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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919470

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although it is known that inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use may increase the risk of respiratory infection, its influence on the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between ICS use and the positivity of SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with chronic respiratory diseases. @*Methods@#Nationwide data of 44,968 individuals with chronic respiratory diseases tested for SARS-CoV-2 until May 15, 2021 were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Welfare and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea. The positivity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was retrospectively analysed according to the prescription, type, and dose of ICS taken one year before SARS-CoV-2 test. @*Results@#Among 44,968 individuals tested, 931 (2.1%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 7,019 patients (15.6%) were prescribed ICS one year prior to being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Low, medium, and high doses of ICS were prescribed in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 6.5% of total cases, respectively. Among types of ICS, budesonide, fluticasone, beclomethasone, and ciclesonide were prescribed in 3.7%, 8.9%, 2.3%, and 0.6% of total cases, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed no significant increase in infection with ICS use (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.03). Moreover, there were no associations between the positivity of infection and the dose or type of ICS prescribed. @*Conclusion@#Prior ICS use did not increase the positivity for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, different doses or types of ICS did not affect this positivity.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925998

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to identify central symptoms of depression in elderly cognitive disorder patients through network analysis. @*Methods@#A total of 222 participants, 61 male and 104 female suffering from a cognitive disorder, participated in the dementia screening test and were given Mini-Mental Status Examination in the Korean Version of the CERAD Assessment Packet or Mini-Mental Status Examination for Dementia Screening and Korean Form of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-K) at a public health center in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. This study used network analysis to identify the centrality in the symptom network of depression among elderly cognitive disorder patients. @*Results@#Among 30 nodes included in our network analysis, 435 edges were available, and 50 edges had a meaningful relationship. According to the centrality results of the study, we found that GDS-K item 16, “Do you feel depressed and discouraged?” item 3, “Do you feel like you’re living in vain?” and item 15, “Do you enjoy being alive?” were the key symptoms. Also, there was a difference in symptom correlations between cognitive disorder patients and normal participants. @*Conclusion@#The results suggest that depressive mood, discouragement, worthlessness and loss of pleasure should be the priority intervention goals in intervening in depressive symptoms of the elderly with cognitive disabilities.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924834

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Pharmacotherapy including mood stabilizers and antipsychotics are frequently used in bipolar disorder (BD); however, the lack of consensus regarding the definition of polypharmacy hinders conducting comparative studies across different settings and countries. Research on Asian Prescription Pattern (REAP) is the largest and the longest lasting international collaborative research in psychiatry in Asia. The objective of REAP BD was to investigate the prescription patterns of psychotropic medications across Asian countries. The rates of polypharmacy and psychotropic drug load were also analyzed. @*Methods@#The data collection was web-based. Prescription patterns were categorized as (1) mood stabilizer monotherapy: one mood stabilizer; (2) antipsychotic monotherapy: one antipsychotic; (3) simple polypharmacy: one mood stabilizer and one antipsychotic; and (4) complex polypharmacy: ≥ 2 mood stabilizers or/and antipsychotics. The psychotropic drug load in each patient was calculated using the defined daily dose method. @*Results@#Among 2003 patients with BD (52.1% female, 42.4 years) from 12 countries, 1,619 (80.8%) patients received mood stabilizers, 1,644 (82.14%) received antipsychotics, and 424 (21.2%) received antidepressants, with 14.7% mood stabilizer monotherapy, 13.4% antipsychotic monotherapy, 48.9% simple polypharmacy, 20.3% complex polypharmacy, and 2.6% other therapy. The average psychotropic drug load was 2.05 ± 1.40. Results varied widely between countries. @*Conclusion@#Over 70% of psychotropic regimens involved polypharmacy, which accords with the high prevalence of polypharmacy in BD under a permissive criterion (2 or more core psychotropic drugs) worldwide. Notably, ≥ 80% of our sample received antipsychotics, which may indicate an increasing trend in antipsychotic use for BD treatment.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875374

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Network analysis can be used in terms of a novel psychopathological approach for depressive syndrome. We aimed to estimate the successive network structures of depressive symptoms in patients with depressive disorder using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study. @*Methods@#We enrolled 1,152 South Korean adult patients with depressive disorders who were beginning treatment for first-onset or recurrent depressive episodes. We examined the network structure of the severities of the items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline and at weeks 2, 12, 25, and 52. The node strength centrality of all the HAMD items at baseline and at week 2, 12, 25, and 52 in terms of network analysis. @*Results@#In the severity networks, the anxiety (psychic) item was the most centrally situated in the initial period (baseline and week 2), while loss of weight was the most centrally situated item in the later period (weeks 25 and 52). In addition, the number of strong edges (i.e., edges representing strong correlations) increased in the late period compared to the initial period. @*Conclusion@#Our findings support a period-specific and symptom-focused therapeutic approach that can provide complementary information to the unidimensional total HAMD score.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874786

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We have been providing psychotherapy training for medical students enrolled in the course of ‘Clinical Practice.’ The aim of this study is to introduce the psychotherapy education developed in this process, conceptualize objective education methods, and check the impact of educational applications of psychotherapy for medical students. @*Methods@#Psychotherapy was applied to the medical students during their clerkship in psychiatry. 221 medical students participated in this program from 2017–2019, which consisted of 2–3 people in a group. One was in charge of clients, and the other was an observer. Their clerkship was based on psychodynamic psychotherapy, especially Taopsychotherapy. Before and after the practice, participants completed a self-reporting questionnaire about ego identity, self-concealment, and professional help-seeking attitudes. Statistical analysis using a two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was conducted. @*Results@#Participants learned of the nuclear feelings associated with the current problem and were surprised to find a connection with past experiences, but accepted the connection. Selfidentity decreased in the client role students (p=0.001), and professional help-seeking attitude increased in both client and observer role students (p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#In the general course of psychotherapy, patients are reminded of their first interpersonal relationships, like parents, and in the beginning, they only think of positive aspects under repressed emotions. However, they gradually recalled negative emotions. The above practical course featured this same pattern. As they recognized negative emotions that were repressed, self-identity decreased in client role students.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1058-1067, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918725

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Recently, rational polypharmacy approaches have been proposed, regardless of the lower risk and cost of monotherapy. Considering monotherapy as first-line treatment and polypharmacy as rational treatment, a balanced attitude toward polypharmacy is recommended. However, the high prevalence of polypharmacy led the Japanese government to establish a polypharmacy reduction policy. Based on this, the association between the policy and psychiatrists’ attitude toward polypharmacy has been under debate. @*Methods@#We developed an original questionnaire about Psychiatrists’ attitudes toward polypharmacy (PAP). We compared the PAP scores with the treatment decision-making in clinical case vignettes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to quantify associations of explanatory variables including policy factors and PAP scores. The anonymous questionnaires were administered to psychiatrists worldwide. @*Results@#The study included 347 psychiatrists from 34 countries. Decision-making toward polypharmacy was associated with high PAP scores. Multiple regression analysis revealed that low PAP scores were associated with the policy factor (β=-0.20, p=0.004). The culture in Korea was associated with high PAP scores (β=0.34, p<0.001), whereas the culture in India and Nepal were associated with low scores (β=-0.15, p=0.01, and β=-0.17, p=0.006, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Policy on polypharmacy may influence psychiatrists’ decision-making. Thus, policies considering rational polypharmacy should be established.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1149-1163, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918716

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has attracted considerable attention as a serious mental and public health issue worldwide. Currently, there are no established treatment guidelines for IGD. Herein, we review the latest findings on the efficacy and related neural effects of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for individuals with IGD. @*Methods@#A database search of relevant studies published between 2007 and 2020 was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed for current evidence related to the efficacy and neural effects of pharmacological and psychosocial IGD treatments. @*Results@#Pharmacological studies suggest that bupropion may play a significant role in IGD. Additionally, nuclear imaging studies on IGD have demonstrated functional impairment of the dopamine system, providing a neurobiological basis for the efficacy of dopamineenhancing drugs. Among the various psychosocial interventions, current evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy may be an effective intervention for IGD. Cognitive behavioral therapy and bupropion were found to influence resting-state functional connectivity within the cortico-subcortical circuit and default mode network, suggesting a possible neural mechanism. Innovative approaches, including virtual reality treatment, residential camps, voluntary abstinence, and transcranial direct current stimulation, have shown promising results. However, methodological limitations, such as the absence of proper controls, small sample sizes, short duration, inconsistency of inclusion criteria across studies, and self-report measures of outcome, hamper conclusions regarding the efficacy of treatments. @*Conclusion@#Ongoing basic research and clinical trials overcoming these limitations could add to the existing knowledge on IGD and contribute to the development of evidence-based treatments.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917522

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Our study aimed to present the distinctive correlates of formal thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia, using the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). @*Methods@#We compared clinical characteristics between schizophrenia patients with (n = 84) and without (n = 82) formal thought disorder. Psychometric scales including the CLANG, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Calgery Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Word Fluency Test (WFT) were used. @*Results@#After adjusting the effects of age, sex and total scores on the BPRS, YMRS and WFT, the subjects with disorganized speech presented significantly higher score on the abnormal syntax (p = 0.009), lack of semantic association (p = 0.005), discourse failure (p < 0.0001), pragmatics disorder (p = 0.001), dysarthria (p < 0.0001), and paraphasic error (p = 0.005) items than those without formal thought disorder. With defining the mentioned item scores as covariates, binary logistic regression model predicted that discourse failure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.88, p < 0.0001) and pragmatics disorder (aOR = 2.17, p = 0.04) were distinctive correlates of formal thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia. @*Conclusions@#This study conducted Clinician Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity (CRDPSS) and CLANG scales on 166 hospitalized schizophrenia patients to explore the sub-items of the CLANG scale independently related to formal thought disorders in schizophrenia patients. Discourse failure and pragmatics disorder might be used as the distinctive indexes for formal thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 408-416, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903228

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Excessive internet use has been associated with various psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) and its associations with clinical (depression/social anxiety) and psychosocial (self-esteem/perceived social support) factors in medical students. @*Methods@#In total, 408 medical students at one university in Korea were included in this study. IA symptoms were assessed with Young’s Internet Addiction Test, and scores of 50 or higher were considered to indicate IA. Participants were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Social Phobia Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Duke-University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire. A logistic regression model was constructed to examine the impact of clinical and psychosocial factors on IA. @*Results@#Forty-seven participants (11.5%) were identified as having IA. Self-esteem was associated with a lower risk of IA, whereas depression and social anxiety were associated with a higher risk of IA. Depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, and low perceived social support were found to be significant correlates of IA. Young’s Internet Addiction Test score positively correlated with Beck Depression Inventory and Social Phobia Inventory scores, but negatively correlated with Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Duke-University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire scores. Furthermore, the prevalence of IA was highest in first-year medical students. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed the possible risk and protective factors of IA. Our findings indicate that strengthening self-esteem and reducing depression and social anxiety may contribute to the prevention and management of IA in medical students.

10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 701-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903182

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated which factors in psychological changes positively or negatively affect the quality of life to suggest desirable directions in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#Online survey was conducted with 1,011 adults more than 19 years old in Busan, South Korea. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Questions regarding the psychological changes were about COVID-19-related concerns, distress in complying with quarantine guidelines, and interest in seeking something to do alone. @*Results@#Quality of life was perceived to be below average (mean±SD, 2.86±0.53). The more economic worries there were, the lower the quality of life in psychological, social relationships and environmental domains. The more distress one experienced when maintaining their personal hygiene, the higher the quality of life related to their physical health. Likewise, the more difficult it was to maintain social distances, the higher the quality of life associated with psychological and social relationships. The more interested someone was in how to spend time alone, the higher the quality of life in all domains significantly. @*Conclusion@#We can minimize the negative impacts of COVID-19 by maintaining economic stability, maintaining prosocial behaviors related to personal hygiene and making good use of personal time.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 408-416, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895524

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Excessive internet use has been associated with various psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) and its associations with clinical (depression/social anxiety) and psychosocial (self-esteem/perceived social support) factors in medical students. @*Methods@#In total, 408 medical students at one university in Korea were included in this study. IA symptoms were assessed with Young’s Internet Addiction Test, and scores of 50 or higher were considered to indicate IA. Participants were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Social Phobia Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Duke-University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire. A logistic regression model was constructed to examine the impact of clinical and psychosocial factors on IA. @*Results@#Forty-seven participants (11.5%) were identified as having IA. Self-esteem was associated with a lower risk of IA, whereas depression and social anxiety were associated with a higher risk of IA. Depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, and low perceived social support were found to be significant correlates of IA. Young’s Internet Addiction Test score positively correlated with Beck Depression Inventory and Social Phobia Inventory scores, but negatively correlated with Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Duke-University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire scores. Furthermore, the prevalence of IA was highest in first-year medical students. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed the possible risk and protective factors of IA. Our findings indicate that strengthening self-esteem and reducing depression and social anxiety may contribute to the prevention and management of IA in medical students.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 701-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895478

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated which factors in psychological changes positively or negatively affect the quality of life to suggest desirable directions in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#Online survey was conducted with 1,011 adults more than 19 years old in Busan, South Korea. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Questions regarding the psychological changes were about COVID-19-related concerns, distress in complying with quarantine guidelines, and interest in seeking something to do alone. @*Results@#Quality of life was perceived to be below average (mean±SD, 2.86±0.53). The more economic worries there were, the lower the quality of life in psychological, social relationships and environmental domains. The more distress one experienced when maintaining their personal hygiene, the higher the quality of life related to their physical health. Likewise, the more difficult it was to maintain social distances, the higher the quality of life associated with psychological and social relationships. The more interested someone was in how to spend time alone, the higher the quality of life in all domains significantly. @*Conclusion@#We can minimize the negative impacts of COVID-19 by maintaining economic stability, maintaining prosocial behaviors related to personal hygiene and making good use of personal time.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836013

ABSTRACT

Methods@#This study analyzed 350 Korean adults who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder and prescribed mood-stabilizing drugs. The patients were divided into two groups—patients who experienced cognitive side effects and those who did not experience cognitive side effects.We also compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between both groups. @*Results@#The number of patients with an untreated illness longer than 1 year was higher in the group of patients who experienced cognitive side effects compared to the group of patients who did not experience cognitive side effects. Further, the number of patients with manic symptoms at onset was higher in the group of patients who experienced cognitive side effects compared to the group of patients who did not experience cognitive side effects. In addition, the proportion of patients in remission was higher in the group of patients who experienced cognitive side effects compared to the group of patients who experienced no cognitive side effects. However, there was no significant difference regarding the type of mood stabilizer used between the groups. On the other hand, more people experienced cognitive side effects as the valproic acid dosage increased. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that there are clinical and demographic differences between people who experienced cognitive side effects and those who did not experience cognitive side effects due to prescription of mood stabilizers.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834732

ABSTRACT

Most evidence-based pharmacological guidelines recommend selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors or norepinephrine and specific serotonin antidepressants as the first-line treatment for major depression. Since the clinical factors associated with treating patients with depression are relatively complex, it can be challenging to apply the recommendations of evidence-based medicine verbatim. Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria of major depressive disorders, which are defined in a polythetic and operational manner, inevitably result in their heterogeneity. Studies have inferred that depressive syndrome may be connected with “family resemblance” rather than being shared with a neurobiological essence. Therefore, the symptom-based selection of antidepressants can be supported by a network analysis that provides a novel perspective on the symptom structure of major depression. The symptom-based treatment algorithm suggests treatment options that can be applied to the symptoms that are included in and excluded from the diagnosis criteria of major depressive disorder. The symptom-based selection of antidepressants and other psychotropic agents involves matching the deconstructed symptoms of depression to the specific neuroanatomical regions and neurotransmitters. This ensures timely and optimized treatment options for patients with depression.

15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 726-730, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833318

ABSTRACT

Language disorganization, an objective component of formal thought process abnormality, has been regarded as a core symptom of schizophrenia from an evolutionary psychopathology perspective. However, to the best of our knowledge, the network structure of language disorganization has rarely been examined in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, our preliminary study aimed to evaluate the network structure using the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG) in 167 inpatients with schizophrenia. All 17 of the CLANG items were considered to be ordered categorical variables ranging from 0 to 3. Our results indicated that disclosure failure, excess syntactic constraints, abnormal prosody, and aprosodic speech rank among the top five central domains within the network structure. We deemed that disclosure failure and prosody problems are the most important symptoms of language disorder in schizophrenia. Thus, reduced top-down processing of linguistic information may be a core neurobiological underpinning of language disorganization in schizophrenia. Further studies controlling for the potential effects of confounding factors (i.e., duration of illness) on network analyses of language disorder and formal thought disorder are warranted in patients with schizophrenia.

16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 911-924, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832607

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In 2011, “Suicide CARE” (Standardized Suicide Prevention Program for Gatekeeper Intervention in Korea) was originally developed for the early detection of warning signs of suicide completion, since there is a tendency to regard emotional suppression as a virtue of Korean traditional culture. A total of 1.2 million individuals completed the training program of “Suicide CARE” in Korea. @*Methods@#More sophisticated suicide prevention approaches according to age, sex, and occupation have been proposed, demanding for a more detailed revision of “Suicide CARE.” Thus, during the period from August 2019 to February 2020, “Suicide CARE” has been updated to version 2.0. The assessments on domestic gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention, international gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention, psychological autopsy interview reports between 2015 and 2018, and the evaluation of feedback from people who completed “Suicide CARE” version 1.6 training were performed. @*Results@#We describe the revision process of “Suicide CARE,” revealing that “Suicide CARE” version 2.0 has been developed using an evidence-based methodology. @*Conclusion@#It is expected that “Suicide CARE” version 2.0 be positioned as the basic framework for many developing gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention in Korea in the near future.

17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1149-1157, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832586

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Suicide is a huge nationwide problem that incurs a lot of socio-economic costs. Suicide also inflicts severe distress on the people left behind. The government of the Republic of Korea has been making many policy efforts to reduce suicide rate. The gatekeeper program, ‘Suicide CARE’, is one of the meaningful modalities for preventing suicide. @*Methods@#Multidisciplinary research team collaborated to update the ‘Suicide CARE’ to version 2.0. @*Results@#In the ‘Introductory part’, the authors have the time to think about the necessity and significance of the program before conducting full-scale gatekeeper training. In the ‘Careful observation’ part, trainees learn how to understand and recognize the various linguistic, behavioral, and situational signals that a person shows before committing suicide. In the ‘Active listening’ part, trainees learn how to ask suicide with a value-neutral attitude as well listening empathetically. In the ‘Risk evaluation and Expert referral’ part, trainees learn intervening strategies to identify a person’s suicidal intention, plan, and past suicide attempts, and connect the person to appropriate institutes or services. @*Conclusion@#Subsequent studies should be conducted to verify the efficacy of the gatekeeper program.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741923

ABSTRACT

To conceptualize a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of panic disorder (PD), it is necessary to completely integrate behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and genetic data. Molecular genetic research on PD is specifically focused on neurotransmitters, including serotonin, neuropeptides, glucocorticoids, and neurotrophins. Although pharmacological interventions for PD are currently available, the need for more effective, faster-acting, and more tolerable pharmacological interventions is unmet. Thus, glutamatergic receptor modulators, orexin receptor antagonists, corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 receptor antagonists, and other novel mechanism-based anti-panic therapeutics have been proposed. Research on the neural correlates of PD is focused on the dysfunctional “cross-talk” between emotional drive (limbic structure) and cognitive inhibition (prefrontal cortex) and the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal axis. The neural perspective regarding PD supports the idea that cognitive-behavioral therapy normalizes alterations in top-down cognitive processing, including increased threat expectancy and attention to threat. Consistent with the concept of “personalized medicine,” it is speculated that Research Domain Criteria can enlighten further treatments targeting dysfunctions underlying PD more precisely and provide us with better definitions of moderators used to identify subgroups according to different responses to treatment. Structuring of the “negative valence systems” domain, which includes fear/anxiety, is required to define PD. Therefore, targeting glutamate- and orexin-related molecular mechanisms associated with the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal cortex axis, is required to define a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of PD.


Subject(s)
Glucocorticoids , Molecular Biology , Nerve Growth Factors , Neuropeptides , Neurotransmitter Agents , Orexin Receptor Antagonists , Panic Disorder , Panic , Serotonin
20.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 89-98, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the specific types of childhood trauma and their relationship to treatment-related issues in major depressive disorder (MDD). This study examined trauma experiences and treatment-related variables in outpatients with MDD at a psychiatric department of a university hospital in Korea.METHODS: First, 75 outpatients with MDD were compared to medical outpatients without MDD matched by age, sex, income, and educational qualifications. Both groups completed the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised, which assesses comprehensive life events. Second, treatment-related variables and medication compliance measured by the Compliance Rating Scale were investigated for the two-year period after the initial assessment.RESULTS: The MDD group had experienced a significantly higher number of lifetime traumas than the control group (p=0.003), including more frequent witnessing of family violence (p<0.001), adulthood physical assault by a family member (p<0.001), and childhood emotional abuse (CEA) (p<0.001). CEA was associated with early onset of the first depressive episode and premature termination of pharmacotherapy; childhood physical neglect was associated with premature termination and less time in therapy.CONCLUSION: Our findings support the important influence of childhood emotional trauma and its relationship to treatment retention.


Subject(s)
Child , Child Abuse , Compliance , Depressive Disorder, Major , Domestic Violence , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Medication Adherence , Outpatients , Patient Dropouts
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