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1.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 14-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902826

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Premature infants have immature respiratory control and cerebral autoregulation. We aimed to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation during apnea with and without peripheral oxygen desaturation in premature infants. @*Methods@#This prospective observational study was conducted at Inha University Hospital. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-monitored regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and pulse oximeter-monitored peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) were assessed during the first week of life in 16 stable, spontaneously breathing preterm infants. Apneic episodes that lasted for ≥20 seconds or were accompanied by desaturation or bradycardia were included for analysis. The average rScO2 value during the 5-minute prior to apnea (baseline), the lowest rScO2 value following apnea (nadir), the time to recover to baseline (recovery time), the area under the curve (AUC), and the overshoot above the baseline after recovery were analyzed. @*Results@#The median gestational age and birth weight of the infants were 29.2 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 28.5 to 30.5) and 1,130 g (IQR, 985 to 1,245), respectively. A total of 73 apneic episodes were recorded at a median postnatal age of 2 days (IQR, 1 to 4). The rScO2 decreased significantly following apneic episodes regardless accompanied desaturation. There were no differences in baseline, nadir, or overshoot rScO2 between the two groups. However, the rScO2 AUC for apnea with desaturation was significantly higher than that for apnea without desaturation. @*Conclusion@#Cerebral oxygenation can significantly decrease during apnea, especially when accompanied by reduced SpO2. These results add the evidence for the clinical utility of NIRS in monitoring premature infants.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897407

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

3.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 14-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895122

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Premature infants have immature respiratory control and cerebral autoregulation. We aimed to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation during apnea with and without peripheral oxygen desaturation in premature infants. @*Methods@#This prospective observational study was conducted at Inha University Hospital. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-monitored regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and pulse oximeter-monitored peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) were assessed during the first week of life in 16 stable, spontaneously breathing preterm infants. Apneic episodes that lasted for ≥20 seconds or were accompanied by desaturation or bradycardia were included for analysis. The average rScO2 value during the 5-minute prior to apnea (baseline), the lowest rScO2 value following apnea (nadir), the time to recover to baseline (recovery time), the area under the curve (AUC), and the overshoot above the baseline after recovery were analyzed. @*Results@#The median gestational age and birth weight of the infants were 29.2 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 28.5 to 30.5) and 1,130 g (IQR, 985 to 1,245), respectively. A total of 73 apneic episodes were recorded at a median postnatal age of 2 days (IQR, 1 to 4). The rScO2 decreased significantly following apneic episodes regardless accompanied desaturation. There were no differences in baseline, nadir, or overshoot rScO2 between the two groups. However, the rScO2 AUC for apnea with desaturation was significantly higher than that for apnea without desaturation. @*Conclusion@#Cerebral oxygenation can significantly decrease during apnea, especially when accompanied by reduced SpO2. These results add the evidence for the clinical utility of NIRS in monitoring premature infants.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889703

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

5.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 288-296, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918757

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a high-grade lung neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis, similar to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, it remains unclear whether to treat LCNEC as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or as SCLC. We reviewed our experiences to suggest appropriate treatment strategy for resected pulmonary LCNEC. @*Materials and Methods@#Forty-four patients were treated for pathologically diagnosed pulmonary LCNEC during 2005‒2018. We considered curative surgery first in early-stage or some locally advanced tumors, unless medically inoperable. Adjuvant treatments were decided considering patient’s clinical and pathological features. After excluding two stage I tumors with radiotherapy alone and three stage III tumors with upfront chemotherapy, we analyzed 39 patients with stage I‒III pulmonary LCNEC, who underwent curative resection first. @*Results@#Adjuvant chemotherapy (NSCLC-based 91%, SCLC-based 9%) was performed in 62%, and adjuvant radiotherapy was done in three patients for pN2 or positive margin. None received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 68% and 51%, and the 2- and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 49% and 43%, respectively. Aged ≥67 years and SCLC-mixed pathology were significant poor prognostic factors for OS or RFS (p < 0.05). Among 17 recurrences, regional failures were most common (n = 6), and there were five brain metastases. @*Conclusions@#Surgery and adjuvant treatment (without PCI) could achieve favorable outcomes in pulmonary LCNEC, which was more similar to NSCLC, although some factors worsened the prognosis. The importance of intensified adjuvant therapies with multidisciplinary approach remains high.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 315-324, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic resection is a standard treatment for stage T1a esophageal cancer, with esophagectomy or radical radiation therapy (RT) performed for stage T1b lesions. This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes of each modality for clinical stage T1 esophageal cancer. METHODS: In total, 179 patients with clinical T1N0M0-stage esophageal cancer treated from 2006 to 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Sixty-two patients with clinical T1a-stage cancer underwent endoscopic resection. Among 117 patients with clinical T1b-stage cancer, 82 underwent esophagectomy, and 35 received chemoradiotherapy or RT. We compared overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for each treatment modality. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 32 months (range, 1 to 120 months). The 5-year OS and RFS rates for patients with stage T1a cancer receiving endoscopic resection were 100% and 85%, respectively. For patients with stage T1b, the 5-year OS and RFS rates were 78% and 77%, respectively, for the esophagectomy group; 80% and 44%, respectively, for the RT alone group; and 96% and 80%, respectively, for the chemoradiation group. The esophagectomy group showed significantly higher RFS than the RT alone group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference in RFS between the esophagectomy and chemoradiation groups (p=0.922). Grade 4 or higher treatment-related complications occurred in four patients who underwent esophagectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic resection appeared to be an adequate treatment for patients with T1a-stage esophageal cancer. The multidisciplinary approach involving chemoradiation was comparable to esophagectomy in terms of survival outcome without serious complications for T1b-stage esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 193-200, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761010

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the role of salvage radiotherapy (RT) for recurrent thymoma as an alternative to surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2015, 47 patients who received salvage RT for recurrent thymoma at Yonsei Cancer Center were included in this study. Recurrent sites included initial tumor bed (n = 4), pleura (n = 19), lung parenchyma (n = 10), distant (n = 9), and multiple regions (n = 5). Three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated RT were used in 29 and 18 patients, respectively. Median prescribed dose to gross tumor was 52 Gy (range, 30 to 70 Gy), with equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD₂). We investigated overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and patterns of failure. Local failure after salvage RT was defined as recurrence at the target volume receiving >50% of the prescription dose. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 83 months (range, 8 to 299 months). Five-year OS and PFS were 70% and 22%, respectively. The overall response rate was 97.9%; complete response, 34%; partial response, 44.7%; and stable disease, 19.1%. In multivariate analysis, histologic type and salvage RT dose (≥52 Gy, EQD₂) were significantly associated with OS. The high dose group (≥52 Gy, EQD₂) had significantly better outcomes than the low dose group (5-year OS: 80% vs. 59%, p = 0.046; 5-year PFS: 30% vs. 14%, p=0.002). Treatment failure occurred in 34 patients; out-of-field failure was dominant (intra-thoracic recurrence 35.3%; extrathoracic recurrence 11.8%), while local failure rate was 5.8%. CONCLUSION: Salvage RT for recurrent thymoma using high doses and advanced precision techniques produced favorable outcomes, providing evidence that recurrent thymoma is radiosensitive.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung , Multivariate Analysis , Pleura , Prescriptions , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Thymoma , Treatment Failure
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761002

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Internal mammary lymph node (IMN) involvement is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. This study investigated the treatment outcomes of initial clinically IMN-positive breast cancer patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), including IMN irradiation, following primary breast surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of 95 breast cancer patients with clinically detected IMNs at diagnosis treated with surgery and RT between June 2009 and December 2015. Patients received adjuvant RT to the whole breast/chest wall and regional lymph node (axillary, internal mammary, and supraclavicular) areas. Twelve patients received an additional boost to the IMN area. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 43.2 months (range, 4.5 to 100.5 months). Among 77 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 52 (67.5%) showed IMN normalization and 19 (24.6%) showed a partial response to IMN. There were 3 and 24 cases of IMN failure and any recurrence, respectively. The 5-year IMN failure-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 96%, 70%, and 84%, respectively. IMN failure-free survival was significantly affected by resection margin status (97.7% if negative, 87.5% for close or positive margins; p = 0.009). All three patients with IMN failure had initial IMN size ≥1 cm and did not receive IMN boost irradiation. The median age of the three patients was 31 years, and all had hormone receptor-negative tumors. CONCLUSION: RT provides excellent IMN control without the support of IMN surgery. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, including IMN boost for breast cancer patients, is a safe and effective technique for regional lymph node irradiation.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
9.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 304-316, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741960

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The indication of elective neck treatment (ENT) for clinically N0 (cN0) paranasal sinus (PNS) carcinoma remains unclear. We aimed to investigate different treatment outcomes regarding ENT and propose optimal recommendations for ENT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with cN0 PNS carcinoma who underwent curative-intent treatment between 1992 and 2015. Survival outcomes and pattern of failure were compared between patients who received ENT and those who did not. We sought to identify significant patient or pathologic factors regarding treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Among 124 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 40 (32%) received ENT (‘ENT (+) group’) and 84 (68%) did not (‘ENT (−) group’). With a median follow-up of 54 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 67%, and the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 45%. There was no significant difference between the ENT (+) and ENT (−) groups regarding OS (p = 0.67) and PFS (p = 0.50). Neither group showed a significantly different pattern of failure, including regional failure (p = 0.91). There was no specific benefit, even in the subgroups analysis by tumor site, histologic type, and T stage. Nevertheless, patients who ever had regional and/or distant failure showed significantly worse prognosis. CONCLUSION: ENT did not significantly affect the survival outcome or pattern of failure in patients with cN0 PNS carcinomas, showing that ENT should not be generalized in this group. However, further discussion on the optimal strategy for ENT should continue because of the non-negligible regional failure rates and significantly worse prognosis after regional failure events.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neck , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 103-113, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare tumor with a lethal clinical course despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may achieve a good therapeutic outcome in ATC patients, and the role of IMRT should be assessed. We retrospectively reviewed outcomes for ATC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or IMRT to determine the optimal treatment option and explore the role of radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2000 and December 2015, 41 patients with pathologically proven ATC received RT with a sufficient dose of ≥40 Gy. Among them, 21 patients (51%) underwent surgery before RT. Twenty-eight patients received IMRT, and 13 received 3D-CRT. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), patterns of failure, and toxicity were examined. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for survivors was 38.0 months. The median and 1-year OS and PFS rates were 7.2 months and 29%, 4.5 months and 15%, respectively. Surgery significantly improved the prognosis (median OS: 10.7 vs. 3.9 months, p = 0.001; median PFS: 5.9 vs. 2.5 months, p = 0.007). IMRT showed significantly better PFS and OS than 3D-CRT, even in multivariate analysis (OS: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.30, p = 0.005; PFS: HR = 0.33, p = 0.005). Significantly higher radiation dose could be delivered with IMRT than 3D-CRT (EQD210 66 vs. 60 Gy, p = 0.005). Only 2 patients had grade III dermatitis after IMRT. No other severe toxicity ≥grade III occurred. CONCLUSION: Patients with ATC showed better prognosis through multimodal treatment. Furthermore, IMRT could achieve favorable survival rates by safely delivering higher dose than 3D-CRT.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Dermatitis , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Survivors , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715317

ABSTRACT

With increasing clinical use, radiotherapy (RT) has been considered reliable and effective method for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment, depending on extent of disease and patient characteristics. RT for HCC can improve therapeutic outcomes through excellent local control, downstaging, conversion from unresectable to resectable status, and treatments of unresectable HCCs with vessel invasion or multiple intrahepatic metastases. In addition, further development of modern RT technologies, including image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy, has expanded the indication of RT. An essential feature of IGRT is that it allows image guidance therapy through in-room images obtained during radiation delivery. Compared with 3D-conformal RT, distinctions of IMRT are inverse treatment planning process and use of a large number of treatment fields or subfields, which provide high precision and exquisitely conformal dose distribution. These modern RT techniques allow more precise treatment by reducing inter- and intra-fractional errors resulting from daily changes and irradiated dose at surrounding normal tissues. More recently, particle therapy has been actively investigated to improve effectiveness of RT. This review discusses modern RT strategies for HCC, as well as optimal selection of RT in multimodal approach for HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Humans , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 912-922, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717939

ABSTRACT

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a form of radiotherapy that delivers high doses of irradiation with high precision in a small number of fractions. However, it has not frequently been performed for the liver due to the risk of radiation-induced liver toxicity. Furthermore, liver SBRT is cumbersome because it requires accurate patient repositioning, target localization, control of breathing-related motion, and confers a toxicity risk to the small bowel. Recently, with the advancement of modern technologies including intensity-modulated RT and image-guided RT, SBRT has been shown to significantly improve local control and survival outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), specifically those unfit for other local therapies. While it can be used as a stand-alone treatment for those patients, it can also be applied either as an alternative or as an adjunct to other HCC therapies (e.g., transarterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation). SBRT might be an effective and safe bridging therapy for patients awaiting liver transplantation. Furthermore, in recent studies, SBRT has been shown to have a potential role as an immunostimulator, supporting the novel combination strategy of immunoradiotherapy for HCC. In this review, the role of SBRT with some technical issues is discussed. In addition, future implications of SBRT as an immunostimulator are considered.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Humans , Immunotherapy , Liver , Liver Transplantation , Moving and Lifting Patients , Radioimmunotherapy , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
13.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 45-53, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: As the optimal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been confirmed, we aimed herein to provide a practical guideline by our retrospective review. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with primary HCC who underwent liver SBRT via 3 modalities (helical tomotherapy [HT]: 22, volumetric modulated arc therapy [VMAT]: 13, Cyberknife: 4) at our institution between July 2014 and July 2015 were included. Modalities were compared with regard to dose conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), clinical results, and patient compliance. RESULTS: VMAT SBRT had favorable conformity (CI: 0.7±0.2), homogeneity (HI: 1.1±0.0), and shortest treatment time (100.2±26.1 seconds). HT SBRT yielded good dosimetric outcomes, especially in conformity (CI: 1.0±0.2). Although the Cyberknife SBRT synchrony system allowed real-time tumor targeting, the treatment time was longest (3,015.0±447.3 seconds), invasive pre-treatment procedures were required, and the HI (1.3±0.0) was lowest. CONCLUSIONS: All 3 modalities yielded competent dosimetric planning parameters. VMAT SBRT was most appropriate for tumors with residual lipiodol or patients with poor conditions. HT SBRT is available for multiple or irregular targets. Cyberknife SBRT is recommended for carefully selected patients and tumors indicated for sono-guided fiducial insertion.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Ethiodized Oil , Humans , Liver , Patient Compliance , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648633

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with multiple traumas often experience multiple fractures that are missed or overlooked, despite the use of imaging, careful history taking, and physical examinations. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of whole body bone scan (WBBS) for detecting missed bone injuries in patients with multiple traumas. METHODS: We evaluated 30 patients with multiple traumas who underwent WBBS at single tertiary referral center between March 2008 and February 2016. We assessed the association of patient demographics with WBBS uptake as a binomial outcome variable. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patient demographics by WBBS. The mean injury severity score did not differ by WBBS (18.1 in the WBBS-negative group vs. 18.4 in the WBBS-positive group), and duration from admission to the evaluation of the WBBS was similar (5.4 days in both groups). The most common uptake site in the WBBS was the ribs (n=7), followed by the tibia (n=3), skull (n=2), ankle (n=1), and sternum (n=1). None of the missed injuries required further treatment, such as manual reduction or surgery. CONCLUSION: WBBS was useful for detecting missed bone injuries in patients with multiple trauma.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Demography , Fractures, Multiple , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Multiple Trauma , Physical Examination , Ribs , Skull , Sternum , Tertiary Care Centers , Tibia
15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 310-319, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70162

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is highly sensitive to radiotherapy (RT). However, the effectiveness of RT has not been well established. We reviewed our experiences to assess the role of RT for FL and analyze treatment results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis was done on 29 patients who received first RT between January 2003 and August 2013. Of 23 early stage (stage I, II) patients, 16 received RT alone, four received chemotherapy followed by RT, two received RT postoperatively, and one received salvage RT for relapse after resection. Six advanced-stage (stage III, IV) patients received RT after chemotherapy: two received consolidation RT, three received salvage RT for residual lesions, and one received RT for progressive sites. Median RT dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 21.6 to 48.6 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 62 months (range, 6 to 141 months). RESULTS: All patients showed complete response in the radiation field. Eight outfield relapses were reported. Seven patients received salvage treatment (three chemotherapy, four RT). Four patients showed excellent responses, especially to RT. Estimated 5-year and 10-year relapse-free survivals were 72% and 60%. In the RT-alone group, 5-year relapse-free survival was 74.5%. All advanced-stage patients were disease-free with 100% 5-year overall survival. Disease-specific death was noted in only one patient; four others died of other unrelated causes. No significant toxicity was reported. CONCLUSION: RT resulted in excellent treatment outcomes for all FL stages when used as a primary treatment modality for early stage or salvage-treatment modality for advanced-stage disease.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymphoma, Follicular , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 126-133, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and to analyze prognostic factors of survival in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with FIGO IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant RT at the Yonsei Cancer Center between June 1997 and December 2011. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis or an extended field with or without brachytherapy. Among all patients, 57 (38.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy either concurrently or sequentially. To analyze prognostic factors, we assessed clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters measured on preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). To evaluate the predictive performance of metabolic parameters, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 63.2 months (range, 2.7 to 206.8 months). Locoregional recurrence alone occurred in 6 patients, while distant metastasis was present in 16 patients, including 2 patients with simultaneous regional failure. The 5-year and 10-year OSs were 87.0% and 85.4%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year DFSs were 83.8% and 82.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pathologic type and tumor size were shown to be significant prognostic factors associated with both DFS and OS. In subset analysis of 40 patients who underwent preoperative PET/CT, total lesion glycolysis was shown to be the most significant prognostic factor among the clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters for DFS. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that adjuvant RT following hysterectomy effectively improves local control. From the subset analysis of preoperative PET/CT, we can consider that metabolic parameters may hold prognostic significance in early uterine cervical cancer patients. More effective systemic treatments might be needed to reduce distant metastasis in these patients.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Electrons , Follow-Up Studies , Glycolysis , Gynecology , Humans , Hysterectomy , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Obstetrics , Pelvis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
17.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 126-133, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and to analyze prognostic factors of survival in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with FIGO IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant RT at the Yonsei Cancer Center between June 1997 and December 2011. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis or an extended field with or without brachytherapy. Among all patients, 57 (38.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy either concurrently or sequentially. To analyze prognostic factors, we assessed clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters measured on preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). To evaluate the predictive performance of metabolic parameters, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 63.2 months (range, 2.7 to 206.8 months). Locoregional recurrence alone occurred in 6 patients, while distant metastasis was present in 16 patients, including 2 patients with simultaneous regional failure. The 5-year and 10-year OSs were 87.0% and 85.4%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year DFSs were 83.8% and 82.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pathologic type and tumor size were shown to be significant prognostic factors associated with both DFS and OS. In subset analysis of 40 patients who underwent preoperative PET/CT, total lesion glycolysis was shown to be the most significant prognostic factor among the clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters for DFS. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that adjuvant RT following hysterectomy effectively improves local control. From the subset analysis of preoperative PET/CT, we can consider that metabolic parameters may hold prognostic significance in early uterine cervical cancer patients. More effective systemic treatments might be needed to reduce distant metastasis in these patients.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Electrons , Follow-Up Studies , Glycolysis , Gynecology , Humans , Hysterectomy , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Obstetrics , Pelvis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
18.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 125-131, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209407

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We reviewed treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with salivary ductal carcinoma (SDC) treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy from 2005 to 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 patients were identified and 15 eligible patients were included in analysis. Median age was 61 years (range, 40 to 71 years) and 12 patients (80%) were men. Twelve patients (80%) had a tumor in the parotid gland, 9 (60%) had T3 or T4 disease, and 9 (60%) had positive nodal disease. All patients underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant failure-free survival (DFFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in survival based on risk factors were tested using a log-rank test. RESULTS: Median total radiotherapy dose was 60 Gy (range, 52.5 to 63.6 Gy). Four patients received concurrent weekly chemotherapy with cisplatin. Among 10 patients who underwent surgery with neck dissection, 7 received modified radical neck dissection. With a median follow-up time of 38 months (range, 24 to 105 months), 4-year rates were 86% for LRFFS, 51% for DFFS, 46% for PFS, and 93% for OS. Local failure was observed in 2 patients (13%), and distant failure was observed in 7 (47%). The lung was the most common involved site of distant metastasis. CONCLUSION: Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in SDC patients resulted in good local control, but high distant metastasis remained a major challenge.


Subject(s)
Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung , Male , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Parotid Gland , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Risk Factors , Salivary Ducts
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649634

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the nutritional status and to compare nutritional indicators by caloric intake for intensive care unit patients. METHODS: The participants for this descriptive investigation were 62 patients who were admitted to medical and surgical ICUs and started on enteral feeding. Data were collected in a tertiary hospital and the patients were followed for 7 days after enteral feeding was initiated. For analysis, patients who received 80% less calories than their required level were categorized as the underfed group and patients who received more than 80% to their required level, as the adequately fed group. RESULTS: Compared to daily requirements, the prescribed calories and protein for patients overall were 77.39% and 64.75% respectively. The level of calories and protein given was less than their prescription. However, a comparison of the underfed group and the adequately fed group, showed that there was no significantly difference in albumin, prealbumin and transferrin. Only body weight was significantly different between the groups. C-reactive protein had a significant correlation with prealbumin and transferrin. CONCLUSION: Underfeeding is a common phenomenon among ICU patients. Nutritional indicators such as prealbumin, albumin and transferrin may not sensitive indicators to assess nutritional status of ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , C-Reactive Protein , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prealbumin , Prescriptions , Tertiary Care Centers , Transferrin
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126862

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study was to examine major factors that affect suicidal ideation of elderly in urban areas. METHODS: The subjects were 302 elders who voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments for this study were scale for suicidal ideation(19 items), family concord (20 items), CED-depression(20 items) and family inventor of life events and changes(FILE, 22 items). Frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan test, Pearson' correlation coefficient, stepwise multiple regression with SPSS program were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The average score of suicidal ideation was 14.88. Suicidal ideation was positively related to depression and stress, but negatively related to family concord. depression, family concord, stress and health status accounted for 86.1% of the variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that family concord, depression and stress can be potential risk factors for suicide of elderly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may give useful information for developing suicidal prevention program on old age.


Subject(s)
Aged , Depression , Humans , Inventors , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide
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