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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897301

ABSTRACT

Currently, the expanding recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) threatens public health. SCBs produce psychoactive effects similar to those of tetrahydrocannabinol, the main component of cannabis, and additionally induce unexpected pharmacological side effects. SCBs are falsely advertised as legal and safe, but in reality, SCB abuse has been reported to cause acute intoxication and addictive disorders. However, because of the lack of scientific evidence to elucidate their dangerous pharmacological effects, SCBs are weakly regulated and continue to circulate in illegal drug markets. In the present study, the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm was used to evaluate the abuse potential of three SCBs (AM-1248, CB-13, and PB-22) in rats. All three SCBs maintained IVSA with a large number of infusions and active lever presses, demonstrating their reinforcing effects.The increase of active lever presses was particularly significant during the early IVSA sessions, indicating the reinforcementenhancing effects of the SCBs (AM-1248 and CB-13). The number of inactive lever presses was significantly higher in the SCB groups (AM-1248 and CB-13) than that in the vehicle group, indicating their impulsive effects. In summary, these results demonstrated that SCBs have distinct pharmacological properties and abuse potential.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889597

ABSTRACT

Currently, the expanding recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) threatens public health. SCBs produce psychoactive effects similar to those of tetrahydrocannabinol, the main component of cannabis, and additionally induce unexpected pharmacological side effects. SCBs are falsely advertised as legal and safe, but in reality, SCB abuse has been reported to cause acute intoxication and addictive disorders. However, because of the lack of scientific evidence to elucidate their dangerous pharmacological effects, SCBs are weakly regulated and continue to circulate in illegal drug markets. In the present study, the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm was used to evaluate the abuse potential of three SCBs (AM-1248, CB-13, and PB-22) in rats. All three SCBs maintained IVSA with a large number of infusions and active lever presses, demonstrating their reinforcing effects.The increase of active lever presses was particularly significant during the early IVSA sessions, indicating the reinforcementenhancing effects of the SCBs (AM-1248 and CB-13). The number of inactive lever presses was significantly higher in the SCB groups (AM-1248 and CB-13) than that in the vehicle group, indicating their impulsive effects. In summary, these results demonstrated that SCBs have distinct pharmacological properties and abuse potential.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874327

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation—a common pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease—is mediated by microglial activation. Thus, inhibiting microglial activation is vital for treating various neurological disorders. 7,3’,4’-Trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF)—a secondary metabolite of the soybean compound daidzein—possesses antioxidant and anticancer properties. However, the effects of 7,3’,4’-THIF on microglial activation have not been explored. In this study, antineuroinflammatory effects of 7,3’,4’-THIF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells were examined. 7,3’,4’-THIF significantly suppressed the production of the proinflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, 7,3’,4’-THIF markedly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blotting revealed that 7,3’,4’-THIF diminished LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Overall, 7,3’,4’-THIF exerts antineuroinflammatory effects against LPSinduced microglial activation by suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling, ultimately reducing proinflammatory responses. Therefore, these antineuroinflammatory effects of 7,3’,4’-THIF suggest its potential as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763027

ABSTRACT

Daidzein isolated from soybean (Glycine max) has been widely studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effects of 7,8,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity are not well understood. In the current study, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly inhibited neuronal cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells, which were used as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, pretreatment with 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly recovered 6-OHDA-induced cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), increased Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 levels. Additionally, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly restored the expression levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Further, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) level induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 7,8,4′-THIF protects against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death in cellular PD models. Also, these effects are mediated partly by inhibiting activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Catalase , Cell Death , Glutathione , Glycogen Synthase , In Vitro Techniques , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Malondialdehyde , Neurons , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Soybeans , Superoxide Dismutase , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 4-12, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777078

ABSTRACT

Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play an important role in human pain sensation. However, the expression and role of Nav subtypes in native human sensory neurons are unclear. To address this issue, we obtained human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) tissues from healthy donors. PCR analysis of seven DRG-expressed Nav subtypes revealed that the hDRG has higher expression of Nav1.7 (~50% of total Nav expression) and lower expression of Nav1.8 (~12%), whereas the mouse DRG has higher expression of Nav1.8 (~45%) and lower expression of Nav1.7 (~18%). To mimic Nav regulation in chronic pain, we treated hDRG neurons in primary cultures with paclitaxel (0.1-1 μmol/L) for 24 h. Paclitaxel increased the Nav1.7 but not Nav1.8 expression and also increased the transient Na currents and action potential firing frequency in small-diameter (<50 μm) hDRG neurons. Thus, the hDRG provides a translational model in which to study "human pain in a dish" and test new pain therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electric Stimulation , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Female , Ganglia, Spinal , Cell Biology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Mice , Genetics , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Paclitaxel , Pharmacology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Species Specificity
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 22-41, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777048

ABSTRACT

The voltage-gated Na channel subtype Nav1.7 is important for pain and itch in rodents and humans. We previously showed that a Nav1.7-targeting monoclonal antibody (SVmab) reduces Na currents and pain and itch responses in mice. Here, we investigated whether recombinant SVmab (rSVmab) binds to and blocks Nav1.7 similar to SVmab. ELISA tests revealed that SVmab was capable of binding to Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells, mouse DRG neurons, human nerve tissue, and the voltage-sensor domain II of Nav1.7. In contrast, rSVmab showed no or weak binding to Nav1.7 in these tests. Patch-clamp recordings showed that SVmab, but not rSVmab, markedly inhibited Na currents in Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells. Notably, electrical field stimulation increased the blocking activity of SVmab and rSVmab in Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells. SVmab was more effective than rSVmab in inhibiting paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. SVmab also bound to human DRG neurons and inhibited their Na currents. Finally, potential reasons for the differential efficacy of SVmab and rSVmab and future directions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Therapeutic Uses , Biotin , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ganglia, Spinal , Cell Biology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hybridomas , Chemistry , Hyperalgesia , Drug Therapy , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Metabolism , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Neuralgia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Recombinant Proteins , Therapeutic Uses , Sensory Receptor Cells , Physiology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713586

ABSTRACT

Liquiritigenin (LQ) is a flavonoid that can be isolated from Glycyrrhiza radix. It is frequently used as a tranditional oriental medicine herbal treatment for swelling and injury and for detoxification. However, the effects of LQ on cognitive function have not been fully explored. In this study, we evaluated the memory-enhancing effects of LQ and the underlying mechanisms with a focus on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) in mice. Learning and memory ability were evaluated with the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests following administration of LQ. In addition, the expression of NMDAR subunits 1, 2A, and 2B; postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95); phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII); phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2); and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) proteins were examined by Western blot. In vivo, we found that treatment with LQ significantly improved memory performance in both behavioral tests. In vitro, LQ significantly increased NMDARs in the hippocampus. Furthermore, LQ significantly increased PSD-95 expression as well as CaMKII, ERK, and CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Taken together, our results suggest that LQ has cognition enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by activation of the NMDAR and CREB signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 , Cognition , Glycyrrhiza , Hippocampus , In Vitro Techniques , Learning , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Memory , Mice , N-Methylaspartate , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Response Elements
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716599

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, caffeine is among the most commonly used stimulatory substances. Unfortunately, significant caffeine consumption is associated with several adverse effects, ranging from sleep disturbances (including insomnia) to cardiovascular problems. This study investigates whether treatment with the Evodia rutaecarpa aqueous extract (ERAE) from berries and its major molecular component, evodiamine, can reduce the adverse caffeine-induced sleep-related and excitation effects. We combined measurements from the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, the open field test, and the locomotor activity test in mice that had been dosed with caffeine. We found that ERAE and evodiamine administration reduced the degree of caffeine-induced sleep disruption during the sleep test. Additionally, we found that evodiamine significantly inhibits caffeine-induced excitation during the open field test, as well as decreasing hyperlocomotion in the locomotor activity test. Additional in vitro experiments showed that caffeine administration decreased the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor subunits in the mouse hypothalamus. However, evodiamine treatment significantly reversed this expression reduction. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ERAE and its major compound, evodiamine, provide an excellent candidate for the treatment or prevention of caffeine-induced sleep disturbances and excitatory states, and that the mechanism of these beneficial effects acts, at least in part, through the GABA(A)-ergic system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caffeine , Evodia , Fruit , Hypothalamus , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Motor Activity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727866

ABSTRACT

Bladder dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there have been a few studies evaluating bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we compared the contractility of bladder smooth muscle from normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we utilized pharmacological inhibitors to delineate the mechanisms underlying bladder muscle differences between normal and DM rats. DM was established in 14 days after using a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced electrically using electrical field stimulation consisting of pulse trains at an amplitude of 40 V and pulse duration of 1 ms at frequencies of 2–10 Hz. In this study, the pharmacological inhibitors atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (adenosine A₁ receptor antagonist), udenafil (PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (α₁-receptor antagonist), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) were used to pretreat bladder smooth muscles. It was found that the contractility of bladder smooth muscles from DM rats was lower than that of normal rats. In addition, there were significant differences in percent change of contractility between normal and DM rats following pretreatment with prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122. In conclusion, we suggest that the decreased bladder muscle contractility in DM rats was a result of perturbations in PLC/IP₃-mediated intracellular Ca²⁺ release and PDE5 activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atropine , Diabetes Mellitus , Muscle, Smooth , Phosphotransferases , Prazosin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23491

ABSTRACT

Sleep, which is an essential part of human life, is modulated by neurotransmitter systems, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine signaling. However, the mechanisms that initiate and maintain sleep remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between melatonin (MT) and dopamine D2-like receptor signaling in pentobarbital-induced sleep and the intracellular mechanisms of sleep maintenance in the cerebral cortex. In mice, pentobarbital-induced sleep was augmented by intraperitoneal administration of 30 mg/kg MT. To investigate the relationship between MT and D2-like receptors, we administered quinpirole, a D2-like receptor agonist, to MT- and pentobarbital-treated mice. Quinpirole (1 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the duration of MT-augmented sleep in mice. In addition, locomotor activity analysis showed that neither MT nor quinpirole produced sedative effects when administered alone. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying quinpirole-augmented sleep, we measured protein levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cortical protein kinases related to MT signaling. Treatment with quinpirole or MT activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and protein kinase C (PKC) in the cerebral cortex, while protein kinase A (PKA) activation was not altered significantly. Taken together, our results show that quinpirole increases the duration of MT-augmented sleep through ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PKC signaling. These findings suggest that modulation of D2-like receptors might enhance the effect of MT on sleep.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebral Cortex , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Dopamine , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Melatonin , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Motor Activity , Neurotransmitter Agents , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Pentobarbital , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Quinpirole
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51946

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV-2 cells and found that EUE inhibited LPS-mediated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory response factors. In addition, EUE inhibited the elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that EUE suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and their downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). EUE also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibited its binding to DNA. We next demonstrated that EUE induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. We determined that the significant up-regulation of HO-1 expression by EUE was a consequence of Nrf2 nuclear translocation; furthermore, EUE increased the DNA binding of Nrf2. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the ability of EUE to inhibit NO and PGE2 production, indicating the vital role of HO-1. Overall, our results indicate that EUE inhibits pro-inflammatory responses by modulating MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and GSK-3β, consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Dinoprostone , DNA , Eucommiaceae , Glycogen Synthase , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation , Zinc
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201374

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE₂ and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Methanol , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Phosphorylation , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation , Vaccinium
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169109

ABSTRACT

Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been reported to induce an anhedonic-like state in mice that resembles some of the symptoms of human depression. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress animal model of depression and anxiety to examine the responses of two strains of mice that have different behavioral responsiveness. An outbred ICR and an inbred C57BL/6 strain of mice were selected because they are widely used strains in behavioral tests. The results showed that the inbred C57BL/6 and outbred ICR mice were similarly responsive to CMS treatment in sucrose intake test (SIT) and open field test (OFT). However, the two strains showed quite different responses in forced swimming test (FST) and novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) test after 3 weeks of CMS treatment. Only C57BL/6 mice displayed the depression- and anxiety-like behavioral effects in response to CMS treatment in FST and NSF test. Our results suggest that there are differences in responsiveness to CMS according to the different types of strain of mice and behavioral tests. Therefore, these results provide useful information for the selection of appropriate behavioral methods to test depression- and anxiety-like behaviors using CMS in ICR and C57BL/6 mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety , Depression , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Models, Animal , Physical Exertion , Sucrose
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202593

ABSTRACT

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark (EUE) is commonly used for the treatment of hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago, and ischialgia as well as to promote longevity. In this study, we tested the effects of EUE aqueous extract in graded doses to protect and enhance cognition in scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice. EUE significantly improved the impairment of short-term or working memory induced by scopolamine in the Y-maze and significantly reversed learning and memory deficits in mice as measured by the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. One day after the last trial session of the Morris water maze test (probe trial session), EUE dramatically increased the latency time in the target quadrant in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EUE significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner. EUE also markedly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of cAMP element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that EUE may be useful for the treatment of cognitive deficits, and that the beneficial effects of EUE are mediated, in part, by cholinergic signaling enhancement and/or protection.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Carrier Proteins , Cognition , Eucommiaceae , Hippocampus , Hypertension , Learning , Longevity , Low Back Pain , Maze Learning , Memory Disorders , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mice , Phosphorylation , Scopolamine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727874

ABSTRACT

A number of studies have demonstrated that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can induce muscle contraction or relaxation response and enhance secretion in the gastrointestinal tract via a multiplicity of 5-HT receptor subtypes. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT-induced contractile response in longitudinal smooth muscle isolated from the feline ileum. Addition of 5-HT into muscle chambers enhanced the basal tone and spontaneous activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The neurotoxin tetrodotoxin did not alter the 5-HT-induced contraction of the longitudinal muscles. Neither atropine nor guanethidine affected the contraction. The 5-HT agonists, 5-methylserotonin hydrochloride and mosapride, also evoked concentration-dependent contractions. The 5-HT-induced contraction was enhanced by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron but was inhibited by the 5-HT1 receptor antagonist methysergide and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR113808. These results indicate that 5-HT1 and 5-HT4 receptors may mediate the contraction of the 5-HT-induced response and 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors may mediate 5-HT-induced relaxation in feline ileal longitudinal smooth muscles.


Subject(s)
Atropine , Benzamides , Contracts , Gastrointestinal Tract , Guanethidine , Ileum , Indoles , Ketanserin , Methysergide , Morpholines , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Ondansetron , Receptors, Serotonin , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1 , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3 , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4 , Relaxation , Serotonin , Serotonin Receptor Agonists , Sulfonamides , Tetrodotoxin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728230

ABSTRACT

Carbon monoxide (CO) binds to soluble guanylate cyclase to lead its activation and elicits smooth muscle relaxation. The vascular tissues have a high capacity to produce CO, since heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) is constitutively expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and HO-1 can be greatly up-regulated by oxidative stress. Moreover, the substrate of HO, heme, is readily available for catalysis in vascular tissue. Although the activation of heme oxygenase pathway under various stress conditions may provide a defence mechanism in compromised tissues, the specific role of HO-1-derived CO in the control of aortic contractility still remains to be elucidated. The present study was done to determine the effect of HO-1 induction on the aortic contractility. Thus, the effects of incubation of aortic tissue with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) for 1 hr on the aortic contractile response to phenylephrine were studied. The preincubation with SNAP resulted in depression of the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine. This effect was restored by HO inhibitor or methylene blue but not by NOS inhibitor. The attenuation of vascular reactivity by preincubation with SNAP was also revealed in endothelium-free rings. AlF4--evoked contraction in control did not differ from that in SNP-treated group. These results suggest that increased production of CO was responsible for the reduction of the contractile response to phenylephrine in aortic ring preincubated with SNAP and this effect of SNAP was independent on endothelium.


Subject(s)
Carbon Monoxide , Catalysis , Depression , Endothelium , Guanylate Cyclase , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , Heme , Humans , Methylene Blue , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Oxidative Stress , Phenylephrine , Relaxation , S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine , Tissue Donors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728229

ABSTRACT

The precise mechanism of set-point regulation in hypothalamus was not elucidated. Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) were detected in hypothalamus, however, the roles of NO in hypothalamus was not fully studied. So, we tested the effects of NO on body temperature because preoptic-anterior hypothalamus was known as the presumptive primary fever-producing site. NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 4 nmol, i.c.v.) elicited marked febrile response, and this febrile response was completely blocked by indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor). But, ODQ (selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 50 microgram, i.c.v.) did not inhibit fever induced by SNP. The cyclic GMP analogue dibutyryl-cGMP (100 microgram, i.c.v.) induced significant pyreses, which is blocked by indomethacin. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, non selective NOS inhibitor) inhibited fever induced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta, 10 ng, i.c.v.), one of endogenous pyrogens. These results indicate that NO may have an important role, not related to stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase, in the signal pathway of thermoregulation in hypothalamus.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature , Body Temperature Regulation , Central Nervous System , Cyclic GMP , Fever , Guanylate Cyclase , Humans , Hypothalamus , Indomethacin , Interleukin-1beta , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Nitroprusside , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Pyrogens , Signal Transduction , Tissue Donors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728036

ABSTRACT

The hyperactivity of cholinergic system in the RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) may contribute to the sustained elevation of blood pressure. However, the hyperactivity mechanisms of cholinergic system are controversial. Thus, to clarify the mechanisms of cholinergic hyperactivity in RVLM of the SHR, we studied the activities of enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis and degradation of acetylcholine (ACh) and the density of muscarinic receptors in RVLM of the 14- to 18-week-old SHR and age-marched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Choline acetyltransferase activity was far greater in RVLM of SHR than that of WKY. (3H)ACh release from RVLM was also greater in SHR than in WKY. Acetylcholinesterase activity and (3H)NMS binding of RVLM slice of SHR were not significantly different from that of WKY. These results suggest that the enhanced cholinergic mechanisms in the RVLM of SHR is due to the enhanced presynaptic cholinergic tone rather than the altered postsynaptic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Blood Pressure , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Receptors, Muscarinic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727811

ABSTRACT

The C-terminus ends of the second putative transmembrane domains of both M-1 and M-2 Muscarinic receptors contain a triplet of amino acid residues consisting of leucine (L), tyrosine (Y) and threonine (T). This triplet is repeated as LYT-TYL in M-1 receptors at the interface between the second transmembrane domain and the first extracellular loop. Interestingly, however, it is repeated in a transposed fashion (LYT-LYT) in the sequence Of M-2 receptors. In our previous work, we investigated the possible significance of this unique sequence diversity for determining the distinct differential receptor function at the two receptor subtypes. However, we found mutation of the LYTTYL sequence of M-1 receptors to the corresponding M-2 receptor LYTLYT sequence demonstrated markedly enhanced the stimulation of phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis by carbachol without a change in its coupling to increased cyclic AMP formation. In this work, thus, the enhanced stimulation of PI hydrolysis in the LYTLYT M-1 receptor mutant was further investigated. The stimulation of PI hydrolysis by carbachol was enhanced in the mutant M-1 receptor, and this change was not due to alterations in the rate of receptor desensitization or sequestration. The observed larger response to carbachol at mutant M-1 receptors was also not due to an artifact resulting from selection of CHO cells which express higher levels of G-proteins or phospholipase C. Our data suggest that although the LYTTYL sequence in M-1 muscarinic receptors is not involved in determining receptor pharmacology, mutation of the sequence enhanced the coupling of M-1 receptors to the stimulation of phospholipase C.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artifacts , Carbachol , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cyclic AMP , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , Hydrolysis , Leucine , Pharmacology , Phospholipases , Receptors, Muscarinic , Threonine , Trinucleotide Repeats , Triplets , Type C Phospholipases , Tyrosine
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