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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167610

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of oral Theophylline for the management of post dural puncture headache (PDPH). Material and Method: Forty patients with PDPH, whose surgeries were done under spinal anaesthesia, were selected randomly and divided into two groups of 20 each. One group to receive conservative treatment and the other group Theophylline (400 mg) only orally. Intensity of headache was analysed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain. Assessment was done immediately before (0 h) and at 8, 16 and 24th hr of drug administration. Result: Significantly better relief of PDPH was found in Theophylline (9.3±5.7) than the conservative group (56.7 ±10.2) (p<0.001). Recurrence of headache was found in 2 patients (10 %) at16th hr and 2 (10%) at 24th hr in the Theophylline group compared to 12 (60%) and 14 (70%) patients respectively in the other group. Conclusion: The study concludes that Theophylline in the management of post dural puncture headache may be considered the best choice over the conventional approach.

2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-182843

ABSTRACT

The operation theater (OT) environment is charged with multiple inherent risks. So, the team in the OT and the patient brought for surgical treatment may come across various hazards that can be classified as: (a) physical and accidental hazards, (b) chemical hazards, (c) biological hazards, (d) fire hazards, and (e) other hazards, such as organizational, psychological, and atmospheric. Inadequate safety measures thus can result in multiple ill effects. Constant vigilance, awareness with timely intervention, maintenance of a specific operative procedure, and an educated team culture can make the OT environment a safe haven for the patient as well as for the theater team. The aim of this article is to identify and categorize the hazards that occur in the OT during surgery, and the related precautionary measures taken thereof for the safety of both the operating team and the patients who have the right to be treated with dignity and respect.

3.
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 Jan-Mar; 50(1): 58-64
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147321

ABSTRACT

Aims: To compare the clinical and pathologic assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and describe the various histopathologic changes observed. Materials and Methods: We studied a group of 40 patients with locally advanced breast cancer who had their initial workup in the form of clinico-imaging assessment of the size and pretreatment biopsy from the lesion. All the patients received two to six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, either cyclophosphamide 50 to 60 mg/m 2 IV, doxorubicin 40 to 50 mg/m 2 IV and 5-fluorouracil 500 to 800 mg/m 2 IV (CAF) or cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5-fluorouracil (CEF). Clinical and pathologic assessment of response to chemotherapy was done based on the UICC guidelines. Result: Complete clinical response (cCR) was seen in 10% cases (4/40), thirty percent patients had (12/40) partial response and 60% (24/40) had stable disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathologic complete response (pCR) with no evidence of viable tumor was observed in 20% patients (8/40). Fifteen patients (37.5%) showed partial response and 42.5% patients (17/40) had a stable disease. No patient progressed during the course of chemotherapy. Changes in the tumor type were observed following chemotherapy, most common being the mucinous change. Histologic changes like dyscohesion, shrinkage of tumor cells, elastosis, collagenization, necrosis, lymphocytic reaction, giant cell response are some of the common observations seen following treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion: Pathologic assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a better predictor than the clinical response. The chemotherapy drugs can be modified based on the response observed after 1-2 cycles of neoadjuvant, the response being based on both tumor and patient's responsiveness.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Pharmacological/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Ductal/pathology , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Doxorubicin/adverse effects , Epirubicin/administration & dosage , Epirubicin/adverse effects , Female , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
4.
Indian J Cancer ; 2010 Jul-Sept; 47(3): 280-286
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144351

ABSTRACT

Aims: Various features have been described in the literature to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. The aim of the present study was to study the accuracy of each of these features and that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five consecutive patients presenting with neoplastic (both benign and malignant) lesions diagnosed clinically and on ultrasound were studied and their MRI features were compared with the findings on surgical exploration and histopathologic examination. Results: There were 32 (58%) benign and 23 (42%) malignant masses. Malignant masses were more common in patients older than 20 years (83%), and these had symptoms of less than 6 months duration (75%), as against benign lesions. The swelling was painful in 8 malignant masses and these were more common in the upper limbs (61%). Various features of malignant lesions were size more than 5 cm in 83%, change in signal intensity from homogenous on T1-weighted images to heterogenous on T2-weighted images in 74%, irregular margins in 74%, and heterogenous contrast enhancement in 91%. The accuracy of these features was 76%, 58%, 78%, and 60%, respectively. Most benign and malignant lesions were intramuscular in location. A significant number (38%) of benign lesions were located in the intermuscular facial plane. Definitive diagnosis was made in 42% of the lesions. Conclusions: MRI is an excellent modality for evaluating soft tissue neoplasms; however, prediction of a specific diagnosis and differentiation of malignant and benign lesions is not always possible.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Feasibility Studies , Female , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/diagnosis , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/pathology , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/physiopathology , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Muscle Neoplasms/diagnosis , Muscle Neoplasms/pathology , Muscle Neoplasms/physiopathology , Muscle Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/diagnosis , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/pathology , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/physiopathology , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-89510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical spectrum associated with gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT). METHODS: All subjects whose bone marrow aspiration showed pink purple material on Leishman stain underwent a detail history, clinical examination and investigation (biochemical/microbiological/radiological). Additionally, in each subject the smear was stained with special stains of Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian blue. RESULTS: Out of total 1498 marrows, 65 showed evidence of GMT. All of these had anaemia. The associated clinical spectra of diseases noticed were: Infection (31 cases), Nutritional deficiency (5 cases), Haematological disorders (Aplastic/toxic depression) (17 cases), Malignancies (3 cases), and Miscellaneous (9 cases). CONCLUSION: Based on the heterogenecity of associated clinical disorders, GMT indicates severe illness and not a particular disease. GMT may be a result of bioregulatory process (which presently needs further prospective studies) that are activated in different pathologic conditions but resulting in similar lesion in the bone marrow and so till then it may be concluded that GMT is a symptom of bone marrow.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biopsy, Needle , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone Marrow Diseases/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged
9.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 1998 Nov; 96(11): 330-2
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-102733

ABSTRACT

Twenty patients of obstructive jaundice were subjected to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) of which 17 were operated on. Patients were divided in 4 groups according to the site of obstruction. The diagnostic signs observed were: Complete block with interface having convexity downwards (4), convexity upwards (3), biconcave caudal cut off (6), smooth edged cut off (one), irregular edged cut off (one) and non-specific appearance (one); incomplete block with interface having convexity upwards (one); biconcave caudal cut off (2) and multiple smooth central filling defects (2). In one case there was incomplete obstruction at two sites giving rise to two different signs. PTC was 100% correct in accurately telling the site of lesion. As regards the nature of the lesion the diagnosis on PTC was found correct in 15 out of 17 cases (88.5%).


Subject(s)
Cholangiography/methods , Cholestasis/etiology , Common Bile Duct Diseases/complications , Female , Hepatic Duct, Common/diagnostic imaging , Humans , India , Male , Pancreatic Diseases/complications , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 1996 Oct; 94(10): 379-80, 390
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-100371

ABSTRACT

Buffy coat smears prepared from peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate obtained from proved 60 untreated cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen method and thoroughly screened for presence of tubercle bacilli. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in 55% cases in buffy coat, 48.3% cases in bone marrow, 38.3% cases both in buffy coat and bone marrow and 65% cases either in buffy coat or in bone marrow or in both. Considering the fact that demonstration of acid-fast bacilli may not be possible in more than 25-50% of the suspected cases of tuberculosis, these techniques are recommended for evaluation of their utility in establishing diagnosis of tuberculosis, particularly in reference to sputum negative cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis of inaccessible extrapulmonary sites.


Subject(s)
Bacteriological Techniques , Bone Marrow/microbiology , Bone Marrow Examination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Humans , Incidence , India , Leukocytes/microbiology , Mass Screening , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Predictive Value of Tests , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111923

ABSTRACT

The clinicohaematological findings of acute state (Group A, 30 patients) and chronic state (Group B, 34 patients) of falciparum malaria in paediatric patients are compared. The children with chronic falciparum malaria were apyrexic and presented with features of moderate to severe anaemia with hepato-splenomegaly. Greater severity of anaemia and haemolysis, higher incidence and severity of neutropenia, atypical lymphocytosis, monocytosis and thrombocytopenia were observed in patients with chronic falciparum malaria as compared to patients with acute falciparum malaria despite lesser degree of parasitaemia in the former as compared to the latter. While mechanical destruction of parasitised RBC's, ineffective and dysplastic erythropoiesis either due to unmasking of border line dierty folic acid deficiency or otherwise, transient hypoplasia of bone marrow, impaired utilization of iron and immune destruction of RBCs with hypersplenism may be the mechanisms for anaemia, transient hypoplasia of bone marrow and hypersplenism may be the factors responsible for thrombocytopenia and neutropenia.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adolescent , Anemia/epidemiology , Bone Marrow/parasitology , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infant , Malaria, Falciparum/blood
14.
Indian Pediatr ; 1991 Jun; 28(6): 647-52
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-10802

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out in 100 children of acute pneumonia to establish the diagnosis of etiologic agents. Clinico-radiological assessment and routine investigations including sputum, throat swab and blood culture did not help in identifying the offending micro-organisms. The bacteriological examination of lung puncture aspirate was the most satisfactory tool for the etiological diagnosis. Direct smear examination/culture were positive in 50% aspirates. On cytology, definite epithelioid granulomas indicated tuberculous infection. However, in direct smear/culture negative patients, predominant mononuclear cell infiltration in the aspirated material may indicate non-pyogenic infection. Staphylococcus aureus (22%) was the commonest organism causing pneumonia in the present study.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adolescent , Biopsy, Needle , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pneumonia/etiology , Sputum/microbiology
18.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 1975 Dec; 65(11): 308-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-98939
19.
20.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 1958 Oct; 31(7): 284-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-102974
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