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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926503

ABSTRACT

Long-term outcomes of live kidney donors remain controversial, although this information is crucial for selecting potential donors. Thus, this study compared the long-term risk of all-cause mortality between live kidney donors and healthy control. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study including donors from seven tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Persons who underwent voluntary health screening were included as controls. We created a matched control group considering age, sex, era, body mass index, baseline hypertension, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and dipstick albuminuria. The study outcome was progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), and all-cause mortality as identified in the linked claims database. Results: We screened 1,878 kidney donors and 78,115 health screening examinees from 2003 to 2016. After matching, 1,701 persons remained in each group. The median age of the matched study subjects was 44 years, and 46.6% were male. Among the study subjects, 2.7% and 16.6% had underlying diabetes and hypertension, respectively. There were no ESKD events in the matched donor and control groups. There were 24 (1.4%) and 12 mortality cases (0.7%) in the matched donor and control groups, respectively. In the age-sex adjusted model, the risk for all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the donor group than in the control group. However, the significance was not retained after socioeconomic status was included as a covariate (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.87–3.80). Conclusion: All-cause mortality was similar in live kidney donors and matched non-donor healthy controls with similar health status and socioeconomic status in the Korean population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917044

ABSTRACT

Background@#Considering the growing prevalence of Western lifestyles and related chronic diseases occurring in South Korea, this study aimed to explore the progression of metabolic risk factors in living kidney donors compared to a control group. @*Methods@#This study enrolled living kidney donors from seven hospitals from 1982 to 2016. The controls were individuals that voluntarily received health check-ups from 1995 to 2016 that were matched with donors according to age, sex, diabetes status, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and date of the medical record. Data on hyperuricemia, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight/obesity were collected to determine metabolic risks. The proportion of individuals with three or more metabolic risk factors was evaluated. Logistic regressions with interaction terms between the medical record date and donor status were used to compare the trends in metabolic risks over time in the two groups. @*Results@#A total of 2,018 living kidney donors and matched non-donors were included. The median age was 44.0 years (interquartile range, 34.0–51.0 years) and 54% were women. The living kidney donors showed a lower absolute prevalence for all metabolic risk factors, except for those that were overweight/obese, than the non-donors. The proportion of subjects that were overweight/obese was consistently higher over time in the donor group. The changes over time in the prevalence of each metabolic risk were not significantly different between groups, except for a lower prevalence of metabolic risk factors ≥ 3 in donors. @*Conclusion@#Over time, metabolic risks in living kidney donors are generally the same as in non-donors, except for a lower prevalence of metabolic risk factors ≥ 3 in donors.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901525

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893821

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834935

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked to various chronic comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few large studies have addressed whether recovery from MetS is associated with reduction in the risks of such comorbidities. @*Methods@#This nationwide population-based study in Korea screened 10,664,268 people who received national health screening ≥ 3 times between 2012 and 2016. Those with a history of major cardiovascular events or preexisting CKD were excluded. We classified study groups into four, according to the course of MetS state, as defined by the harmonizing criteria. The main study outcome was incidental CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 which was persistent until the last health exams). The study outcomes were investigated using multivariable logistic regression analysis, which was adjusted for clinical variables and the previous severity of MetS. @*Results@#Four study groups included 6,315,301 subjects: 4,537,869 people without MetS, 1,034,605 with chronic MetS, 438,287 who developed MetS, and 304,540 who recovered from preexisting MetS. Those who developed MetS demonstrated higher risk of CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.26 [1.23-1.29]) than did those who did not develop MetS. In contrast, MetSrecovery was associated with decreased risk of CKD (adjusted OR, 0.84 [0.82-0.86]) than that in people with chronic MetS. Among the MetS components, change in hypertension was associated with the largest difference in CKD risk. @*Conclusion@#Reducing or preventing MetS may reduce the burden of CKD on a population-scale. Clinicians should consider the clinical importance of altering MetS status for risk of CKD.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831891

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Detailed nationwide information regarding the recent status and time trends of kidney transplantation (KT) in South Korea is limited. @*Methods@#We performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study using the national claims database of Korea. We included KT recipients from 2008 to 2016, and their demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. The prognostic outcome was graft failure consisted of patient death and death-censored graft failure (DCGF). @*Results@#We studied 14,601 KT recipients with median follow-up duration of 3.96 years. The median age at the time of transplantation consistently increased from the past, and proportion of underlying diabetes mellitus prominently increased, reaching 35.6% in 2016. The preemptive KT accounted for approximately 30% of the total transplantation cases. The recipients showed a 10-year cumulative graft survival rate of 71.8%, consisting of 10-year DCGF free survival of 77.6% and patient survival of 92.8%. Age ≥ 20 and 60,000,000$ in 2016. However, the expansion was mainly burdened by the national insurance service but not by the patients. @*Conclusions@#In South Korea, the number of kidney transplantation in elderly or in patients with comorbidities has been increasing. Complex clinical factors were associated with medication compliance and patient prognosis.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations account for approximately 4% of all EGFR mutations. Given the rarity of this mutation, its clinical outcomes are not fully established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who showed an exon 20 insertion were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and outcomes, including responses to chemotherapy (CTx) or targeted therapy. RESULTS: Of 3,539 NSCLC patients who harbored an activating EGFR mutation, 56 (1.6%) had an exon 20 insertion. Of the advanced NSCLC patients, 27 of 1,479 (1.8%) had an exon 20 insertion. The median overall survival was 29.4 months (95% confidence interval 9.3 to 49.6) for 27 advancedNSCLC patients. The 22 patientswho received systemic CTx achieved a 50.0% response rate and a 77.2% disease control rate, with 4.2 months of progression-free survival. Six patients received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Three of the four patients that had only an exon 20 insertion showed progressive disease, while one showed stable disease. The othertwo patients had an exon 20 insertion and another EGFR mutation and achieved a partial response. CONCLUSION: The incidence of an exon 20 insertion mutation is rare in Korea and occasionally accompanied by other common EGFR mutations. Although the response to systemic CTx. in these patients is comparable to that of patients with other mutations, the response rate to first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs is quite low. Therefore, the development of a more efficient agent is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exons , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer risk and epidemiology in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) warrant further investigation in a large-scale cohort. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based study using the national health insurance database of Korea. We screened records from 18,936,885 individuals who received a national health examination ≥ 2 times from 2009 to 2016. Pre-dialysis CKD was identified based on serum creatinine and dipstick albuminuria results. Individuals with preexisting cancer history, renal replacement therapy, or transient CKD were excluded. A control group without evidence of kidney function impairment and matched for age, sex, low-income status, and smoking history was included. Risk of cancers, as identified in the claims database, was investigated using a multivariable Cox regression model including matched variables and other unmatched clinical characteristics as covariates. RESULTS: A total of 471,758 people with pre-dialysis CKD and the same number of matched controls were included. Urinary (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.82–2.13) and hematopoietic (adjusted HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.38–1.68) malignancy risk was increased in pre-dialysis CKD and all CKD stages. However, the risk of digestive cancer was lower in the pre-dialysis CKD group (adjusted HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87–0.92). The risk of digestive, respiratory, thyroid, and prostate malignancy demonstrated a non-linear association with CKD stage, with stage 1 or stage 4/5 CKD without dialysis demonstrating relatively lower risk. CONCLUSION: Cancer risk varied in pre-dialysis CKD compared to controls, and the association between cancer risk and CKD stage varied depending on the cancer type.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Creatinine , Dialysis , Epidemiology , Kidney , Korea , National Health Programs , Prostate , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renal Replacement Therapy , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Gland
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Woman kidney donors face obstetric complication risks after kidney donation, such as gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Studies on childbirth-related complications among Asian women donors are scarce. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included woman donors aged 45 years or younger at the time of kidney donation in a single tertiary hospital between 1985 and 2014. Pregnancy associated complications were investigated using medical records and telephone questionnaires for 426 pregnancies among 225 donors. Matched non-donor controls were selected by propensity score and the maternal and fetal outcomes were compared with those of donors. Primary outcomes were differences in maternal complications, and secondary outcomes were fetal outcomes in pregnancies of the donor and control groups. RESULTS: A total of 56 cases had post-donation pregnancies. The post-donation pregnancies group was younger at the time of donation and older at the time of delivery than the pre-donation pregnancies group, and there were no differences in primary outcomes between the groups except the proportion receiving cesarean section. Comparison of the complication risk between post-donation pregnancies and non-donor matched controls showed no significant differences in gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, or composite outcomes after propensity score matching including age at delivery, era at pregnancy, systolic blood pressure, body weight, and estimated glomerular filtration ratio (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.19–2.14; P = 0.724). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that maternal and fetal outcomes between woman kidney donors and non-donor matched controls were comparable. Studies with general population pregnancy controls are warranted to compare pregnancy outcomes for donors.


Subject(s)
Asians , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , Cesarean Section , Cohort Studies , Female , Filtration , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Kidney , Medical Records , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Telephone , Tertiary Care Centers , Tissue Donors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important treatment modality for severe acute kidney injury. As such, the epidemiology of CRRT in Korea needs further investigation. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, population-based study analyzing the claims data from National Health Insurance Service of Korea. All index intensive care unit admission cases of CRRT in government-designated tertiary referral hospitals in Korea from 2005 to 2016 were included. Patients with a history of renal replacement therapy or who were under 20 years old were not considered. In addition to baseline and treatment characteristics, patient outcomes, including all-cause mortality and renal survival rates, were investigated. We stratified the study patients according to 3-year time periods and major regions of the nation. RESULTS: We included 37,337 patients who received CRRT in Korea. The overall use of CRRT increased over time, and more than 80% of cases of acute renal replacement therapy were CRRT after 2014. Seoul was the region in which the majority of CRRT (45.0%) was performed. The clinical characteristics of CRRT patients were significantly different among time-intervals and regions. Both all-cause mortality and renal survival rates after CRRT were prominently improved in the recent time periods (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CRRT is a widely used treatment strategy for severe acute kidney injury in Korea. The prognosis of CRRT patients has improved compared to the past. This epidemiological study of CRRT in Korea revealed notable trends with regard to time period and geographic region.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Critical Care , Dialysis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Seoul , Survival Rate , Tertiary Care Centers
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63838

ABSTRACT

Although chordomas are midline tumors, primarily intrasellar chordomas are extremely rare. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 68-year-old female with partial abducens nerve palsy in the right eye due to the intrasellar cystic tumor. After endonasal trans-sphenoidal surgery, intraoperative and histopathological findings confirmed the co-occurrence of an entirely intrasellar chordoma and pituitary adenoma. To our knowledge, the present case is the third reported case of an intrasellar chordoma with a pituitary adenoma.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , Aged , Chordoma , Female , Humans , Pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms , Sella Turcica
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 248-252, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75760

ABSTRACT

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a syndrome characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and an inability to excrete highly acid urine, in which the impaired acid excretion is disproportional to the reduction in the glomerular filtration rate. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is frequently associated with immune-mediated disease, including Sjogren's syndrome. Sjogren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects exocrine glands, such as the lacrimal and salivary glands, resulting in xerophthalmia and xerostomia. Extraglandular manifestations are frequent and may include renal involvement. Recently, we experienced two cases of renal tubular acidosis in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. The first patient had lower extremity weakness and hypokalemia and the second had nephrocalcinosis. We discuss the frequency and pathogenesis of dRTA in Sjogren's syndrome.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Acidosis, Renal Tubular , Autoimmune Diseases , Exocrine Glands , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypokalemia , Lower Extremity , Nephrocalcinosis , Salivary Glands , Sjogren's Syndrome , Xerophthalmia , Xerostomia
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79186

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare complication of gemcitabine treatment. A 55-year-old man with a history of urothelial cancer underwent right ureteronephrectomy and palliative chemotherapy. The patient presented with dyspnea, generalized edema with foamy urine, and new-onset hypertension with acute kidney injury (AKI). Although AKI with oliguria was evident, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia were not overt. To determine the cause of rapidly progressive azotemia, kidney biopsy was performed despite a single kidney and revealed chronic TMA. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia developed after renal biopsy. Diagnosed as gemcitabine-induced TMA, gemcitabine cessation and active treatment including steroids, plasmapheresis, and rituximab were carried out, but the patients condition progressed to a dialysis-dependent state. Gemcitabine-induced TMA is often difficult to diagnose because of its variable clinical course. Therefore, heightened awareness of this potentially lethal complication of gemcitabine is essential; renal biopsy may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anemia, Hemolytic , Azotemia , Biopsy , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Edema , Humans , Hypertension , Kidney , Middle Aged , Oliguria , Plasmapheresis , Steroids , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Rituximab
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