84 (95% CI, 1.36–2.49; P < 0.001), and for non-vertebral fractures 1.18 (95% CI, 1.02–1.35; P < 0.001), respectively, compared to the controls. @*Conclusion@#Our meta-analysis suggested an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures for AI therapy in patients with breast cancer that was most expressed for vertebral fractures. Breast cancer patients on AIs need to be monitored for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, and active prevention measures should be implemented.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831114

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the incidence of male breast cancer (MBC) and its survival outcomes in Korea, and to compare these results to those for female breast cancer (FBC). @*Materials and Methods@#We searched the Korea Central Cancer Registry and identified 227,122 breast cancer cases that were diagnosed between 1999 and 2016. Demographic and clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated according to sex, age, histological type, and cancer stage. @*Results@#The 227,122 patients included 1,094 MBC cases and 226,028 FBC cases. Based on the age-standardized rate, the male: female ratio was 0.0055:1. The most common ages at diagnosis were 60-69 years for MBC and 40-49 years for FBC (p < 0.001). Male patients were less likely than female patients to receive adjuvant radiotherapy (7.5% vs. 21.8%, p < 0.001) or adjuvant chemotherapy (40.1% vs. 55.4%, p < 0.001). The 5-year OS rates after diagnosis were 88.8% for all patients, although it was significantly lower for MBC than for FBC (76.2% vs. 88.9%, p < 0.001). In both groups, older age (≥ 60 years) was associated with shorter survival. The 5-year OS rates for the invasive histological types were 75.8% for men and 89.0% for women. The 5-year OS rates in both groups decreased with increasing cancer stage. @*Conclusion@#MBC was diagnosed at older ages than FBC, and male patients were less likely to receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The survival outcomes were worse for MBC than for FBC, with even poorer outcomes related to older age, the inflammatory histological types, and advanced stage. It is important that clinicians recognize the differences between FBC and MBC when treating these patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719424

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate decision patterns to reduce the risks of BRCArelated breast and gynecologic cancers in carriers of BRCA pathogenic variants. We found a change in risk-reducing (RR) management patterns after December 2012, when the National Health Insurance System (NHIS) of Korea began to pay for BRCA testing and riskreducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in pathogenic-variant carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 992 patients, including 705 with breast cancer (BC), 23 with ovarian cancer (OC), 10 with both, and 254 relatives of high-risk patients who underwent BRCA testing at the National Cancer Center of Korea from January 2008 to December 2016.We analyzed patterns of and factors in RR management. RESULTS: Of the 992 patients, 220 (22.2%) were carriers of BRCA pathogenic variants. About 92.3% (203/220) had a family history of BC and/or OC,which significantly differed between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (p < 0.001). All 41 male carriers chose surveillance. Of the 179 female carriers, 59 of the 83 carriers (71.1%) with BC and the 39 of 79 unaffected carriers (49.4%) underwent RR management. None of the carriers affected with OC underwent RR management. Of the management types, RRSO had the highest rate (42.5%) of patient choice. The rate of RR surgery was significantly higher after 2013 than before 2013 (46.3% [74/160] vs. 31.6% [6/19], p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: RRSO was the preferred management for carriers of BRCA pathogenic variants. The most important factors in treatment choice were NHIS reimbursement and/or the severity of illness.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , National Health Programs , Ovarian Neoplasms , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on fracture risk induced by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy in patients with thyroid cancer still remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the effects of TSH suppression therapy on osteoporotic fracture in patients with thyroid cancer. METHODS: We performed a systematic search to identify studies which included osteoporotic fractures (hip fracture and vertebral fracture) in patients on TSH suppression therapy for thyroid cancer. Main outcome measures were occurrence and risk of osteoporotic fractures including hip and vertebral fractures between patients and controls. RESULTS: A systematic search yielded a total of 8 studies appropriate for review which included osteoporotic fracture outcome in patients on TSH suppression therapy for thyroid cancer. Studies with larger number of subjects showed the higher risk of osteoporotic fracture in group with TSH suppression therapy, although studies with smaller sample size presented a similar risk of fracture with control group. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies were limited by small numbers, results suggested possible association between chronic TSH suppression therapy and the increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Hip , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Osteoporotic Fractures , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sample Size , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyrotropin
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to explore the effect of known risk factors, focusing on risk factors including age at menarche, age at menopause, number of children, family history of breast cancer, and age at first birth according to breast density, in consideration of interaction among East-Asian women. METHODS: Case-control study with 2,123 cases and 2,121 controls with mammographic density was conducted. Using the mammographic film, breast density was measured using Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System. To identify the association of selected reproductive factors including age at menarche, age at menopause, number of children, family history of breast cancer, and age at first birth according to breast density, stratified analysis was conducted according to breast density groups and interaction effects was assessed. The results were presented with adjusted OR and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Significant interaction effect between age at first birth and breast density on breast cancer (P = 0.048) was observed. Women with age at first birth ≥ 28 years old showed increased breast cancer risk in extremely dense breast group (≥ 75%) (OR = 1.627, 95% CI = 1.190–2.226). However, women with fatty breast (< 50%) and heterogeneously dense breast (50%–75%) did not show an increased association. Age at menarche, age at menopause, number of children, and family history of breast cancer did not show significant interaction with breast cancer and similar risk patterns were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Age at first birth showed significant interaction with breast density on breast cancer risk. Further studies considering biologically plausable model between exposure, intermediate outcomes and breast cancer risk with prospective design need to be undertaken in East Asian women.


Subject(s)
Asians , Birth Order , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Information Systems , Menarche , Menopause , Prospective Studies , Reproductive History , Risk Factors
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 228-233, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226313

ABSTRACT

The Korean clinical practice guideline recently developed by the Korean Breast Cancer Society to address the national clinical situation is currently under revision ahead of a seventh recommendation. A second consensus conference was held to further develop this guideline by soliciting opinions regarding important issues related to surgery, radiotherapy, and medical oncology. Several issues were discussed, and the discussion progressed to pros and cons in the context of cases in various clinical situations. The panels discussed and voted on issues regarding surgical treatment for non-axillary regional lymph nodes, regional nodal irradiation of pN1 disease, and ovarian functional suppression (OFS) as an adjuvant treatment in premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Regarding the surgical treatment of non-axillary regional lymph node, most panelists agreed with the recommendation of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy for patients with biopsy-diagnosed metastases, whereas surgery or radiotherapy of non-axillary regional lymph nodes was suggested for clinical partial responders. Discussions on radiotherapy addressed the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and radiation field of regional lymph node in the context of various N1 breast cancer cases. The participants reached a consensus to recommend that N1 patients should receive regional nodal irradiation for a large tumor burden (e.g., three positive nodes, perinodal extension, or large primary tumor). Finally, the panels favored OFS in addition to endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with high risk factors such as a large tumor size, involvement of more than three nodes, and a high histologic grade.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Consensus , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Risk Factors , Tumor Burden
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129238

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis or dural metastasis (LMCDM) in patients who received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), partial radiotherapy (PRT), or no radiotherapy (RT) following resection of brain metastases from breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with breast cancer underwent surgical resection for newly diagnosed brain metastases in two institutions between March 2001 and March 2015. Among these, 34 received postoperative WBRT (n=24) or PRT (n=10) and 17 did not. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 12.4 months (range, 2.3 to 83.6 months), 22/51 patients developed LMCDM at a median of 8.6 months (range, 4.8 to 51.2 months) after surgery. The 18-months LMCDM-free survival (LMCDM-FS) rates were 77.5%, 30.0%, and 13.6%, in the WBRT, PRT, and no RT groups, respectively (p=0.013). The presence of a tumor adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid flow and no systemic treatment after treatment for brain metastases were also associated with poor LMCDM-FS rate. Multivariate analysis showed that WBRT compared to PRT (p=0.009) and systemic treatment (p < 0.001) were independently associated with reduced incidence of LMCDM. CONCLUSION: WBRT improved LMCDM-FS rate after resection of brain metastases compared to PRT in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129223

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis or dural metastasis (LMCDM) in patients who received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), partial radiotherapy (PRT), or no radiotherapy (RT) following resection of brain metastases from breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with breast cancer underwent surgical resection for newly diagnosed brain metastases in two institutions between March 2001 and March 2015. Among these, 34 received postoperative WBRT (n=24) or PRT (n=10) and 17 did not. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 12.4 months (range, 2.3 to 83.6 months), 22/51 patients developed LMCDM at a median of 8.6 months (range, 4.8 to 51.2 months) after surgery. The 18-months LMCDM-free survival (LMCDM-FS) rates were 77.5%, 30.0%, and 13.6%, in the WBRT, PRT, and no RT groups, respectively (p=0.013). The presence of a tumor adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid flow and no systemic treatment after treatment for brain metastases were also associated with poor LMCDM-FS rate. Multivariate analysis showed that WBRT compared to PRT (p=0.009) and systemic treatment (p < 0.001) were independently associated with reduced incidence of LMCDM. CONCLUSION: WBRT improved LMCDM-FS rate after resection of brain metastases compared to PRT in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148362

ABSTRACT

We, the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS), present the facts and the trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2014. Data on the total number of newly diagnosed patients was obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, other data were collected from the KBCS online registry database, and the overall survival data of patients were updated from Statistics Korea. A total of 21,484 female patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2014. The crude incidence rate and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in female patients, including carcinoma in situ, were 83.4 cases and 63.9 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. The ASR showed an annual increase of 6.1% from 1999 to 2014; however, although the increase of the ASR had slowed since 2008, the incidence rate itself continuously increased. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathological features changed accordingly. While breast-conserving surgery was mainly performed, the proportion of total mastectomy was slightly increased. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased rapidly. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for all stages of breast cancer patients were 91.2% and 84.8%, respectively. The overall survival rate of Korean patients with breast cancer was extremely high, compared with other developed countries. Thus, we consider that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past decade. A nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma in Situ , Developed Countries , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mammaplasty , Mastectomy, Segmental , Mastectomy, Simple , Online Systems , Registries , Survival Rate
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1330-1337, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109743

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for transient lymphedema (TLE) and persistent lymphedema (PLE) following treatment for breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,073 patients who underwent curative breast surgery were analyzed. TLE was defined as one episode of arm swelling that had resolved spontaneously by the next follow-up; arm swelling that persisted over two consecutive examinations was considered PLE. RESULTS: At a median follow-up period of 5.1 years, 370 cases of lymphedema were reported, including 120 TLE (11.2%) and 250 PLE (23.3%). Initial grade 1 swelling was observed in 351 patients, of which 120 were limited to TLE (34%), while the other 231 progressed to PLE (66%). All initial swelling observed in TLE patients was classified as grade 1. In multivariate analysis, chemotherapy with taxane and supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT) were associated with development of TLE, whereas SCRT, stage III cancer and chemotherapy with taxane were identified as risk factors for PLE (p < 0.05). The estimated incidence of TLE among initial grade 1 patients was calculated using up to three treatment-related risk factors (number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, SCRT, and taxane chemotherapy). The approximate ratios of TLE and PLE based on the number of risk factors were 7:1 (no factor), 1:1 (one factor), 1:2 (two factors), and 1:3 (three factors). CONCLUSION: One-third of initial swelling events were transient, whereas the other two-thirds of patients experienced PLE. Estimation of TLE and PLE based on known treatment factors could facilitate prediction of this life-long complication.


Subject(s)
Arm , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Lymphedema , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72549

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of surgery-radiotherapy interval (SRI) on outcomes in patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant four cycles of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by four cycles of taxane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1999 to 2007, 397 eligible patients were diagnosed. The effect of SRI on outcomes was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model, and a maximal chi-square method was used to identify optimal cut-off value of SRI for each outcome. RESULTS: The median SRI was 6.7 months (range, 5.6 to 10.3 months). A SRI of 7 months was the significant cut-off value for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using a maximal chi-square method. For overall survival, a significant cut-off value was not found. The patients with SRI > 7 months had worse 6-year DMFS and DFS than those with SRI ≤ 7 months on univariate analysis (DMFS, 81% vs. 91%, p=0.003; DFS, 78% vs. 89%, p=0.002). On multivariate analysis, SRI > 7 months did not affect DMFS and DFS. CONCLUSION: RT delayed for more than 7 months after BCS and adjuvant four cycles of AC followed by four cycles of taxane did not compromise clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Time-to-Treatment
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100410

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy among Korean women. The 2002 National Cancer Center screening guideline breast cancer was revised via an evidence-based approach to provide medical personnel with a standard protocol of screening breast cancer. There is moderate-level evidence that biennial screening mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 69 reduces breast cancer mortality, while low-level evidence suggests that screening mammography in women 70 years or older does not reduce breast cancer mortality. The committee concluded that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of either ultrasonography or clinical breast examination as screening modalities for breast cancer. Future researches about the benefits and harms of the National Breast Cancer Screening Program in Korea are strongly required because the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea are different from those in the West, especially regarding dense breast. In conclusion, the committee recommends biennial screening mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 69 years (grade B recommendation). The committee recommends selective screening mammography in women 70 years or older according to individual risk and preference (grade C recommendation). The committee neither recommends nor opposes ultrasonography and clinical breast examination as screening modalities (grade I recommendation). Symptomatic and high-risk women, however, should be offered complementary measures including ultrasonography and clinical breast examination under clinical supervision.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Korea , Mammography , Mass Screening , Mortality , Organization and Administration , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118307

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The risk for lymphedema (LE) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in breast cancer patients has not been fully understood thus far. This study is conducted to investigate the incidence and time course of LE after NCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 313 patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer who underwent NCT followed by surgery with axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection from 2004 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received breast and supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). The determination of LE was based on both objective and subjective methods, as part of a prospective database. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 132 patients had developed LE: 88 (28%) were grade 1; 42 (13%) were grade 2; and two (1%) were grade 3. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 42%. LE first occurred within 6 months after surgery in 62%; 1 year in 77%; 2 years in 91%; and 3 years in 96%. In a multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; p < 0.01) and the number of dissected ALNs (HR, 1.68; p < 0.01) were independent risk factors for LE. Patients with both of these risk factors showed a significantly higher 5-year cumulative incidence of LE compared with patients with no or one risk factor (61% and 37%, respectively; p < 0.001). The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy did not significantly correlate with LE. CONCLUSION: LE after NCT, surgery, and SCRT developed early after treatment, and with a high incidence rate. More frequent surveillance of arm swelling may be necessary in patients after NCT, especially during the first few years of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Arm , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Lymphedema , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 289-295, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64606

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preoperative chemotherapy has been used to increase the rate of breast conserving surgery (BCS) in Caucasian women. However, whether it would also increase the rate of BCS in Korean women has not been verified. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preoperative chemotherapy to make BCS possible in Korean women who have locally advanced cancer without any increase of locoregional recurrence according to operation methods (BCS vs. mastectomy). METHODS: From August 2002 to April 2005, 205 patients with stage II or III breast cancer were enrolled in a phase III randomized trial of preoperative chemotherapy. Surgeons decided on the type of surgery (mastectomy or BCS) at initial diagnosis. By randomization, patients received four cycles of either docetaxel/capecitabine or doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by surgery and crossover to the other treatment as postoperative chemotherapy. RESULTS: The mean tumor size was 3.29 cm and the mean breast volume was 489 cc at diagnosis. After preoperative chemotherapy, clinical response was shown in 76.0% of the patients. Of the 71 patients planned for a mastectomy at initial diagnosis, 27 patients underwent BCS (38.0%). Clinical T stage after preoperative chemotherapy, pathologic T size and lymphatic invasion were correlated with conversion to BCS. In multivariate analysis, only lymphatic invasion showed statistical significance. Locoregional disease-free survival did not statistically differ between the two operation methods for the patients who were planned for a mastectomy at the initial exam. CONCLUSION: This study showed that preoperative chemotherapy also increased the rate of BCS, while avoiding any increase of locoregional recurrence in Korean women with locally advanced breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Random Allocation , Recurrence
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 101-106, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192421

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate stage IV breast cancer at the initial presentation by the review of a single institute' data. We also tried to figure out the factors to predict stage IV breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the prospectively collected database of 1,424 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer at the National Cancer Center in Korea from October 2000 to January 2005. RESULTS: The proportion of stage IV breast cancer was 2.7% (38/1,424). The median tumor size of the stage IV patients was 4.1 cm. The most common metastatic site was bone (47.4%) followed by lung (44.7%) and liver (36.8%). Metastases were found in 0.9% (6/672) of the T1 tumors, 2.4% (13/535) of the T2 tumors, 8.3% (4/48) of the T3 tumors, and 27.1% (13/48) of the T4 tumors (p or =2 cm) (p=0.026), positive lymph node status (p104 IU/L) (p=0.013), aspartate transferase (>40 IU/L) (p=0.003) and CA15-3 (>32 U/mL) (p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the factors to predict distant metastasis of breast cancer were large size of tumor, positive lymph node status, elevated alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transferase and CA15-3. Therefore breast cancer patients with those clinical characteristics should be carefully evaluated to detect distant metastasis.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartic Acid , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Korea , Liver , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Transferases
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