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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1104-1112, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999814

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This phase II study investigated whether durvalumab/tremelimumab with proton therapy improves the objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) in heavily treated recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who previously received more than one chemotherapy, including at least one platinum-based regimen, and who had at least two measurable lesions were enrolled. Patients received 1,500 mg durvalumab intravenously combined with 75 mg tremelimumab intravenously every 4 weeks for four cycles followed by 1,500 mg durvalumab every 4 weeks. After one cycle of the durvalumab/tremelimumab treatment, proton therapy was given with a total dose of 25 Gy in 5 Gy daily fractions to one of the measurable lesions. We also assessed the ORR in the target lesion outside the radiation field to evaluate the abscopal effect. @*Results@#Thirty-one patients were enrolled between March 2018 and July 2020. With 8.6 months of follow-up, the ORR was 22.6% (7/31), including one complete response and six partial responses. The median OS was 8.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 14.3) and the median PFS was 2.4 months (95% CI, 0.6 to 4.2). Among the 23 evaluable patients who completed proton therapy, the ORR was 30.4% (7/23). The median OS was 11.1 months (95% CI, 6.5 to 15.8), and the median PFS was 3.7 months (95% CI, 1.6 to 5.7). Grade 3 or higher adverse events were observed in six patients (19.4%) as follows: anemia (n=1), constipation (n=1), electrolyte imbalances (n=2), hyperglycemia (n=1), and pneumonia (n=1). @*Conclusion@#The combination of durvalumab/tremelimuab with proton therapy was tolerated well and had encouraging anti-tumor efficacy in non-irradiated tumor lesions of heavily treated HNSCC patients.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1144-1151, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rearranged during transfection (RET) gene rearrangement is a well-known driver event in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pralsetinib is a selective inhibitor of RET kinase and has shown efficacy in oncogenic RET-altered tumors. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of expanded access program (EAP) use of pralsetinib in pretreated, advanced NSCLC patients with RET rearrangement. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who received pralsetinib as part of the EAP at Samsung Medical Center were evaluated through a retrospective chart review. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) ver. 1.1 guidelines. Secondary endpoints were duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety profiles. @*Results@#Between April 2020 and September 2021, 23 of 27 patients were enrolled in the EAP study. Two patients who were not analyzed due to brain metastasis and two patients whose expected survival was within 1 month were excluded from the analysis. After a median follow-up period of 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0 to 21.2), ORR was 56.5%, the median PFS was 12.1 months (95% CI, 3.3 to 20.9), and the 12-month OS rate was 69.6%. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were edema (43.5%) and pneumonitis (39.1%). A total of 8.7% of patients experienced extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. TRAEs with a common grade of three or worse were neutropenia (43.5%) and anemia (34.8%). Dose reduction was required in nine patients (39.1%). @*Conclusion@#Pralsetinib presents a clinical benefit when used in patients with RET-rearranged NSCLC, consistent with a pivotal study.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 498-505, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976708

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. This study was conducted to investigate the clinical outcomes and recurrence patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with unresectable stage III non-squamous-cell lung cancer according to EGFR mutation status. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 604 patients with pathologically confirmed stage III NSCLC who were treated with definitive CRT and were examined for EGFR mutation at Samsung Medical Center, Korea, from January 2013 to December 2018. Among them, we identified 236 patients with stage III non-squamous-cell lung cancer who were treated with definitive CRT and were examined for EGFR mutation status. We analyzed the frequency of EGFR mutation, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and recurrence pattern. @*Results@#Among 236 patients, EGFR mutation was detected in 71 patients (30.1%) and the median follow-up duration was 41.7 months. There were no significant differences in PFS (9.9 vs. 10.9 months, p=0.236), and ORR to CRT (93.0% vs. 90.3%, p=0.623) according to EGFR mutation status. However, the EGFR mutant group showed significantly higher recurrence (88.7% vs. 75.2%, p=0.022), distant metastasis (76.1% vs. 61.2%, p=0.036) rates, especially brain (38.0% vs. 12.7%, p < 0.001), and better median OS (59.2 vs. 41.3 months, p=0.037) compared with patients without EGFR mutation. @*Conclusion@#Patients with EGFR mutation–positive unresectable stage III non-squamous lung cancer exhibited higher recurrence and distant metastasis rates, especially brain metastasis.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 452-467, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976705

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#NUT carcinoma (NC) is a solid tumor caused by the rearrangement of NUTM1 that usually develops in midline structures, such as the thorax. No standard treatment has been established despite high lethality. Thus, we investigated whether targeting the junction region of NUTM1 fusion breakpoints could serve as a potential treatment option for NC. @*Materials and Methods@#We designed and evaluated a series of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the junction region of BRD4-NUTM1 fusion (B4N), the most common form of NUTM1 fusion. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction using the blood of patients was also tested to evaluate the treatment responses by the junction sequence of the B4N fusion transcripts. @*Results@#As expected, the majority of NC fusion types were B4N (12 of 18, 67%). B4N fusion-specific siRNA treatment on NC cells showed specific inhibitory effects on the B4N fusion transcript and fusion protein without affecting the endogenous expression of the parent genes, resulting in decreased relative cell growth and attenuation of tumor size. In addition, the fusion transcript levels in platelet-rich-plasma samples of the NC patients with systemic metastasis showed a negative correlation with therapeutic effect, suggesting its potential as a measure of treatment responsiveness. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that tumor-specific sequences could be used to treat patients with fusion genes as part of precision medicine for a rare but deadly disease.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 479-487, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976692

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Brain metastasis is common in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at initial presentation. A previous study showed that brain radiotherapy (RT) before first-generation (first-G) EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is associated with longer overall survival than TKI therapy alone. However, there is no data regarding the role of additional brain RT before afatinib therapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Between October 2014 and June 2019, EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with brain metastases who started first-G EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib) or afatinib as first-line therapy were retrospectively analyzed. This study compared overall survival and intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) between patients who received EGFR-TKIs alone and EGFR-TKIs with brain RT and either a first-G EGFR-TKI or afatinib, respectively. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 29.6 months (range, 1.5 to 116.9 months). In the first-G EGFR-TKI group (n=155), 94 patients (60.6%) received the first-G EGFR-TKI alone and 61 patients (39.4%) received brain RT prior to their first-G EGFR-TKI. In the afatinib group (n=204), 126 patients (61.8%) received afatinib alone and 78 patients (38.2%) received brain RT prior to afatinib. There was no difference in overall survival rates between the groups with RT (35.6 months: 95% confidence interval [CI], 27.9 to 43.3) and without RT (31.4 months: 95% CI, 23.9 to 38.9) in the afatinib group (p=0.58), but there was a significant difference in overall survival in the first-G EGFR-TKI group in a manner favoring additional brain RT (41.1 months: 95% CI, 30.5 to 51.7 vs. 25.8 months: 95% CI, 20.1 to 31.5; p=0.02). Meanwhile, median intracranial PFS was not different between patients who received EGFR-TKI therapy alone vs. EGFR-TKI therapy with brain RT in both the first-G EGFR-TKI (p=0.39) and afatinib (p=0.24) groups. @*Conclusion@#Afatinib therapy alone showed comparable survival outcomes to those of afatinib with brain RT. The current study suggests that brain RT could be an optional, not mandatory, treatment modality when afatinib therapy is considered in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 344-349, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966488

ABSTRACT

Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a rare but fatal clinical condition with a short survival time. The incidence of LM from epidermal growth factor receptor mutant (EGFRm) non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has increased due to the limited efficacy of first- or second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the central nervous system (CNS). Osimertinib is a third-generation, irreversible, CNS penetrant, oral EGFR TKI that demonstrates promising efficacy in CNS metastases regardless of T790M. Herein, we report four cases of T790M-negative EGFRm NSCLC patients treated with osimertinib combined with systemic chemotherapy, who progressed on prior EGFR TKI and developed LM with extracranial lesions. The combination treatment was well tolerated, and the mean overall survival from LM diagnosis was 14.7 months (95% confidence interval, 10.4 to 19.0). These results suggest that osimertinib combined with systemic chemotherapy would be a reasonable treatment option for T790M-negative EGFRm NSCLC patients who develop LM with extracranial progression to prior EGFR TKI. A further prospective study is warranted.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 150-156, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913826

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Metachronous brain-only oligorecurrence in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a rare event with favorable prognosis, but the clinical outcome has not been fully determined. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in metachronous brain-only oligorecurrence in patients with NSCLC who underwent definitive treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed 4,437 NSCLC patients without oncogenic driver mutations who underwent definitive treatment between 2008 and 2018. Among them, we identified 327 patients who developed 1 to 5 brain metastases with or without systemic metastasis. Of the 327 patients, 71 had metachronous brain-only oligorecurrence without extracranial progression and were treated with local therapy to the brain. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and prognostic factors affecting OS were analyzed. @*Results@#The median OS was 38.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.8 to 56.1 months) in 71 patients. The 2-year OS rate was 67.8% and the 5-year OS rate was 33.1%. The median PFS was 25.5 months (95% CI, 12.2 to 14.4 months). The longest surviving patient had a survival period of 115 months. Through multivariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥ 1 (hazard ratio, 5.33; p=0.005) was associated with poor survival. There was no significant difference in OS between patients with local therapy and those with local plus systemic therapy (18.5 months vs. 34.7 months, p=0.815). @*Conclusion@#Metachronous brain-only oligorecurrence NSCLC patients who underwent definitive treatment experienced long-term survival with local therapy, highlighting the unique patient population. The role of systemic chemotherapy in this patient population requires further investigation.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1288-1290, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831136

ABSTRACT

The non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation eventually acquires resistant to either first or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). As the following option, targeting EGFR T790M with third-generation EGFR TKI is now established as a standard treatment option. In this study, we are reporting the first case of resistance mechanism to the novel third-generation EGFR TKI, lazertinib, which showed promising clinical efficacy in phase 1-2 study. The patients showed resistance to the treatment by acquiring the additional EGFR C797S mutation in cis which is also confirmed from the patient-derived cell lines.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 514-522, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The predictive and prognostic value of KRAS mutation and its type of mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are controversial. This clinical study was designed to investigate the predictive value of KRAS mutations and its mutation types to pemetrexed and gemcitabine based treatment. METHODS: Advanced NSCLC patients tested for KRAS mutation (n = 334) were retrospectively reviewed and 252 patients with wild type epidermal growth factor receptor and no anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion were enrolled for the analysis. KRAS mutations were observed in 45 subjects with mutation type as followed: G₁₂C (n = 13), G₁₂D (n = 12), G₁₂V (n = 12), other (n = 8). Response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of pemetrexed singlet and gemcitabine based chemotherapy were analysis. RESULTS: Age, sex, performance status were well balanced between subjects with or without KRAS mutations. No difference was observed in RR. Hazard ratio (HR) of PFS for pemetrexed treated subjects with G₁₂C mutation compared to subjects with KRAS wild type was 1.96 (95% confidential interval [CI], 1.01 to 3.79; p = 0.045), but other mutations failed to show clinical significance. By analysis done by PFS, compared to the subjects with transition mutation, HR was 1.48 (95% CI, 0.64 to 3.40; p = 0.360) for subjects with transversion mutation on pemetrexed treatment and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.87; p = 0.020) for subjects treated with gemcitabine based chemotherapy. No difference was observed in OS. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, different drug sensitivity was observed according to the type of KRAS mutation. NSCLC subpopulations with different KRAS mutation type should be considered as different subgroups and optimal chemotherapy regimens should be searched in further confirmative studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Clinical Study , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Lymphoma , Pemetrexed , Phosphotransferases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1140-1149, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pretreatment nutritional status is an important prognostic factor in patients treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the era of target therapies, its value is overlooked and has not been investigated. The aim of our study is to evaluate the value of nutritional status in targeted therapy. METHODS: A total of 2012 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were reviewed and 630 patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) were enrolled for the final analysis. Anemia, body mass index (BMI), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were considered as nutritional factors. Hazard ratio (HR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for each group were calculated by Cox proportional analysis. In addition, scores were applied for each category and the sum of scores was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: In univariable analysis, anemia (HR, 1.29; p = 0.015), BMI lower than 18.5 (HR, 1.98; p = 0.002), and PNI lower than 45 (HR, 1.57; p < 0.001) were poor prognostic factors for PFS. Among them, BMI and PNI were independent in multi-variable analysis. All of these were also significant prognostic values for OS. The higher the sum of scores, the poorer PFS and OS were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment nutritional status is a prognostic marker in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. Hence, baseline nutritional status should be more carefully evaluated and adequate nutrition should be supplied to these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Epidermal Growth Factor , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
11.
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 630-637, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74302

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the role of a platinum-based doublet as second-line therapy after failure of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for NSCLC patients has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of pemetrexed versus a platinum-based doublet as second-line therapy after failure of EGFR TKI used as first-line therapy for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of 314 NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations who received an EGFR TKI as first-line palliative chemotherapy. Our analysis included 83 patients who failed EGFR TKI therapy and received second-line cytotoxic chemotherapy. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were treated using a platinum-based doublet and 37 patients were treated using singlet pemetrexed. The overall response rates of patients receiving a platinum-based doublet and patients receiving pemetrexed were17.4% and 32.4%, respectively (p=0.111). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of patients receiving pemetrexed was significantly longer than that of patients receiving a platinum-based doublet (4.2 months vs. 2.7 months, respectively; p=0.008). The hazard ratio was 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.86; p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Our retrospective analysis found that second-line pemetrexed singlet therapy provided significantly prolonged PFS compared to second-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations who failed first-line EGFR TKI. Conduct of prospective studies for confirmation of our results is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Epidermal Growth Factor , Phosphotransferases , Platinum , Prospective Studies , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
13.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 281-285, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114235

ABSTRACT

Statins lower the hyperlipidemia and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events and related mortality. A 60-year-old man who was diagnosed with a transient ischemic attack was started on acetyl-L-carnitine, cilostazol, and rosuvastatin. After rosuvastatin treatment for 4 weeks, the patient presented with sudden onset fever, cough, and dyspnea. His symptoms were aggravated despite empirical antibiotic treatment. All infectious pathogens were excluded based on results of culture and polymerase chain reaction of the bronchoscopic wash specimens. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs, along with several subpleural ground-glass opacity nodules; and a foamy alveolar macrophage appearance was confirmed on bronchoalveolar lavage. We suspected rosuvastatin-induced lung injury, discontinued rosuvastatin and initiated prednisolone 1 mg/kg tapered over 2weeks. After initiating steroid therapy, his symptoms and radiologic findings significantly improved. We suggest that clinicians should be aware of the potential for rosuvastatin-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Acetylcarnitine , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Chemically-Induced Disorders , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipidemias , Incidence , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Lung , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung Injury , Macrophages, Alveolar , Mortality , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prednisolone , Radiography , Thorax , Rosuvastatin Calcium
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