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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902532

ABSTRACT

The incidence of small renal mass (SRM) is increasing largely owing to the growing use of cross-sectional imaging. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathological characteristics of low malignant potential. Determining the optimal management for SRM can be challenging. Advances in our understanding of the nature of SRMs and expanding treatment options for SRMs have stimulated interest in SRM biopsy which can facilitate risk stratification and prognostication. Continuing concern regarding complications and accuracy, SRM biopsy is underutilized. However, recent series on SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy and rare complications. The median concordance rate between tumor histotype on renal tumor biopsy and on the surgical specimen was over 90%. SRM biopsy can be selectively used to improve risk stratification in patient where the clinical management may change on the basis of the results of biopsy. Currently, SRM biopsy can be recommended in most cases except in patients who have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of benign tumors and in cases in which conservative management is considered. Urologists should be aware of the benefits of SRM biopsy which should be discussed with patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897441

ABSTRACT

Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. Materials and Methods The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions. Area under the curves (AUCs) and time-to-event calibration plots were utilized to determine the predictive accuracies of the SCaP Survival Calculator in terms of progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)–free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results Excellent discrimination was observed for CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS outcomes, with AUCs of 0.962, 0.944, and 0.884 for 5-year outcomes and 0.959, 0.928, and 0.854 for 10-year outcomes, respectively. The AUC values were higher for all survival endpoints compared to those of the development cohort. Calibration plots showed that predicted probabilities of 5-year survival endpoints had concordance comparable to those of the observed frequencies. However, calibration performances declined for 10-year predictions with an overall underestimation. Conclusion The SCaP Survival Calculator is a reliable and useful tool for determining the optimal initial treatment modality and for guiding survival predictions for patients with newly diagnosed PCa. Further modifications in the ANN model incorporating cases with more extended follow-up periods are warranted to improve the ANN model for long-term predictions.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889737

ABSTRACT

Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. Materials and Methods The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions. Area under the curves (AUCs) and time-to-event calibration plots were utilized to determine the predictive accuracies of the SCaP Survival Calculator in terms of progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)–free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results Excellent discrimination was observed for CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS outcomes, with AUCs of 0.962, 0.944, and 0.884 for 5-year outcomes and 0.959, 0.928, and 0.854 for 10-year outcomes, respectively. The AUC values were higher for all survival endpoints compared to those of the development cohort. Calibration plots showed that predicted probabilities of 5-year survival endpoints had concordance comparable to those of the observed frequencies. However, calibration performances declined for 10-year predictions with an overall underestimation. Conclusion The SCaP Survival Calculator is a reliable and useful tool for determining the optimal initial treatment modality and for guiding survival predictions for patients with newly diagnosed PCa. Further modifications in the ANN model incorporating cases with more extended follow-up periods are warranted to improve the ANN model for long-term predictions.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894828

ABSTRACT

The incidence of small renal mass (SRM) is increasing largely owing to the growing use of cross-sectional imaging. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathological characteristics of low malignant potential. Determining the optimal management for SRM can be challenging. Advances in our understanding of the nature of SRMs and expanding treatment options for SRMs have stimulated interest in SRM biopsy which can facilitate risk stratification and prognostication. Continuing concern regarding complications and accuracy, SRM biopsy is underutilized. However, recent series on SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy and rare complications. The median concordance rate between tumor histotype on renal tumor biopsy and on the surgical specimen was over 90%. SRM biopsy can be selectively used to improve risk stratification in patient where the clinical management may change on the basis of the results of biopsy. Currently, SRM biopsy can be recommended in most cases except in patients who have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of benign tumors and in cases in which conservative management is considered. Urologists should be aware of the benefits of SRM biopsy which should be discussed with patients.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833755

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminths, including Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, are important intestinal parasites mostly affecting younger people in developing countries. In 2014-2015, we performed mass fecal examinations targeting a total of 2,227 schoolchildren in 3 districts (South Dagon, North Dagon, and Hlaing-thar-yar) of Yangon Region, Myanmar, using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The egg positive children were subjected to a mass drug administration (MDA) using a single oral dose of 400 mg albendazole. The pre-treatment egg positive rate (EPG/person) of A. lumbricoides averaged 17.2% (15,532); it was 25.2% (21,796), 14.2% (11,816), and 12.8% (12,983) in 3 districts, respectively, and that of T. trichiura averaged 19.4% (1,074), and was 24.1% (1,040), 12.3% (852), and 21.2% (1,330) in 3 districts, respectively. Follow-up fecal examinations performed 4 months post-MDA revealed considerable decreases of A. lumbricoides prevalence (EPG/person) to av. 8.3% (12,429), and 13.7% (17,640), 8.0% (7,797), and 4.5% (11,849) in 3 districts, respectively. However, T. trichiura did not show any recognizable decrease in the prevalence (EPG/person) remaining at av. 18.2% (862), and 18.5% (888), 11.5% (812), and 23.3% (887) in 3 districts, respectively. The results demonstrated difficulty in short-term control of T. trichiura by MDA using albendazole and suggested necessity of either a long-term MDA (>10 years) or changing the albendazole regimen into 2~3-day course (total 800 or 1,200 mg), or using an alternative drug/drug combination.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The objective of this study was to investigate whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in prostate cancer (Pca) patients is associated with cardiovascular disease in the cohort based from the entire Korean population.@*METHODS@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance database, we conducted an observational study of 579,377 men who sought treatment for Pca between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016. After excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or who had undergone chemotherapy, we extracted the data from 2,053 patients who started GnRHa (GnRHa users) and 2,654 men who were newly diagnosed with Pca (GnRHa nonusers) between July 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, with follow-up through December 31, 2016. The primary outcomes were cerebrovascular attack (CVA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD).@*RESULTS@#GnRHa users were older, were more likely to reside in rural areas, had lower socioeconomic status, and had more comorbidities than nonusers (all P < 0.050). Although GnRHa users had an increased incidence of CVA and IHD (P = 0.013 and 0.048, respectively) in univariate analysis, GnRHa use was not associated with the outcomes in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the cumulative duration of ADT was not associated with the outcomes whereas the associations between age at diagnosis with all diseases were significant.@*CONCLUSION@#Our complete enumeration of the Korean Pca population shows that ADT is not associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease.

7.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020061-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898248

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to identify latent classes in hypertensive patients based on the clustering of factors including lifestyle risk factors, metabolic risk factors, and obesity in each sex. @*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study included 102,780 male and 103,710 female hypertensive patients who underwent health check-ups at 16 centers in Korea, in 2018. A latent class analysis approach was used to identify subgroups of hypertensive patients. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine the association between latent classes and comorbidities of hypertension. @*RESULTS@#A four-class model provided the best fit for each sex. The following latent classes were identified: Class I (male: 16.9%, female: 1.7%; high risk of lifestyle behaviors [HB] with metabolic disorders and obesity [MO]), Class II (male: 32.4%, female: 47.1%; low risk of lifestyle behaviors [LB] with MO), Class III (male: 15.3%, female: 1.8%; HB with metabolic disorders and normal weight [MNW]), Class IV (male: 35.5%, female: 49.4%; LB with MNW). Lifestyle patterns in the latent classes were classified as high-risk or low-risk according to smoking and high-risk drinking among male, and presented complex patterns including physical inactivity alone or in combination with other factors, among female. Stage 2 hypertensive or diabetic individuals were likely to belong to classes including obesity (HB-MO, LB-MO) in both sexes, and additionally belonged to the HB-MNW class in male. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Metabolic disorders were included in all latent classes, with or without lifestyle risk factors and obesity. Hypertensive females need to manage obesity, and hypertensive males need to manage lifestyle risk factors and obesity. Sex-specific lifestyle behaviors are important for controlling hypertension.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The objective of this study was to investigate whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in prostate cancer (Pca) patients is associated with cardiovascular disease in the cohort based from the entire Korean population.@*METHODS@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance database, we conducted an observational study of 579,377 men who sought treatment for Pca between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016. After excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or who had undergone chemotherapy, we extracted the data from 2,053 patients who started GnRHa (GnRHa users) and 2,654 men who were newly diagnosed with Pca (GnRHa nonusers) between July 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, with follow-up through December 31, 2016. The primary outcomes were cerebrovascular attack (CVA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD).@*RESULTS@#GnRHa users were older, were more likely to reside in rural areas, had lower socioeconomic status, and had more comorbidities than nonusers (all P < 0.050). Although GnRHa users had an increased incidence of CVA and IHD (P = 0.013 and 0.048, respectively) in univariate analysis, GnRHa use was not associated with the outcomes in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the cumulative duration of ADT was not associated with the outcomes whereas the associations between age at diagnosis with all diseases were significant.@*CONCLUSION@#Our complete enumeration of the Korean Pca population shows that ADT is not associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease.

9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020061-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to identify latent classes in hypertensive patients based on the clustering of factors including lifestyle risk factors, metabolic risk factors, and obesity in each sex. @*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study included 102,780 male and 103,710 female hypertensive patients who underwent health check-ups at 16 centers in Korea, in 2018. A latent class analysis approach was used to identify subgroups of hypertensive patients. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine the association between latent classes and comorbidities of hypertension. @*RESULTS@#A four-class model provided the best fit for each sex. The following latent classes were identified: Class I (male: 16.9%, female: 1.7%; high risk of lifestyle behaviors [HB] with metabolic disorders and obesity [MO]), Class II (male: 32.4%, female: 47.1%; low risk of lifestyle behaviors [LB] with MO), Class III (male: 15.3%, female: 1.8%; HB with metabolic disorders and normal weight [MNW]), Class IV (male: 35.5%, female: 49.4%; LB with MNW). Lifestyle patterns in the latent classes were classified as high-risk or low-risk according to smoking and high-risk drinking among male, and presented complex patterns including physical inactivity alone or in combination with other factors, among female. Stage 2 hypertensive or diabetic individuals were likely to belong to classes including obesity (HB-MO, LB-MO) in both sexes, and additionally belonged to the HB-MNW class in male. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Metabolic disorders were included in all latent classes, with or without lifestyle risk factors and obesity. Hypertensive females need to manage obesity, and hypertensive males need to manage lifestyle risk factors and obesity. Sex-specific lifestyle behaviors are important for controlling hypertension.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Microalbuminuria (MA) is a predictor for diabetic nephropathy and mortality of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic nephropathy can be prevented by blood glucose and blood pressure control. Koreans have been found to have a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasians, despite having normal weights. It is necessary to consider obesity status in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to determine the relationship between MA and hypertension according to obesity status in prediabetes.@*METHODS@#This study was retrospectively conducted in 1,183 prediabetes, aged 30-70 years with fasting blood glucose levels of 100-125 mg/dL or hemoglobin A1c levels of 5.7–6.4% who health examinees at 16 health promotion centers from 2015 to 2016. Study subjects were classified according to obesity and hypertension. Obesity is defined as body mass index of ≥25 kg/m². Blood pressure was categorized as follows: normal blood pressure, <120/80 mmHg; prehypertension, 120–139/80–89 mmHg; and hypertension, ≥140/90 mmHg. We analyzed the relationship between MA and hypertension according to obesity using multivariable logistic regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#While both prehypertensive and hypertensive subgroups were significantly associated with MA in the nonobese, the hypertensive subgroup was only associated with MA in the obese. In the combined effects of obesity and hypertension, prediabetes with normal weight and hypertension had the highest risk of MA (adjusted odds ratio, 6.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.90–14.10) compared to those with nonobese and normal blood pressure.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggest that nonobese prediabetes with hypertension would need to be more concerned about MA than do obese prediabetes with hypertension.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Heat tobacco products (HTPs) are emerging in Korea. There are few studies that investigated the rates of HTPs use among military personnel in Korea. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of HTPs experience and use. Also this study aimed to evaluate the related factors of HTPs experience and use among military personnel in Korea.@*METHODS@#The study subjects were 3,878 military personnel participated health survey for Korean soldiers from November to December in 2018. Binominal logistic regression analysis was performed to confirm the related factors of HTPs experience and use among military personnel in Korea.@*RESULTS@#The HTPs experience and current use rates of study subjects were 17.4% and 8.7%, respectively. And the HTPs experience and current use among military personnel was associated with college/university degree (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.441, 1.377), lance-corporal (aOR 2.049, 5.636), superiors' smoking in military camp (aOR 1.516, 1.567), interest in health (aOR 1.637, 1.571), ever used smoking (aOR 2.817, 3.575), and ever used electronic cigarette (E-cigarette) (aOR 3.129, 1.587).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The HTPs experience and current use among military personnel are closely related to educational level, military level, smoking status of the superiors, interests in health, conventional cigarette smoking, and E-cigarette use.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, younger prostate cancer (PCa) patients have been reported to harbour more favourable disease characteristics after radical prostatectomy (RP) than older men. We analysed young men (< 50 years) with PCa among the Korean population, paying attention to pathological characteristics on RP specimen and biochemical recurrence (BCR). METHODS: The multi-centre, Severance Urological Oncology Group registry was utilized to identify 622 patients with clinically localized or locally advanced PCa, who were treated with RP between 2001 and 2017. Patients were dichotomized into two groups according to age (< 50-year-old [n = 75] and ≥ 50-year-old [n = 547]), and clinicopathological characteristics were analysed. Propensity score matching was used when assessing BCR between the two groups. RESULTS: Although biopsy Gleason score (GS) was lower in younger patients (P = 0.033), distribution of pathologic GS was similar between the two groups (13.3% vs. 13.9% for GS ≥ 8, P = 0.191). There was no significant difference in pathologic T stage between the < 50- and ≥ 50-year-old groups (69.3% vs. 68.0% in T2 and 30.7% vs. 32.0% in ≥ T3, P = 0.203). The positive surgical margin rates were similar between the two groups (20.0% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.178). BCR-free survival rates were also similar (P = 0.644) between the two groups, after propensity matching. CONCLUSION: Contrary to prior reports, younger PCa patients did not have more favourable pathologic features on RP specimen and showed similar BCR rates compared to older men. These findings should be considered when making treatment decisions for young Korean patients with PCa.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Humans , Korea , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Young Adult
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria (MA) is a predictor for diabetic nephropathy and mortality of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic nephropathy can be prevented by blood glucose and blood pressure control. Koreans have been found to have a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasians, despite having normal weights. It is necessary to consider obesity status in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to determine the relationship between MA and hypertension according to obesity status in prediabetes.METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in 1,183 prediabetes, aged 30-70 years with fasting blood glucose levels of 100-125 mg/dL or hemoglobin A1c levels of 5.7–6.4% who health examinees at 16 health promotion centers from 2015 to 2016. Study subjects were classified according to obesity and hypertension. Obesity is defined as body mass index of ≥25 kg/m². Blood pressure was categorized as follows: normal blood pressure, <120/80 mmHg; prehypertension, 120–139/80–89 mmHg; and hypertension, ≥140/90 mmHg. We analyzed the relationship between MA and hypertension according to obesity using multivariable logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: While both prehypertensive and hypertensive subgroups were significantly associated with MA in the nonobese, the hypertensive subgroup was only associated with MA in the obese. In the combined effects of obesity and hypertension, prediabetes with normal weight and hypertension had the highest risk of MA (adjusted odds ratio, 6.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.90–14.10) compared to those with nonobese and normal blood pressure.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nonobese prediabetes with hypertension would need to be more concerned about MA than do obese prediabetes with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetic Nephropathies , Fasting , Health Promotion , Hypertension , Logistic Models , Mortality , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Prediabetic State , Prehypertension , Retrospective Studies , Weights and Measures
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heat tobacco products (HTPs) are emerging in Korea. There are few studies that investigated the rates of HTPs use among military personnel in Korea. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of HTPs experience and use. Also this study aimed to evaluate the related factors of HTPs experience and use among military personnel in Korea.METHODS: The study subjects were 3,878 military personnel participated health survey for Korean soldiers from November to December in 2018. Binominal logistic regression analysis was performed to confirm the related factors of HTPs experience and use among military personnel in Korea.RESULTS: The HTPs experience and current use rates of study subjects were 17.4% and 8.7%, respectively. And the HTPs experience and current use among military personnel was associated with college/university degree (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.441, 1.377), lance-corporal (aOR 2.049, 5.636), superiors' smoking in military camp (aOR 1.516, 1.567), interest in health (aOR 1.637, 1.571), ever used smoking (aOR 2.817, 3.575), and ever used electronic cigarette (E-cigarette) (aOR 3.129, 1.587).CONCLUSIONS: The HTPs experience and current use among military personnel are closely related to educational level, military level, smoking status of the superiors, interests in health, conventional cigarette smoking, and E-cigarette use.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Health Surveys , Hot Temperature , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Military Personnel , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking , Tobacco Products , Tobacco
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sampling a healthy reference population to generate reference intervals (RIs) for complete blood count (CBC) parameters is not common for pediatric and geriatric ages. We established age- and sex-specific RIs for CBC parameters across pediatric, adult, and geriatric ages using secondary data, evaluating patterns of changes in CBC parameters. METHODS: The reference population comprised 804,623 health examinees (66,611 aged 3–17 years; 564,280 aged 18–59 years; 173,732 aged 60–99 years), and, we excluded 22,766 examinees after outlier testing. The CBC parameters (red blood cell [RBC], white blood cell [WBC], and platelet parameters) from 781,857 examinees were studied. We determined statistically significant partitions of age and sex, and calculated RIs according to the CLSI C28-A3 guidelines. RESULTS: RBC parameters increased with age until adulthood and decreased with age in males, but increased before puberty and then decreased with age in females. WBC and platelet counts were the highest in early childhood and decreased with age. Sex differences in each age group were noted: WBC count was higher in males than in females during adulthood, but platelet count was higher in females than in males from puberty onwards (P < 0.001). Neutrophil count was the lowest in early childhood and increased with age. Lymphocyte count decreased with age after peaking in early childhood. Eosinophil count was the highest in childhood and higher in males than in females. Monocyte count was higher in males than in females (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We provide comprehensive age- and sex-specific RIs for CBC parameters, which show dynamic changes with both age and sex.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Blood Cell Count , Blood Cells , Blood Platelets , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Korea , Leukocytes , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Puberty , Sex Characteristics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716909

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are correlated with erectile dysfunction (ED), but research on whether postmicturition dribble (PMD) is related to ED is limited. We assessed the correlation between PMD and ED in middle-aged and older Korean men with LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our prospective, cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study, we enrolled 205 men (age >40 years) with LUTS. LUTS and ED were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), respectively. PMD was assessed using the Hallym PostMicturition Dribble Questionnaire, Question 1, and the PMD volume was calculated in a paper test. Age, prostate volume, serum prostate-specific antigen, maximum urinary flow rate, and postvoid residual urine were also evaluated. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the total and voiding IPSS between men with and without ED (p=0.042 and 0.043, respectively). The Hallym PostMicturition Dribble Questionnaire 1 score was inversely well correlated with the IIEF-5 score (r=−0.388, p < 0.001). Also, the PMD volume was inversely correlated with the IIEF-5 score (r=−0.138, p=0.042). ED prevalence increased as the Hallym PostMicturition Dribble Questionnaire 1 score increased (p=0.002). Further, incorporating the Hallym PostMicturition Dribble Questionnaire 1 into the IPSS tended to increase the predictive accuracy of LUTS by 4.2% in ED patients (p=0.082). CONCLUSIONS: PMD was significantly correlated with ED and reinforced the relationship between LUTS and ED in middle-aged and older men. PMD might be an important component of the association between LUTS and ED.


Subject(s)
Erectile Dysfunction , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serologic testing is considered a standard method for syphilis diagnosis. We compared Auto RPR Plus and Auto TPIM Plus with previously developed assays. METHODS: The precision around the cut-off, linearity, and recovery rate of Auto RPR Plus and Auto TPIM Plus was evaluated using their positive/negative control materials. The results of these two tests were compared with those of Mediace RPR and Abbott Syphilis TP using 431 remnant serum samples collected from people who underwent medical examinations. RESULTS: The within-run precisions (coefficient of variation, CV values) of negative/positive control materials of Auto RPR Plus, Mediace RPR, Auto TPIM Plus and Abbott Syphilis TP were 15.7/2.3%, 20.4/2.3%, -/2.7%, and 8.5/2.3%, respectively; between-run precisions were 67.7/3.3%, 39.1/3.4%, -/4.0%, and 7.0/1.5%, respectively. Auto RPR Plus showed better precision around the cutoff level (1.0 U) compared to Mediace RPR (7.2–7.3% vs. 12.2–14.3%). The CVs of Auto TPIM Plus around the cutoff (10.0 U) were 13.5% at 10.5 U and 6.6% at 12.5 U. Agreement rates between Auto RPR Plus and Mediace RPR and between Auto TPIM Plus and Abbott Syphilis TP were 97.2% and 98.4%, respectively. However, twelve samples showed discrepant results for Auto RPR Plus (−)/Mediace RPR (+) and false-positive Mediace RPR results could not be excluded around the cutoff of 1.0 U. CONCLUSIONS: Auto RPR Plus showing good precision near the cutoff can be used for syphilis screening in health checkups. However, Auto TPIM Plus needs improvement in precision and adjusting the cutoff to be used for syphilis screening.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Mass Screening , Methods , Serologic Tests , Syphilis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is generally known as a sensitive marker of renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. It can be used to help predict the occurrence of nephropathy and cardiovascular disorders in diabetes. Individuals with prediabetes have a tendency to develop macrovascular and microvascular pathology, resulting in an increased risk of retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic renal diseases. We evaluated the clinical value of a strip test for measuring the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in prediabetes and diabetes. METHODS: Spot urine samples were obtained from 226 prediabetic and 275 diabetic subjects during regular health checkups. Urinary ACR was measured by using strip and laboratory quantitative tests. RESULTS: The positive rates of albuminuria measured by using the ACR strip test were 15.5% (microalbuminuria, 14.6%; macroalbuminuria, 0.9%) and 30.5% (microalbuminuria, 25.1%; macroalbuminuria, 5.5%) in prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. In the prediabetic population, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of the ACR strip method were 92.0%, 94.0%, 65.7%, 99.0%, and 93.8%, respectively; the corresponding values in the diabetic population were 80.0%, 91.6%, 81.0%, 91.1%, and 88.0%, respectively. The median [interquartile range] ACR values in the strip tests for measurement ranges of 300 mg/g were 9.4 [6.3-15.4], 46.9 [26.5-87.7], and 368.8 [296.2-575.2] mg/g, respectively, using the laboratory method. CONCLUSIONS: The ACR strip test showed high sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, suggesting that the test can be used to screen for albuminuria in cases of prediabetes and diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albumins/analysis , Creatinine/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/pathology , Reagent Strips/chemistry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and genotype distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection vary depending on geographical region and the immunity provided by vaccines. This study aimed to clarify the recent prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV according to age and cervical cytology findings in Korea. METHODS: This study included 18,815 health examinees that underwent cervical cytology and HPV genotyping tests at 16 centers of Korean Association of Health Promotion in 13 cities in Korea, between January 2014 and October 2015. HPV was genotyped by using multiplex PCR (Anyplex II HPV 28, Seegene, Korea), which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR-HPV) and nine low-risk HPVs (LR-HPV). RESULTS: Overall HPV prevalence was 27.8%, with 22.2% HR-HPV and 11.4% LR-HPV. The five most common carcinogens were HPV 52 (3.2%), 58 (2.7%), 16 (2.0%), 56 (1.9%), and 51 (1.8%). The five most common HR-HPVs in normal cytology samples were HPV 53, 68, 70, 52, and 58, while HPV 16, 52, 58, 33, and 31 were prevalent in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). In atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), the prevalence of HR-HPV varied with age; it was highest in those aged <30 yr, declining to a minimum at age 50–59 yr, and then increasing in older women (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and distribution of HR-HPV varied with age and cervical cytology findings. This information would be helpful in the development of cervical cancer prevention policies.


Subject(s)
Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix , Carcinogens , Female , Genotype , Health Promotion , Human papillomavirus 16 , Humans , Korea , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Vaccines
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