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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925875

ABSTRACT

Background@#Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a useful index to assess exercise capacity. However, there is no reference value for Koreans. This study aimed to compare actual VO2 max and predicted VO 2 max using exercise capacity equations in Korean subjects. @*Methods@#This retrospective study enrolled 383 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with incremental maximal cycle ergometer test at Asan Medical Center from January 2020 to May 2021. Stage 1 and 2 lung cancer patients with normal lung function and healthy persons of 50 subjects who had maximal CPET were analyzed. @*Results@#The subjects were aged 65 ± 13 years and predominantly male (74%). CPET results were as follows: absolute VO2 max, 1.2 ± 0.3 L/min; body weight referenced VO2 max, 20 ± 3.9 mL/kg/min; peak work rate, 94 ± 24 watts; peak heart rate, 142 ± 21 bpm; peak O 2 pulse, 10 ± 3 mL/beat; minute ventilation, 59 ± 14 L/min; peak respiratory rate, 34 ± 6 breaths per minute; and peak breathing reserve, 41 ± 18%. There was significant discordance between the measured and predicted absolute VO2 max using the Jones, Hansen, and Wasserman prediction equations developed for Caucasian population (P < 0.001). Agreement using Bland-Altman test between true and predicted absolute VO2 max was the best in Chinese equation (−0.03, 2SD = 0.55) compared to Jones (0.42, 2SD = 1.07), Hansen (0.44, 2SD = 0.86), and Wasserman (0.42, 2SD = 0.86) equations. @*Conclusion@#The reference value and prediction equation from studies including primarily Caucasians may not be appropriate for Koreans. Since the mean difference is the lowest in Chinese equation, the Chinese equation might be used for the Korean adult population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904172

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1719-1729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902492

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emphysema and small-airway disease are the two major components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We propose a novel method of quantitative computed tomography (CT) emphysema air-trapping composite (EAtC) mapping to assess each COPD component. We analyzed the potential use of this method for assessing lung function in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 584 patients with COPD underwent inspiration and expiration CTs. Using pairwise analysis of inspiration and expiration CTs with non-rigid registration, EAtC mapping classified lung parenchyma into three areas: Normal, functional air trapping (fAT), and emphysema (Emph). We defined fAT as the area with a density change of less than 60 Hounsfield units (HU) between inspiration and expiration CTs among areas with a density less than -856 HU on inspiration CT. The volume fraction of each area was compared with clinical parameters and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The results were compared with those of parametric response mapping (PRM) analysis. @*Results@#The relative volumes of the EAtC classes differed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (p < 0.001). Each class showed moderate correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) and FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.659–0.674, p < 0.001). Both fAT and Emph were significant predictors of FEV 1 and FEV 1/FVC (R2 = 0.352 and 0.488, respectively; p < 0.001). fAT was a significant predictor of mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% and residual volume/total vital capacity (R2 = 0.264 and 0.233, respectively; p < 0.001), while Emph and age were significant predictors of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (R2 = 0.303; p < 0.001). fAT showed better correlations with PFTs than with small-airway disease on PRM. @*Conclusion@#The proposed quantitative CT EAtC mapping provides comprehensive lung functional information on each disease component of COPD, which may serve as an imaging biomarker of lung function.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896468

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1719-1729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894788

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emphysema and small-airway disease are the two major components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We propose a novel method of quantitative computed tomography (CT) emphysema air-trapping composite (EAtC) mapping to assess each COPD component. We analyzed the potential use of this method for assessing lung function in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 584 patients with COPD underwent inspiration and expiration CTs. Using pairwise analysis of inspiration and expiration CTs with non-rigid registration, EAtC mapping classified lung parenchyma into three areas: Normal, functional air trapping (fAT), and emphysema (Emph). We defined fAT as the area with a density change of less than 60 Hounsfield units (HU) between inspiration and expiration CTs among areas with a density less than -856 HU on inspiration CT. The volume fraction of each area was compared with clinical parameters and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The results were compared with those of parametric response mapping (PRM) analysis. @*Results@#The relative volumes of the EAtC classes differed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (p < 0.001). Each class showed moderate correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) and FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.659–0.674, p < 0.001). Both fAT and Emph were significant predictors of FEV 1 and FEV 1/FVC (R2 = 0.352 and 0.488, respectively; p < 0.001). fAT was a significant predictor of mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% and residual volume/total vital capacity (R2 = 0.264 and 0.233, respectively; p < 0.001), while Emph and age were significant predictors of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (R2 = 0.303; p < 0.001). fAT showed better correlations with PFTs than with small-airway disease on PRM. @*Conclusion@#The proposed quantitative CT EAtC mapping provides comprehensive lung functional information on each disease component of COPD, which may serve as an imaging biomarker of lung function.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919179

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although international guidelines for bronchiectasis management have been published in Western countries, there is a lack of data about their application in Asian populations including patients with different phenotypes. We aimed to investigate the current status of bronchiectasis management in Asian populations. @*Methods@#A nationwide questionnaire survey was performed of Asian respiratory specialists from South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Participants were invited by e-mail to answer a questionnaire comprising 25 questions based on international guidelines for the management of bronchiectasis. @*Results@#A total of 221 physicians participated in the survey. About half of them were Korean (50.2%), with the next most common nationalities being Japanese (23.1%), Taiwanese (13.6%), and Singaporean (7.7%). Only 18 (8.1%) responders had local guidelines for bronchiectasis. While 85 (38.5%) responders checked sputum acid-fast bacillus smear/culture about 1 to 3 times per year, only a small proportion of responders routinely performed a serum immunoglobulin test (36/221, 16.3%) or evaluated for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (41/221, 18.6%). Less than half (43.4%) of responders performed eradication treatment in patients with drug-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, mainly due to the limited availability of inhaled antibiotics (34.8%). In addition, 58.6% of responders considered physiotherapy such as airway clearance and pulmonary rehabilitation. @*Conclusions@#Discrepancies might exist between guideline recommendations and practice for bronchiectasis management in Asian populations, partly due to the limited availability of treatment in each country. The development of local guidelines that consider the phenotypes and situation will help to standardize and improve the management of bronchiectasis.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875539

ABSTRACT

Background@#Radiotherapy is a common treatment option for lung or esophageal cancer, particularly when surgery is not feasible for patients with poor lung function. However, radiotherapy can affect pulmonary function and thereby induce pneumonitis or pneumonia, which can be fatal in patients with respiratory impairment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if reductions in pulmonary function after radiotherapy can be minimized through simultaneous pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). @*Methods@#In this matched case control study, we retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone radiotherapy for thoracic malignant disease between January 2018 and June 2019. We analyzed results from pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walking tests (6MWT) conducted within the six months before and after radiotherapy treatment. @*Results@#In total, results from 144 patients were analyzed, with 11 of the patients receiving PR and radiotherapy simultaneously. Of the 133 patients in the control group, 33 were matched with 11 patients in the PR group. Changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity were significantly different between the PR group and the matched control group (240 mL vs. –10 mL, p=0.017 and 5.5% vs. 1.0%, p=0.038, respectively). The median distance of 6MWT in the PR group also increased significantly, from 407.5 m to 493.0 m after radiotherapy (p=0.017). @*Conclusion@#Simultaneous PR improved pulmonary function, particularly in measures of FEV1, and exercise capacity for patients with lung or esophageal cancer even after radiotherapy treatment. These findings may provide an important base of knowledge for further large population studies with long-term follow-up analysis in the identification of the PR’s effects during thoracic radiotherapy.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837351

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Bronchiectasis Health Questionnaire (BHQ) is a simple and repeatable, self-reporting health status questionnaire for bronchiectasis. We have translated the original version of the BHQ into Korean using a standardized methodology. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Korean version of the BHQ (K-BHQ) with Korean patients. @*Methods@#Stable state patients with bronchiectasis from two academic hospitals were enrolled in this study. The validity was assessed by investigating the relationship between the K-BHQ scores and the Korean version of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (K-CAT) scores. We also investigated the relationship between the K-BHQ scores and other variables of the modified Medical Research Council’s (mMRC) dyspnea scale, lung function, and exacerbations. @*Results@#A total of 126 patients with bronchiectasis were enrolled. The mean age was 64.3 (standard deviation [SD], 9.7). Women comprised 53.2% of the patients. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 60% of the predicted value (SD, 18.9%); the mean K-CAT score was 17.6 (SD, 9.1). The K-BHQ scores correlated strongly with the K-CAT scores (r=–0.656, p<0.001). There was significant correlation between the K-BHQ scores and the mMRC dyspnea scale (ρ=–0.409, p<0.001), FEV1 (r=0.406, p<0.001), and number of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (ρ=–0.303, p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#The K-BHQ is valid for assessing the health-related quality of life or health status of Korean bronchiectasis patients.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).CONCLUSION: Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperuricemia , Inflammation , Korea , Lung , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Male , Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uric Acid
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).@*CONCLUSION@#Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831762

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Few studies have attempted to interpret unusually high predicted pulmonary function test results. This study aimed to investigate the demographic features of patients with an unusually high predicted pulmonary function. @*Methods@#The demographic data of subjects who underwent pulmonary function testing at a tertiary referral hospital during between January 2011 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Of the 68,693 included patients, 55 (0.08%) had a percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity ≥ 140%. These patients had a relatively older median age (72 years vs. 54 years, p < 0.001), female predominance (65.5% vs. 42.5%, p = 0.001), lower body weight (52.5 kg vs. 64.5 kg, p < 0.001) and shorter height (148.4 cm vs. 164.2 cm, p < 0.001). Furthermore, 6.1% of women older than 80 years with weight < 50 kg and height < 150 cm had a high predicted pulmonary function. @*Conclusions@#A high predicted pulmonary function is not rare among elderly subjects with a small body size. Physicians should consider the demographics of the examinees, especially those of minority populations, particularly as the test results might be determined using an incorrect reference equation.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).@*CONCLUSION@#Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1104-1113, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833583

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the regional ventilation in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlapsyndrome (ACOS) using xenon-ventilation dual-energy CT (DECT), and to compare it to that in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#Twenty-one patients with ACOS and 46 patients with COPD underwent xenon-ventilation DECT. Theventilation abnormalities were visually determined to be 1) peripheral wedge/diffuse defect, 2) diffuse heterogeneous defect,3) lobar/segmental/subsegmental defect, and 4) no defect on xenon-ventilation maps. Emphysema index (EI), airway wallthickness (Pi10), and mean ventilation values in the whole lung, peripheral lung, and central lung areas were quantified andcompared between the two groups using the Student’s t test. @*Results@#Most patients with ACOS showed the peripheral wedge/diffuse defect (n = 14, 66.7%), whereas patients with COPDcommonly showed the diffuse heterogeneous defect and lobar/segmental/subsegmental defect (n = 21, 45.7% and n = 20,43.5%, respectively). The prevalence of ventilation defect patterns showed significant intergroup differences (p< 0.001). Thequantified ventilation values in the peripheral lung areas were significantly lower in patients with ACOS than in patients withCOPD (p= 0.045). The quantified Pi10 was significantly higher in patients with ACOS than in patients with COPD (p= 0.041);however, EI was not significantly different between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#The ventilation abnormalities on the visual and quantitative assessments of xenon-ventilation DECT differed betweenpatients with ACOS and patients with COPD. Xenon-ventilation DECT may demonstrate the different physiologic changes ofpulmonary ventilation in patients with ACOS and COPD.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833540

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known to be at risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between thoracic vertebral bone density measured on chest CT (DThorax) and clinical variables, including survival, in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 322 patients with COPD were selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort. DThorax was measured by averaging the CT values of three consecutive vertebral bodies at the level of the left main coronary artery with a round region of interest as large as possible within the anterior column of each vertebral body using an in-house software. Associations between DThorax and clinical variables, including survival, pulmonary function test (PFT) results, and CT densitometry, were evaluated. @*Results@#The median follow-up time was 7.3 years (range: 0.1–12.4 years). Fifty-six patients (17.4%) died. DThroax differed significantly between the different Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages. DThroax correlated positively with body mass index (BMI), some PFT results, and the six-minute walk distance, and correlated negatively with the emphysema index (EI) (all p < 0.05). In the univariate Cox analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.617; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.119–6.173, p < 0.001), lower BMI (HR, 3.589; 95% CI, 2.122–6.071, p < 0.001), lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (HR, 2.975; 95% CI, 1.682–5.262, p < 0.001), lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected with hemoglobin (DLCO) (HR, 4.595; 95% CI, 2.665–7.924, p < 0.001), higher EI (HR, 3.722; 95% CI, 2.192–6.319, p < 0.001), presence of vertebral fractures (HR, 2.062; 95% CI, 1.154–3.683, p = 0.015), and lower DThorax (HR, 2.773; 95% CI, 1.620–4.746, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality and lung-related mortality. In the multivariate Cox analysis, lower DThorax (HR, 1.957; 95% CI, 1.075–3.563, p = 0.028) along with older age, lower BMI, lower FEV1, and lower DLCO were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. @*Conclusion@#The thoracic vertebral bone density measured on chest CT demonstrated significant associations with the patients’ mortality and clinical variables of disease severity in the COPD patients included in KOLD cohort.

16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1216-1225, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The absence of collateral ventilation (CV) is crucial for effective bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with an endobronchial valve. Here, we assessed whether CT can predict the Chartis™ results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 69 patients (mean age: 70.9 ± 6.6 years; 66 [95.7%] males) who had undergone CT to assess BLVR eligibility. The Chartis™ system (Pulmonox Inc.) was used to check CV. Experienced thoracic radiologists independently determined the completeness of fissures on volumetric CT images. RESULTS: The comparison between the visual and quantitative analyses revealed that 5% defect criterion showed good agreement. The Chartis™ assessment was performed for 129 lobes; 11 (19.6%) of 56 lobes with complete fissures on CT showed positive CV, while this rate was significantly higher (40 of 49 lobes, i.e., 81.6%) for lobes with incomplete fissures. The size of the fissure defect did not affect the rate of CV. Of the patients who underwent BLVR, 22 of 24 patients (91.7%) with complete fissures and three of four patients with incomplete fissures (75%) achieved target lobe volume reduction (TLVR). CONCLUSION: The quantitative analysis of fissure shows that incomplete fissures increased the probability of CV on Chartis™, while the defect size did not affect the overall rates. TLVR could be achieved even in some patients with relatively large fissure defect, if they showed negative CV on Chartis™.


Subject(s)
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Emphysema , Humans , Lung , Pneumonectomy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Ventilation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the influence of vitamin D deficiency on COPD has not been fully established. Moreover, the inflammation process is associated with vitamin D deficiency in the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether clinical phenotypes, comorbidities, and exacerbation rates are affected by the level of plasma fibrinogen, well studied by an inflammatory marker in COPD patients, and 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed patients with COPD whose inflammatory marker levels, especially plasma fibrinogen and 25-OH vitamin D levels, had been examined. A correlation analysis was conducted for inflammatory markers and 25-OH vitamin D. Clinical characteristics, comorbidities and exacerbation rates were compared among four groups based on plasma fibrinogen concentrations (threshold, 350 mg/dL) and 25-OH vitamin D levels (threshold, 20 ng/mL). RESULTS: Among 611 patients with COPD, 236 were included in the study. The levels of inflammatory markers had no statistical correlation with the serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. The four groups showed no statistically significant differences in age, sex, smoking history, inhaler use, and severity of comorbidities. Patients with high plasma fibrinogen concentrations and low 25-OH vitamin D levels had lower lung function, higher severity index, and higher annual rate of severe exacerbations 12 months before (0.23/year) and after (0.41/year) the measurement of 25-OH vitamin D levels than did the other patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested an interaction between vitamin D deficiency and COPD. The measurement of plasma fibrinogen concentrations could help identify a severe phenotypic group among patients with vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Fibrinogen , Humans , Inflammation , Lung , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Phenotype , Plasma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764955

ABSTRACT

Bronchial thermoplasty is a nonpharmacological treatment for severe asthma that delivers thermal energy to the bronchial walls and reduces hypertrophied smooth muscle mass. Previous studies have shown its efficacy and safety, resulting in approval from the Food and Drug Administration in 2010. In Korea, the first bronchial thermoplasty was carried out in 2014; 4 patients have undergone the procedure so far. This case series presents the medical history and treatment outcomes of these 4 patients. All patients presented with uncontrolled asthma despite optimal medical treatment. Bronchial thermoplasty was performed at the right lower lobe, left lower lobe, and both upper lobes in order at 3-week intervals. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Two patients had significant decreases in exacerbations and required a lower dose of inhaled corticosteroids after the procedure. One patient had slightly fewer exacerbations but failed to reduce the use of systemic corticosteroids. One patient had no change in symptoms. One limitation of bronchial thermoplasty is the difficulty of predicting clinical responders. However, since more therapeutic options are needed in the management of severe asthma, especially T2-low asthma, discussion with experts about the feasibility and necessity of bronchial thermoplasty will ensure the best possible care.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anesthesia, General , Asthma , Humans , Korea , Muscle, Smooth , United States Food and Drug Administration
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The utility of computed tomography (CT) in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation remains uncertain. However, due to the low cost associated with CT scan along with the impact of Koreas' health insurance system, there has been a rise in the number of CT scans in the patients with initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbations. Therefore, the utility of CT in the differential diagnosis was investigated to determine whether performing CT scans affect the clinical outcomes of the patients with an initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbation.@*METHODS@#This study involved 202 COPD patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbation. We evaluated the change in diagnosis or treatment after performing a CT scan, and compared the clinical outcomes of patient groups with vs. without performing CT (non-CT group vs. CT group).@*RESULTS@#After performing CT, the diagnosis was changed for two (3.0%) while additional diagnoses were made for 27 of the 64 patients (42.1%). However, the treatment changed for only one (1.5%), and six patients (9.3%) received supplementary medication. There were no difference in the median length of hospital stay (8 [6–13] days vs. 8 [6–12] days, p=0.786) and intensive care unit care (14 [10.1%] vs. 11 [16.7%], p=0.236) between the CT and non-CT groups, respectively. These findings remained consistent even after the propensity score matching.@*CONCLUSION@#Utility of CT in patients with acute COPD exacerbation might not be helpful; therefore, we do not recommend chest CT scan as a routine initial diagnostic tool.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The utility of computed tomography (CT) in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation remains uncertain. However, due to the low cost associated with CT scan along with the impact of Koreas' health insurance system, there has been a rise in the number of CT scans in the patients with initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbations. Therefore, the utility of CT in the differential diagnosis was investigated to determine whether performing CT scans affect the clinical outcomes of the patients with an initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbation. METHODS: This study involved 202 COPD patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbation. We evaluated the change in diagnosis or treatment after performing a CT scan, and compared the clinical outcomes of patient groups with vs. without performing CT (non-CT group vs. CT group). RESULTS: After performing CT, the diagnosis was changed for two (3.0%) while additional diagnoses were made for 27 of the 64 patients (42.1%). However, the treatment changed for only one (1.5%), and six patients (9.3%) received supplementary medication. There were no difference in the median length of hospital stay (8 [6–13] days vs. 8 [6–12] days, p=0.786) and intensive care unit care (14 [10.1%] vs. 11 [16.7%], p=0.236) between the CT and non-CT groups, respectively. These findings remained consistent even after the propensity score matching. CONCLUSION: Utility of CT in patients with acute COPD exacerbation might not be helpful; therefore, we do not recommend chest CT scan as a routine initial diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Hospitalization , Humans , Insurance, Health , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Propensity Score , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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