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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875413

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic candidiasis can develop in patients with acute pancreatitis, compromised immune responses, or iatrogenic intervention. This paper reports a case of pancreatic candidiasis presenting as a solid pancreatic mass in a patient without the risk factors. A previously healthy 37-year-old man visited the emergency department with left flank pain. Abdominal CT revealed a 5 cm, irregular heterogeneous enhancing mass accompanied by a left adrenal mass. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) could not discriminate pancreatic cancer from infectious disease. A laparoscopic exploration was performed for an accurate diagnosis. After distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and left adrenalectomy, pancreatic candidiasis and adrenal cortical adenoma were diagnosed based on the pathology findings. His condition improved after the treatment with fluconazole. This paper reports a case of primary pancreatic candidiasis mimicking pancreatic cancer in an immunocompetent patient with a review of the relevant literature.

2.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 122-126, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874478

ABSTRACT

Picosulfate solution is widely used as a small volume bowel cleansing agent and is considered to be effective and relatively safe. A case of a 75-year-old woman ingested picosulfate powder and drank a small volume of water, subsequently experienced severe burning pain in the chest. Endoscopy was performed and showed a submucosal hemorrhage and exudative ulcers at the mid to lower esophagus. At 2 weeks, her symptoms improved with conservative treatment. However, liquid food dysphagia developed 11 weeks after ingestion. A follow-up endoscopy revealed multiple esophageal strictures, which were treated with a fully covered metal stent and esophageal balloon dilation. Consequently, the esophageal strictures improved after one year. As this case demonstrates, detailed information about picosulfate powder ingestion after dissolving it in more than 200 mL of water should be presented to patients to avoid esophageal injury.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 288-292, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763427

ABSTRACT

Early removal of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube commonly causes pneumoperitoneum. However, we encountered a patient who developed pneumoperitoneum even with an indwelling PTBD tube. An 84-year-old man was admitted with type III combined duodenal and biliary obstruction secondary to metastatic bladder cancer. A biliary stent was placed using a percutaneous approach, and a duodenal stent was placed endoscopically. A large amount of subphrenic free air was detected after the procedures. Laboratory tests indicated intestinal perforation; however, peritoneal signs were absent. The patient was treated conservatively using an indwelling Levin tube. Seven days later, the massive amount of subphrenic free air disappeared. Follow-up tubography revealed unrestricted bile flow into the small intestine, and the PTBD tube was removed. Prolonged endoscopic procedures in patients with a PTBD tract communicating with the gastrointestinal tract can precipitate pneumoperitoneum. Clinicians should be careful to avoid misdiagnosing this condition as intestinal perforation.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Bile , Drainage , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Intestinal Perforation , Intestine, Small , Pneumoperitoneum , Stents , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760167

ABSTRACT

Sex and gender medicine investigates the impact of sex and gender differences on normal conditions, pathogenesis, and clinical features of diseases. By considering sex and gender differences during diagnosis, treatment and prevention, a person can receive the best individualized treatment based on scientific evidence. In this review, sex and gender differences in the field of pancreatobiliary diseases are described regarding gallstones, acute cholecystitis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and cancers of the pancreas and biliary tract. In addition, recent policy on clinical and preclinical research which states that sex and gender analysis should be included during planning, conducting, and interpretation of the researches and websites containing resources about sex and gender medicine are introduced. This review highlights the importance of considering sex and gender aspect in research, clinics, and medical education.


Subject(s)
Biliary Tract , Cholecystitis, Acute , Diagnosis , Education, Medical , Gallstones , Humans , Pancreas , Pancreatitis, Chronic
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760163

ABSTRACT

A 59-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. Abdominal computerized tomography was suggestive of biliary stones. During endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, adult worms resembling Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) were drained. Eggs were detected in stool using the formalin-ether concentration method and C. sinensis-specific antibody was detected in the serum. A diagnosis of C. sinensis infection was made. The symptoms of the patient gradually resolved after treatment with anti-parasite medication. The patient lived in a non-endemic region for C. sinensis infection and had no history of intake of raw or undercooked freshwater fishes. South Korea is one of the endemic countries for C. sinensis infection and people can be infected via indirect routes of transmission such as cooking utensils. Therefore, the possibility of C. sinensis infection should be considered in patients presenting with biliary diseases in South Korea. We describe the clinical findings of this case with a review of literature.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Cholecystitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Clonorchis sinensis , Cooking and Eating Utensils , Diagnosis , Eggs , Female , Fishes , Fresh Water , Humans , Korea , Methods , Middle Aged , Ovum
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study is to describe the outcome of the national survey and to determine the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) quality in Korea by comparing with the quality indicators. METHODS: We used the database of Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service and then performed anonymous national survey. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were returned by 129 of 157 ERCP endoscopists. In Korea, annual ERCP rates have been consistently increased over years. Individual ERCP volume was high (>200 per year) in about half of ERCP endoscopists. Most ERCP endoscopists performed all of level I procedures. However, manometry, cholangiopancreatoscopy, and pancreatic procedures were performed mostly in institutions with high hospital volume. The rate of overall success was more than 90% in most ERCP endoscopists. However, the rate of precut sphincterotomy was high in more than a fourth of ERCP endoscopists. Twelve ERCP endoscopists experienced post-ERCP mortality within recent 1 year. ERCP training and radiation protection during ERCP did not meet the standard of quality indicators especially in institutions with low or moderate hospital volume. CONCLUSIONS: Technical issues during ERCP procedures in Korea fulfill the standard of quality indicators. However, a great effort is needed to improve issues about ERCP training and radiation protection.


Subject(s)
Anonyms and Pseudonyms , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Insurance, Health , Korea , Manometry , Mortality , Radiation Protection , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 83-86, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739694

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) of the intradiverticular papilla with its invisible orifice remains challenging. Several techniques have been introduced to evert the papillary opening to facilitate cannulation. A 79-year-old woman with bile duct stones underwent ERCP, which revealed that the papilla was located inside a large diverticulum and tended to rotate inward with a trial of papillary cannulation. Submucosal papillary injection of 3 cc of normal saline was performed at 3 and 9 o’clock. Eversion and fixation of a papilla in the diverticulum with this technique allowed selective cannulation of the biliary tree. Stones were retrieved after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation without complications. She had an uneventful post-procedural course. Our findings suggest that submucosal saline injection technique is safe and effective for selective cannulation and can be recommended when cannulation is very difficult because of an intradiverticular papilla.


Subject(s)
Aged , Ampulla of Vater , Bile Ducts , Biliary Tract , Catheterization , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Diverticulum , Female , Gallstones , Humans
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The numbers of women, young doctors, and foreigners in the medical field have increased continuously. On the other hand, the environment for these minority groups has not improved, particularly in Eastern countries. The authors aimed to increase the awareness of the importance of a Diversity Committee in the Korean Society of Gastroenterology (KSG) by an analysis of a survey.METHODS: From January to February in 2019, a survey was conducted on physicians and a few medical students by googling. The questionnaire consisted of the target doctors of the Diversity Committee, purpose, specific activities, and expected effects of Diversity Committee to the KSG. The participants requested to respond with yes/no or a 5-point scale.RESULTS: A total of 202 participants completed the questionnaire, and 93.5% (189/202) were medical specialists. The proportion of males was 61.9% (125/202), and 39.6% (80/202) and 36.1% (73/202) participants were in their 30s and 40s, respectively. A total of 174 participants (86.1%) agreed with the necessity of a Diversity Committee, and 180 participants (89.1%) answered this committee would help advance the KSG with significant differences between males and females (80.8% vs. 94.8%, p=0.006; 84.8% vs. 96.1%, p=0.011). Similarly, there were significant differences in the responses according to sex in most questions.CONCLUSIONS: Most participants of the survey expected a contribution of the Diversity Committee to the advancement of the KSG. On the other hand, in most of the priorities of the target, purpose, specific activities, and expected effects of the Diversity Committee, there was a difference in the perceptions between males and females. Therefore, continuous efforts are needed to reduce the differences within the KSG.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Female , Gastroenterology , Hand , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Specialization , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The numbers of women, young doctors, and foreigners in the medical field have increased continuously. On the other hand, the environment for these minority groups has not improved, particularly in Eastern countries. The authors aimed to increase the awareness of the importance of a Diversity Committee in the Korean Society of Gastroenterology (KSG) by an analysis of a survey. METHODS: From January to February in 2019, a survey was conducted on physicians and a few medical students by googling. The questionnaire consisted of the target doctors of the Diversity Committee, purpose, specific activities, and expected effects of Diversity Committee to the KSG. The participants requested to respond with yes/no or a 5-point scale. RESULTS: A total of 202 participants completed the questionnaire, and 93.5% (189/202) were medical specialists. The proportion of males was 61.9% (125/202), and 39.6% (80/202) and 36.1% (73/202) participants were in their 30s and 40s, respectively. A total of 174 participants (86.1%) agreed with the necessity of a Diversity Committee, and 180 participants (89.1%) answered this committee would help advance the KSG with significant differences between males and females (80.8% vs. 94.8%, p=0.006; 84.8% vs. 96.1%, p=0.011). Similarly, there were significant differences in the responses according to sex in most questions. CONCLUSIONS: Most participants of the survey expected a contribution of the Diversity Committee to the advancement of the KSG. On the other hand, in most of the priorities of the target, purpose, specific activities, and expected effects of the Diversity Committee, there was a difference in the perceptions between males and females. Therefore, continuous efforts are needed to reduce the differences within the KSG.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Female , Gastroenterology , Hand , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Specialization , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The predictive factors of functional dyspepsia (FD) remain controversial. Therefore, we sought to investigate symptom responses in FD patients after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication and used predictive factor analysis to identify significant factors of FD resolution at one-year after commencing eradication therapy. METHODS: This prospective, multi-center clinical trial was performed on 65 FD patients that met Rome III criteria and had H. pylori infection. Symptom responses and factors that predicted poor response were determined by analysis one year after commencing H. pylori eradication therapy. RESULTS: A total of 63 patients completed the one-year follow-up. When an eradication success group (n=60) and an eradication failure group (n=3) were compared with respect to FD response rate at one year, results were as follows; complete response 73.3% and 0.0%, satisfactory response 1.7% and 0.0%, partial response 10.0% and 33.3%, and refractory response 15.0% and 66.7%, respectively (p=0.013). Univariate analysis showed persistent H. pylori infection (p=0.021), female gender (p=0.025), and medication for FD during the study period (p=0.013) were associated with poor FD response at one year. However, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and underlying disease were not found to affect response. Finally, multivariate analysis showed that female gender (OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.17-18.88) was the sole independent risk factor of poor FD response at one year after commencing H. pylori eradication therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender was found to predict poor response in FD patients despite H. pylori eradication. Furthermore, successful H. pylori eradication appears to be associated with FD improvement, but the number of non-eradicated patients was too small to conclude.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Dyspepsia , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Symptom Assessment
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and brushing cytology are used worldwide to diagnose pancreatic and biliary malignant tumors. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed and it is currently used to overcome the limitations of conventional smears (CS). In this study, the authors aimed to compare the diagnostic value of the CellPrepPlus (CP; Biodyne) LBC method with CS in samples obtained using EUS-FNA and brushing cytology. METHODS: This study prospectively enrolled 75 patients with pancreatic or biliary lesions from June 2012 to October 2013. For cytological analyses, including inadequate specimens, benign and atypical were further classified into benign, and suspicious and malignant were subcategorized as malignant. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were evaluated. RESULTS: In the EUS-FNA based cytological analysis of pancreatic specimens, CP had a sensitivity of 60.7%; specificity, 100%; accuracy, 77.1%; PPV, 100%; and NPV, 64.5%. CS had a sensitivity of 85.7%; specificity, 100%; accuracy, 91.7%; PPV, 100%; and NPV, 83.3%. In the brushing cytology based analysis of biliary specimens, CP had sensitivity of 53.1%; specificity, 100%; accuracy, 54.5%; PPV, 100%; and NPV, 6.3%. CS had a sensitivity of 78.1%; specificity, 100%; accuracy, 78.8%; PPV, 100%; and NPV, 12.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that CP had a lower sensitivity because of low cellularity compared with CS. Therefore, CP (LBC) has a lower diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic EUS-FNA based and biliary brush cytology based analyses compared with CS.


Subject(s)
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Humans , Methods , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for pancreatic solid masses in patients with or without chronic pancreatitis as well as the clinical parameters relevant to a malignancy when EUS-FNA was negative or inconclusive. METHODS: A total of 97 patients, who underwent EUS-FNA for solid pancreatic masses over 2 years at a single institution, were evaluated. All patients underwent EUS-FNA for 3-5 passes with 22 or 25 G needles without an on-site cytopathologist. The final diagnosis was obtained by surgery or compatible clinical outcomes for a more than 12 month follow-up. The diagnostic yields in the patients with or without chronic pancreatitis were compared and the histories and laboratory data relevant to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) or pseudo-tumor were analyzed. RESULTS: The final diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in 88 patients (90.7%) and inflammatory pseudo-tumor in 9 (9.3%). The results of EUS-FNA were adenocarcinoma (74), suspicious (7), atypical (5), negative (10), and inadequate specimen (1). The diagnostic accuracies were 76.9% and 91.6% in patients with or without chronic pancreatitis, respectively. Among the 23 cases with non-diagnostic results of EUS-FNA, PDAC was finally diagnosed in 5 out of 7 suspicious, 3 out of 5 atypical, and 5 out of 10 negative cytology cases. The clinical parameters related to a pseudo-tumor were a history of alcohol consumption and pancreatitis, and normal alkaline phosphatase levels. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic masses in the background of chronic pancreatitis was low. When EUS-FNA produced inconclusive results, the histories of alcohol consumption, pancreatitis, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase are useful for making a final diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Alcohol Drinking , Alkaline Phosphatase , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Needles , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the number of big-cohort studies increases, validation becomes increasingly more important. We aimed to validate administrative database categorized as colorectal cancer (CRC) by the International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10th code. METHODS: Big-cohort was collected from Clinical Data Warehouse using ICD 10th codes from May 1, 2003 to November 30, 2016 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The patients in the study group had been diagnosed with cancer and were recorded in the ICD 10th code of CRC by the National Health Insurance Service. Subjects with codes of inflammatory bowel disease or tuberculosis colitis were selected for the control group. For the accuracy of registered CRC codes (C18–21), the chart, imaging results, and pathologic findings were examined by two reviewers. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for CRC were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 6,780 subjects with CRC and 1,899 control subjects were enrolled. Of these patients, 22 subjects did not have evidence of CRC by colonoscopy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography. The sensitivity and specificity of hospitalization data for identifying CRC were 100.00% and 98.86%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 99.68% and 100.00%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The big-cohort database using the ICD 10th code for CRC appears to be accurate.


Subject(s)
Classification , Colitis , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , National Health Programs , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Tuberculosis
15.
Intestinal Research ; : 208-214, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has been used for preoperative staging of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for detection of lymph node or distant metastasis and its prognostic role have not been well established. We therefore evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of FDG-PET/CT in comparison with conventional CT for CRC. METHODS: We investigated 220 patients who underwent preoperative FDG-PET/CT and CT, followed by curative surgery for CRC. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FDG-PET/CT and CT for detection of lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the findings of FDG-PET/CT and CT according to outcomes, including cancer recurrence and cancer-related death, for evaluation of prognostic value. RESULTS: For detection of lymph node metastasis, FDG-PET/CT had a sensitivity of 44%, a specificity of 84%, and an accuracy of 67%, compared with 59%, 65%, and 62%, respectively, for CT (P=0.029, P=0.000, and P=0.022). For distant metastasis, FDG-PET/CT had a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 94%, and an accuracy of 93%, compared with 79%, 87%, and 86%, respectively, for CT (P=1.000, P=0.004, and P=0.037). In addition, positive findings of lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis on FDG-PET/CT were associated significantly with cancer recurrence or cancer-related death (P=0.009, P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative FDG-PET/CT had a higher specificity and accuracy compared to CT for detection of lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis of CRC. In addition, FDG-PET/CT could be a valuable prognostic tool for CRC.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Electrons , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Recurrence , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 202-205, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97893

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic closure techniques have been introduced for the repair of duodenal wall perforations that occur during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We report a case of successful repair of a large duodenal wall perforation by using double endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and an endoclip. Lateral duodenal wall perforation occurred during ERCP in a 93-year-old woman with acute calculous cholangitis. We switched to a forward endoscope that had a transparent band apparatus. A 2.0-cm oval-shaped perforation was found at the lateral duodenal wall. We repaired the perforation by sequentially performing double EBL and endoclipping. The first EBL was performed at the proximal edge of the perforation orifice, and two-thirds of the perforation were repaired. The second EBL, which also included the contents covered under the first EBL, repaired the defect almost completely. Finally, to account for the possible presence of a residual perforation, an endoclip was applied at the distal end of the perforation. The detection and closure of the perforation were completed within 10 minutes. We suggest that double EBL is an effective method for closure.


Subject(s)
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Endoscopes , Female , Humans , Ligation , Methods
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199020

ABSTRACT

Peptic ulcer bleeding is treated using endoscopic hemostasis using clips or bands. Pancreas divisum (PD), a congenital anomaly of the pancreas, usually has no clinical symptoms; however, pancreatitis may occur if there are disturbances in the drainage of pancreatic secretions. We report an unusual case of PD accompanied by acute pancreatitis, following endoscopic band ligation for duodenal ulcer bleeding. A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to melena. An upper endoscopy revealed a small ulcer with oozing adjacent minor papilla. An endoscopic band ligation was performed on this lesion. Acute pancreatitis developed suddenly 6 hours after the band ligation and improved dramatically after removal of the band. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was performed, revealing complete PD. Endoscopic band ligation is known as the effective method for peptic ulcer bleeding; however, it should be used carefully in duodenal ulcer bleeding near the minor duodenal papilla due to the possibility of PD.


Subject(s)
Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Drainage , Duodenal Ulcer , Endoscopy , Female , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Ligation , Melena , Methods , Middle Aged , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis , Peptic Ulcer , Ulcer
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199019

ABSTRACT

Although lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) of the pancreas are benign lesions, most of them have been treated with surgical resection due to diagnostic difficulty. We report a 66-year-old woman diagnosed with pancreatic LECs. Abdominal ultrasound revealed two masses in the pancreas, which were not visible on the abdominal computed tomography. In an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, pancreas lesions showed solid tumors, which revealed a low signal intensity on T1-, moderate high signal intensity on T2 weighted images, and homogeneous delayed enhancement in the portal venous phase. Endosonography (EUS) revealed two hypoechoic round masses measuring 1.5 cm and 4.5 cm in the body and tail of the pancreas, respectively. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) revealed squamous cells, amorphous keratinous debris, and lymphocytes. The patient was diagnosed with LECs of the pancreas. For the duration of the follow-up period of two years, imaging studies were unchanged. EUS-FNA is useful in making a definite diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary surgery. This is the first case of pancreatic LECs diagnosed with EUS-FNA in Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Epithelial Cells , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lymphocytes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pancreas , Pancreatic Cyst , Tail , Ultrasonography , Unnecessary Procedures
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143202

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an essential method for diagnosis and treatment of various pancreatobiliary diseases and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is the gateway to complete ERCP. Although techniques and instruments for EST have improved, bleeding is still the most common complication. Treatment of immediate post-EST bleeding is important because blood can interfere with subsequent procedures. Additionally, endoscopists should be cautious about delayed bleeding may cause hemobilia, cholangitis, and hemodynamic shock. Most cases of post-EST bleedings will stop spontaneously, however, endoscopic management is necessary in case of clinically significant and persistent bleeding. Various endoscopic methods including epinephrine or fibrin glue injection, electrocoagulation, hemoclipping and band ligation et al can be used through a sideviewing or forward-viewing endoscope similar to those used in hemostasis of peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopists who perform ERCP should use various methods of endoscopic hemostasis strategically.


Subject(s)
Arm , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Diagnosis , Electrocoagulation , Endoscopes , Epinephrine , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive , Hemobilia , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Ligation , Methods , Peptic Ulcer , Shock , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143195

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an essential method for diagnosis and treatment of various pancreatobiliary diseases and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is the gateway to complete ERCP. Although techniques and instruments for EST have improved, bleeding is still the most common complication. Treatment of immediate post-EST bleeding is important because blood can interfere with subsequent procedures. Additionally, endoscopists should be cautious about delayed bleeding may cause hemobilia, cholangitis, and hemodynamic shock. Most cases of post-EST bleedings will stop spontaneously, however, endoscopic management is necessary in case of clinically significant and persistent bleeding. Various endoscopic methods including epinephrine or fibrin glue injection, electrocoagulation, hemoclipping and band ligation et al can be used through a sideviewing or forward-viewing endoscope similar to those used in hemostasis of peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopists who perform ERCP should use various methods of endoscopic hemostasis strategically.


Subject(s)
Arm , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Diagnosis , Electrocoagulation , Endoscopes , Epinephrine , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive , Hemobilia , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Ligation , Methods , Peptic Ulcer , Shock , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic
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