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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149585

ABSTRACT

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) were recommended as a monotherapy or combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents or basal insulin in the position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association 2017 for pharmacological therapy. Many randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews report that GLP-1RAs have considerable glucose-lowering effect and lead to weight reduction and low risk of hypoglycemia when used as a monotherapy or combination therapy. The cardiovascular safety of GLP-1RAs has been assessed in several randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. The results of cardiovascular outcome trials of long-acting GLP-1RAs (liraglutide, semaglutide) demonstrated cardiovascular benefits in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The GLP-1RA may be a choice of therapy when weight control and avoidance of hypoglycemia are important, and patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease might also favor choosing GLP-1RA.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Weight Loss
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67291

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The KDA regularly updates its Clinical Practice Guidelines, but since the last update in 2015, many results from clinical trials have been introduced, and domestic data from studies performed in Korean patients with T2DM have been published. Recently, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations. Additionally, new data from clinical trials using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones in Korean patients with T2DM were added. Following a systematic review and assessment of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the use of antihyperglycemic agents and revised the treatment algorithm for Korean adult patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Thiazolidinediones
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67290

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the quality of life and to prevent chronic complications related to diabetes mellitus, intensive lifestyle modification and proper medication are needed from the early stage of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When using the first medication for diabetic patients, the appropriate treatment should be selected considering the clinical characteristics of the patient, efficacy of the drug, side effects, and cost. In general, the use of metformin as the first treatment for oral hypoglycemic monotherapy is recommended because of its excellent blood glucose-lowering effect, relatively low side effects, long-term proven safety, low risk of hypoglycemia, and low weight gain. If metformin is difficult to use as a first-line treatment, other appropriate medications should be selected in view of the clinical situation. If the goal of achieving glycemic control is not achieved by monotherapy, a combination therapy with different mechanisms of action should be initiated promptly.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Life Style , Metformin , Quality of Life , Weight Gain
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67289

ABSTRACT

The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) has regularly updated its Clinical Practice Guidelines. In 2017, the KDA published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Growing evidence from new multinational clinical trials using novel and traditional insulin analogues has also been accumulated. Following global trends, many results of clinical trials, especially concerning the clinical efficacy and safety of insulin therapy, have been published about Korean patients with T2DM. After a systematic search of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the initiation, choice, and intensification of insulin and created an insulin treatment algorithm for the first time to guide physicians caring for adult Korean patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Korea , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67288

ABSTRACT

The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) recently updated the Clinical Practice Guidelines on antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), general recommendations were not changed from those of the 2015 KDA guidelines. The Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines of the KDA has extensively reviewed and discussed the results of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of effectiveness and safety of OHAs and many clinical trials on Korean patients with T2DM for the update of guidelines. All OHAs were effective when added to metformin or metformin and sulfonylurea, although the effects of each agent on body weight and hypoglycemia were different. Therefore, selection of a second agent as a metformin add-on therapy or third agent as a metformin and sulfonylurea add-on therapy should be based on the patient’s clinical characteristics and the efficacy, side effects, mechanism of action, risk of hypoglycemia, effect on body weight, patient preference, and combined comorbidity. In this review, we address the results of meta-analyses and systematic reviews, comparing the effectiveness and safety among OHAs. It will help to choose the appropriate drug for an individual patient with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Weight , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin , Patient Preference
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123920

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The KDA regularly updates its Clinical Practice Guidelines, but since the last update in 2015, many results from clinical trials have been introduced, and domestic data from studies performed in Korean patients with T2DM have been published. Recently, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations. Additionally, new data from clinical trials using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones in Korean patients with T2DM were added. Following a systematic review and assessment of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the use of antihyperglycemic agents and revised the treatment algorithm for Korean adult patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Thiazolidinediones
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123919

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the quality of life and to prevent chronic complications related to diabetes mellitus, intensive lifestyle modification and proper medication are needed from the early stage of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When using the first medication for diabetic patients, the appropriate treatment should be selected considering the clinical characteristics of the patient, efficacy of the drug, side effects, and cost. In general, the use of metformin as the first treatment for oral hypoglycemic monotherapy is recommended because of its excellent blood glucose-lowering effect, relatively low side effects, long-term proven safety, low risk of hypoglycemia, and low weight gain. If metformin is difficult to use as a first-line treatment, other appropriate medications should be selected in view of the clinical situation. If the goal of achieving glycemic control is not achieved by monotherapy, a combination therapy with different mechanisms of action should be initiated promptly.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Life Style , Metformin , Quality of Life , Weight Gain
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123918

ABSTRACT

The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) recently updated the Clinical Practice Guidelines on antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), general recommendations were not changed from those of the 2015 KDA guidelines. The Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines of the KDA has extensively reviewed and discussed the results of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of effectiveness and safety of OHAs and many clinical trials on Korean patients with T2DM for the update of guidelines. All OHAs were effective when added to metformin or metformin and sulfonylurea, although the effects of each agent on body weight and hypoglycemia were different. Therefore, selection of a second agent as a metformin add-on therapy or third agent as a metformin and sulfonylurea add-on therapy should be based on the patient's clinical characteristics and the efficacy, side effects, mechanism of action, risk of hypoglycemia, effect on body weight, patient preference, and combined comorbidity. In this review, we address the results of meta-analyses and systematic reviews, comparing the effectiveness and safety among OHAs. It will help to choose the appropriate drug for an individual patient with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Weight , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin , Patient Preference
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123917

ABSTRACT

The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) has regularly updated its Clinical Practice Guidelines. In 2017, the KDA published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Growing evidence from new multinational clinical trials using novel and traditional insulin analogues has also been accumulated. Following global trends, many results of clinical trials, especially concerning the clinical efficacy and safety of insulin therapy, have been published about Korean patients with T2DM. After a systematic search of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the initiation, choice, and intensification of insulin and created an insulin treatment algorithm for the first time to guide physicians caring for adult Korean patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Korea , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95355

ABSTRACT

Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor has been recently reported of diabetic ketoacidosis due to accumulation of ketone bodies in patients with severe dehydration caused from such like diarrhea even though the patient had normal glucose level. This is a case of ketoacidosis in normal glucose level as production of ketone bodies is stimulated in liver with increased secretion of glucagon by stimulation of α cells in pancreas due to increase of lipolysis caused from reducing insulin and by SGLT2 inhibitor among patients who are under concurrent insulin and SGLT2 inhibitor. Thus, insulin dosage reduction requires caution in order to control blood glucose level on combined treatment of SGLT2 inhibitor in a patient who is administering insulin because the patient may be caused ketoacidosis in normal blood glucose level.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Dehydration , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Diarrhea , Glucagon , Glucose , Humans , Insulin , Ketone Bodies , Ketosis , Lipolysis , Liver , Pancreas , Sodium
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes develops because of defects in both insulin secretion and action. The half-life of insulin in uremia is prolonged because the metabolic clearance rate of insulin in diabetic end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is reduced with consequence that the dose of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) administered in normal renal function make them increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore, we should usually reduce the dose of insulin and/or OHA, or stop administration of insulin and/or OHA if type 2 diabetic patients are progressed to ESRD. But in some patients, that is not true. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that insulin resistance plays an important role in (re)evaluation of optimal insulin and/or OHA dose for glycemic control after type 2 diabetic patients are progressed to ESRD. METHODS: Insulin resistance was examined in 23 type 2 diabetic ESRD patients with tight control of glycemia using the K index of the insulin tolerance test (Kitt). We divided 23 patients into three groups. Group 1 (n=10) was defined as patients who were administered neither insulin nor OHA after ESRD. Group 2 (n=9) was defined as patients who were changed from insulin to OHA as drug for glycemic control after ESRD. Group 3 (n=4) was defined as patients in whom insulin or OHA was continuously administered after ESRD without a change of them for glycemic control. We compared the degree of insulin resistance among these three groups. RESULTS: Insulin resistance determined by Kitt was significantly different between group 1 (Kitt, 2.1422/0.94-4.01%/min), group 2 (Kitt, 1.3811/0.79- 3.90%/min) and group 3 (Kitt, 0.8550/0.44-1.81%/min) by using Kruskal-Wallis test (p=0.048). Kitt in group 3 was significantly lower than in group 1 by using Mann-Whitney test (p=0.016). CONCLUSION: Although metabolic clearance of insulin is reduced by renal failure, demand of insulin/ OHA for optimal glycemic control is not reduced in higher insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic ESRD patients on hemodialysis. Insulin resistance plays an important role in determination of optimal insulin/ OHA dose for glycemic control after type 2 diabetic patients are progressed to ESRD.


Subject(s)
Half-Life , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency , Uremia
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a fat cell-secreted cytokine, which has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity and have antiatherogenic properties. However, it is still unclear whether resistin plays a significant role in the development of insulin resistance in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of the adiponectin and resistin concentrations with insulin resistance, metabolic markers and adiposity in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. METHODS: Eighty-three type 2 diabetic and 139 healthy subjects were studied. Blood samples were drawn after fasting to determine the fasting plasma glucose, insulin, resistin, adiponectin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. The subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured at the umbilical level using computed tomography. RESULTS: The serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in the diabetic(6.7+/-2.3microgram/mL) than in the obese(8.2+/-2.4microgram/mL, P<0.01) and non-obese subjects(9.9+/-4.5microgram/mL, P<0.01). The serum resistin concentrations were Similar between the non-obese, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. From a multiple regression analysis, the fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol and HOMA-IR were found to be independent determinants of the log of the adiponectin level in the diabetes group. In healthy subjects, the gender, BMI, HOMA-IR, visceral fat area and HDL-cholesterol were associated with the log of the adiponectin level. However, the log of the resistin level was not associated with the markers of insulin resistance and obesity. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the serum adiponectin concentration was closely related to the insulin resistance marker in both healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. However, the resistin concentration was not associated with the markers of insulin resistance and/or obesity.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , Adiposity , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Obesity , Resistin , Risk Factors , Triglycerides
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