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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874172

ABSTRACT

The correct identification of filamentous fungi is challenging. We evaluated the performance of the VITEK MS v3.0 system (bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France) for the identification of a wide spectrum of clinically relevant filamentous fungi using a Korean collection. Strains that were added to the upgraded v3.2 database were additionally identified by the VITEK MS v3.2 system. Of the 105 tested isolates, including 37 Aspergillus (nine species), 41 dermatophytes (seven species), and 27 other molds (17 species), 43 (41.0%) showed “no identification” or “multiple species identification” results at the initial VITEK MS testing; these isolates were retested using the same method. Compared with sequence-based identification, the correct identification rate using VITEK MS for Aspergillus, dermatophytes, other molds, and total mold isolates was 67.6%, 56.1%, 48.1%, and 58.1% at the initial testing and 94.6%, 78.0%, 55.6%, and 78.1% with retesting, respectively. Following retesting, 19 (18.1%) and two (1.9%) isolates showed “no identification” and “misidentification” results, respectively. VITEK MS reliably identified various filamentous fungi recovered in Korea, with a very low rate of misidentification

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901772

ABSTRACT

Background@#The current Korean Blood Inventory Monitoring System (BMS) has several drawbacks. It does not provide real-time data and only monitors 211 of the more than 2500 institutes that performed blood transfusions.This survey study investigated the status of BMS use and the preparation status of the data input system of medical institutions to help in the revision of BMS in preparation for the full surveillance of BMS. @*Methods@#A survey questionnaire was given to 200 hospitals participating in the current BMS, along with another set of questionnaires to 150 non-participating hospitals. The questionnaire consisted of the method of data registry to BMS, the current status of electronic medical records (EMR) and order communication system (OCS), perception, and readiness of adaptation of an open application programming interface system (API). @*Results@#Two hundred and one BMS participating hospitals responded to the survey. Approximately 75% entered data with a comma-separated value (CSV) or Excel spreadsheet (xls) files, and approximately half had an in-house developed EMR and OCS. The majority showed enthusiasm for the introduction to an open API. Among the non-participating hospitals, 138 responded. Approximately 70% counted the blood inventory daily, but approximately half did not use electronic methods for this process. The response to the introduction to an open API was positive, but the readiness for a prompt introduction was low at 15.9%. @*Conclusion@#These results will help revise the current BMS. On the other hand, full surveillance of BMS is anticipated to be hindered by the ready state of each medical institute. Moreover, the encouragement of participation would require supportive government administrative measures.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894068

ABSTRACT

Background@#The current Korean Blood Inventory Monitoring System (BMS) has several drawbacks. It does not provide real-time data and only monitors 211 of the more than 2500 institutes that performed blood transfusions.This survey study investigated the status of BMS use and the preparation status of the data input system of medical institutions to help in the revision of BMS in preparation for the full surveillance of BMS. @*Methods@#A survey questionnaire was given to 200 hospitals participating in the current BMS, along with another set of questionnaires to 150 non-participating hospitals. The questionnaire consisted of the method of data registry to BMS, the current status of electronic medical records (EMR) and order communication system (OCS), perception, and readiness of adaptation of an open application programming interface system (API). @*Results@#Two hundred and one BMS participating hospitals responded to the survey. Approximately 75% entered data with a comma-separated value (CSV) or Excel spreadsheet (xls) files, and approximately half had an in-house developed EMR and OCS. The majority showed enthusiasm for the introduction to an open API. Among the non-participating hospitals, 138 responded. Approximately 70% counted the blood inventory daily, but approximately half did not use electronic methods for this process. The response to the introduction to an open API was positive, but the readiness for a prompt introduction was low at 15.9%. @*Conclusion@#These results will help revise the current BMS. On the other hand, full surveillance of BMS is anticipated to be hindered by the ready state of each medical institute. Moreover, the encouragement of participation would require supportive government administrative measures.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759588

ABSTRACT

D antigens are clinically significant, and routine tests on the D antigen requires the inclusion of weak D testing, which is performed using indirect antihuman immunoglobulin methods. On the other hand, exact typing of the D type of an individual can be done more precisely with RHD genotyping, which is a useful tool in cases where the RHD gene is intact. The majority of weak-D or partial-D cases are from single nucleotide changes or hybridization of RHD and RHCE genes. Nevertheless, frameshift mutations can also result in weak or partial-D. The characteristics of a frameshift mutation is typically a change in protein product after a problematic mutation and early termination of transcription, leading into truncated protein products. This paper reports a D-variant case with RHD 711delC along with a review of the relevant literature. In addition, the results of software analysis are reported.


Subject(s)
Frameshift Mutation , Genotype , Hand , Immunoglobulins
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739110

ABSTRACT

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization varies across human populations and ethnic groups. We evaluated the characteristics of RBC alloimmunization and compared the risk of alloimmunization in Korean patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and liver cirrhosis (LC), two representative diseases in which chronic transfusion is required. In total, 115 MDS patients and 202 LC patients transfused with RBCs between 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively included. Twenty patients (6.3%) were newly alloimmunized (five MDS patients, 4.3%; 15 LC patients, 7.4%). The median number of RBC units transfused in alloimmunized patients was nine (interquartile range, 4–15 units). As the number of transfused RBC units increased, the cumulative risk of alloimmunization was higher in LC than in MDS patients (P=0.001). The most common alloantibody detected in patients was anti-E (45%), followed by anti-c (17%), anti-e (10%), anti-C (7%), anti-Fyb (7%), and anti-Jka (7%). The present data indicate the need for matching of extended RBC antigens (Rh, Duffy, and Kidd systems) for chronically transfused patients with MDS and LC in Korea.


Subject(s)
Erythrocytes , Ethnic Groups , Humans , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although testing to detect weak D antigens using the antihuman globulin reagent is not required for D− patients in many countries, it is routinely performed in Korea. However, weak D testing can be omitted in D− patients with a C−E− phenotype as this indicates complete deletion of the RHD gene, except in rare cases. We designed a new algorithm for weak D testing, which consisted of RhCE phenotyping followed by weak D testing in C+ or E+ samples, and compared it with the current algorithm with respect to time and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 74,889 test results from January to July 2017 in a tertiary hospital in Korea were analyzed. Agreement between the current and proposed algorithms was evaluated, and total number of tests, time required for testing, and test costs were compared. With both algorithms, RHD genotyping was conducted for samples that were C+ or E+ and negative for weak D testing. RESULTS: The algorithms showed perfect agreement (agreement=100%; κ=1.00). By applying the proposed algorithm, 29.56% (115/389 tests/yr) of tests could be omitted, time required for testing could be reduced by 36% (8,672/24,084 min/yr), and the test cost could be reduced by 16.53% (536.11/3,241.08 USD/yr). CONCLUSIONS: Our algorithm omitting weak D testing in D− patients with C−E− phenotype may be a cost-effective testing strategy in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Korea , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pretransfusion tests are essential for safe transfusions, but occasionally, part or all can be omitted when a transfusion is needed urgently in an emergency. The purpose of this study was to share the authors' experience of various pretransfusion test protocols in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea. METHODS: From July 2016 to June 2017, all transfusion cases at Samsung Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. For each pretransfusion test protocol, the parameters regarding issue, return and disposal rate of blood products, occurrence of hemolytic transfusion adverse effect, and prescription frequency of each respective department and ordering site were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 90,539 units of red blood cells, 24,814 units of fresh frozen plasmas, 24,758 units of single donor platelets, and 23,303 units of platelet concentrates were issued during the study period. Among them, 3.6%, 1.8%, 0.3%, and 0.4% of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasmas, single donor platelets, and platelet concentrates were issued according to the emergency transfusion protocols. When various pretransfusion test protocols were applied to issue blood products, there was no case in which an adverse hemolytic transfusion reaction was suspected. When compared with usual pretransfusion test protocol, all emergency transfusion protocols showed significantly higher return and wastage rates in red blood cells and fresh frozen plasmas. Platelets also had a higher return and wastage rate, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: These results suggests that there is no different risk of adverse hemolytic transfusion reaction regardless the pre-transfusion protocols, but management about of the increased rate of return and wastage of blood products in emergency transfusions should be considered.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Emergencies , Erythrocytes , Humans , Korea , Plasma , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tissue Donors , Transfusion Reaction
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158036

ABSTRACT

Anti-G positivity can be misinterpreted as the presence of anti-D or -C antigen in an antibody identification test, as this antibody is known to show agglutination to D or C antigen-positive red cells. Correct identification of anti-G is important in pregnant women, as prenatal care or the need for RhIG administration can vary between anti-D and -C versus anti-G cases. We recently encountered a D-negative case with suspected anti-D and -C, which was ruled out by adsorption and elution tests, and ultimately confirmed the presence of anti-G. The pregnant woman was a 33-year-old patient with cde Rh phenotype with a previous history of spontaneous abortion, followed by administration of RhIG. The spouse's Rh phenotype was CDe. Initial antibody identification test showed 2+ positivity to C (homozygotes and heterozygotes) and trace to 1+ positivity to D. Upon additional adsorption and elution with R0r (cDe/cde) and r'r (Cde/ cde) red cells, we identified the antibody present in the patient's serum as anti-G. The patient is currently under close follow-up monitoring for anti-G titer using antibody titer testing with both CDe and CcDEe red cells. Periodic fetal cerebral Doppler examination is being carried out without evidence of fetal distress.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , Adsorption , Adult , Agglutination , Female , Fetal Distress , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care , Rho(D) Immune Globulin
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34205

ABSTRACT

LW antigens are expressed in higher intensities in D-positive blood cells than D-negative cells, which can result in false identification of anti-D in pretransfusion testing. Although several cases of anti-LW have been reported abroad, to the best of our knowledge, none have been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of anti-LW in a 58 year-old RhD positive patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a positive direct Coombs test and a suspicion of the presence of passive anti-D antibodies because of a history of intravenous immunoglobulin administration. However, during a 5-month follow up, the antibody was confirmed as anti-LW on grounds that it showed weakened reaction in dithiothreitol treated cells and enforced reaction in cord O+ cells when compared to the results from antibody identification panel cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Blood Cells , Coombs Test , Dithiothreitol , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110645

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of RhD-negative individuals in the Korean population is approximately 0.15-0.30% and the supply of RhD-negative blood often faces potential shortage. Furthermore, 15-17% of serologically RhD-negative Korean individuals were revealed to be DEL variants and should be treated as RhD-positive when being considered as blood donors. This change is expected to result in a further shortage of RhD-negative blood supply, whereas surplus DEL variant blood stock is created. Therefore, it is now required to amend blood donation and supply policies, and transfusion strategies. In this review, a new transfusion strategy for patients with RhD-negative or variant blood in Korea is discussed, with particular interest in women of child-bearing age, patients with anti-D, and Asia type DEL (c.1227G>A) variants.


Subject(s)
Asia , Blood Donors , Female , Humans , Korea , Prevalence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measurement of postoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is important for detecting persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the analytic performance of the DxI 800 assay (Beckman Coulter, USA) for serum Tg and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in comparison with that of the GAMMA-10 assay (Shinjin Medics Inc., Korea) for serum Tg and RIA-MAT 280 assay (Stratec, Germany) for TgAb. METHODS: We prospectively collected blood samples from 99 patients thyroidectomized for thyroid cancer. The functional sensitivity was investigated in standards and human serum. Precision and linearity were evaluated according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The correlation between the two assays was assessed in samples with different Tg ranges. RESULTS: The functional sensitivity of the DxI 800 assay for serum Tg was between 0.0313 and 0.0625 ng/mL. The total CV was 3.9-5.6% for serum Tg and 5.3-6.9% for serum TgAb. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 1.0 and 0.99 for serum Tg and TgAb, respectively. The cut-offs for serum TgAb were 4.0 IU/mL (DxI 800) and 60.0 IU/mL (RIA-MAT 280), and the overall agreement was 68.7%. The correlation between the two assays was excellent; the correlation coefficient was 0.99 and 0.88 for serum Tg and TgAb, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The DxI 800 is a sensitive assay for serum Tg and TgAb, and the results correlated well with those from the immunoradiometric assays (IRMA). This assay has several advantages over the IRMA and could be considered an alternative test for Tg measurement.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , Humans , Immunoradiometric Assay , Luminescent Measurements , Prospective Studies , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Thyroglobulin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are both commensal microbes and potential pathogens. Increasing resistance to penicillin in VGS is an ongoing issue in the clinical environment. We investigated the difference in susceptibility and resistance to penicillin among various VGS species. METHODS: In total 1,448 VGS isolated from various clinical specimens were analyzed over a two-yr period. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by the automated VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, France) or the MicroScan MICroSTREP system (Siemens, Germany). RESULTS: Among the 1,448 isolates, 412 were isolated from blood (28.4%). Streptococcus mitis group was the most frequently isolated (589 isolates, 40.7%), followed by the S. anginosus group (290 isolates, 20.0%), S. sanguinis group (179 isolates, 12.4%) and S. salivarius group (57 isolates, 3.9%). In total, 314 isolates could not be identified up to the species level. The overall non-susceptibility to penicillin was observed to be 40.0% (resistant, 11.2% and intermediately resistant, 28.8%) with uneven distribution among groups; 40.2% in S. sanguinis group (resistant, 5.0% and intermediately resistant, 35.2%), 60.3% in S. mitis group (resistant, 20.9% and intermediately resistant, 39.4%), 78.9% in S. salivarius group (resistant, 8.8% and intermediately resistant, 70.1%), and 6.2% in S. anginosus group (resistant, 1.7% and intermediately resistant, 4.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial resistance patterns towards penicillin show differences among various VGS; this should be considered while devising an effective antimicrobial treatment against VGS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Body Fluids/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clostridial bacteremia (CB) is the second most frequent anaerobic bacteremia, and CB patients show high mortality without prompt antimicrobial therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 11 years of CB cases in a tertiary care hospital to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of CB and to define the risk factors of fatal CB. METHODS: All patients with CB from January 2002 to December 2012 were included in the study. Age, sex, underlying diseases, antibiotic use, and clinical outcome were reviewed. Antibiotic therapy was classified as either 'appropriate' or 'inappropriate' based on the activity against Clostridium species. RESULTS: A total of 118 Clostridium isolates (0.79% of all blood culture isolates) were recovered from the blood cultures of 114 patients. The underlying conditions of patients with CB were neoplasm in 87 cases (76.3%), gastrointestinal symptoms in 84 cases (73.7%), diabetes in 17 cases (14.9%), and hemodialysis in six cases (5.3%). Of the 118 Clostridium isolates, C. perfringens was the most frequent species (42 isolates, 35.6%). Thirty-two patients (28.1%) showed polymicrobial bacteremia, which was most commonly combined with Escherichia coli. Two patients harbored more than two Clostridium species. 'Appropriate' antibiotics were given to 97 (85.1%) patients. The mortality rate of CB at days 2, 8, and 30 was 7.9% (9/114), 14.0% (16/114), and 26.3% (30/114), respectively. CONCLUSION: Neoplasm, especially in the gastrointestinal tract or of hematologic origin, and hemodialysis were considered to be risk factors of blood stream clostridial infection. Early appropriate antibiotic coverage of CB was not definitely associated with lower mortality in our study.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Bacteria, Anaerobic , Clostridium , Escherichia coli , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Korea , Mortality , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rivers , Sepsis , Tertiary Healthcare
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