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1.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 338-358, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ-dependent Akt activation is known to play critical roles in various immune responses of white blood cells in which PI3K-δ isoform is mostly expressed in contrast to the classes IA PI3Ks p110α and p110β. However, the immunological role of PI3K-δ isoform is still controversial in airway epithelium under house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic response. This study aimed to evaluate the role of PI3K-δ isoform in HDM-induced allergic responses, focusing on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in airway epithelium.METHODS: We used wild-type mice and PI3K-δ knock-out (KO) mice for HDM-induced asthma animal model and also performed in vitro experiments using primary cultured murine tracheal epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells.RESULTS: PI3K-δ activated HDM-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and epithelial cell-derived cytokines in the lung including airway epithelial cells. PI3K-δ KO mice or knock-down of PI3K-δ using siRNA exhibited the significant reduction in allergic asthmatic features and the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly as well as epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Interestingly, significantly increased expression of PI3K-δ isoform was observed in stimulated airway epithelial cells and the increases in epithelial cell-derived cytokines were markedly suppressed by blocking PI3K-δ, while these cytokine levels were independent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that PI3K-δ-isoform can promote HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation via NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent response as well as via NLRP3 inflammasome-independent epithelial cell activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Asthma , Cytokines , Dust , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Lung , Models, Animal , Phosphotransferases , Pyroglyphidae , RNA, Small Interfering
2.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 664-676, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762155

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite medical and surgical treatments, some cases of nasal polyps (NP) exhibit recidivism. However, the endotype of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis with NP (CRSwNP) remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the immunological profile of refractory CRSwNP. METHODS: The control (n =23), primary NP group (pNP, n =70) and refractory NP group (rNP, n =86) were enrolled in this study. Patients who underwent revision surgeries due to failed maximal medical treatment after primary surgery were defined as the rNP group. A total of 18 inflammatory markers were investigated in nasal tissues using multiplex cytokine assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The clinical characteristics of rNP included more extensive disease and worse clinical course after surgery. Additionally, rNP subjects showed higher infection rate (mucopurulence and culture-positive rate), more frequent use of antibiotics and suffered from symptomatic bacterial infection, increased asthma morbidity compared to pNP. Cytokine profile analysis showed that levels of Th17-associated mediators (myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-17A and IL-23), B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and Th1 cytokine (interferon-γ) were up-regulated in rNP compared to controls and pNP. Human neutrophil elastase-positive cells were also enhanced in rNP compared with pNP. Upregulation of Th17/Th1mediators and BAFF were observed in rNP, regardless of tissue eosinophilia or asthmatic comorbidity. Interestingly, eosinophilic markers, such as eosinophil cationic protein and C-C motif chemokine ligand 24, were up-regulated in asthmatic rNP compared to pNP and controls. Levels of anti-dsDNA immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA were up-regulated in rNP and highest in asthmatic eosinophilic rNP among subtypes of rNP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Th17/Th1-associated mediators and BAFF may play a role and be a potential therapeutic target in refractory CRSwNP. Additionally, eosinophilic markers and autoantibodies may contribute to refractoriness in asthmatic rNP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asthma , Autoantibodies , B-Cell Activating Factor , Bacterial Infections , Comorbidity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophil Cationic Protein , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulins , Interleukin-17 , Interleukins , Nasal Polyps , Neutrophils , Sinusitis , Th17 Cells , Up-Regulation
3.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 201-211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Endotype in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been established in the last decade. However, the exact immunologic profile of CRS still has controversy because it has a considerable immunologic heterogeneity. Therefore, we investigated various inflammatory mediators according to different nasal tissues in chronic rhinosinusitis and compared them within the same subject. METHODS: We collected uncinate process mucosa (UP) and nasal polyp (NP) tissues from controls, CRS without NP (CRSsNP) and CRS with NP (CRSwNP). Expression levels of 28 inflammatory mediators including T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, proinflammatory cytokines and remodeling markers were determined by multiplex immunoassay and were analyzed using paired tests as well as principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate endotype in each subtype of CRS. RESULTS: Signature inflammatory mediators are interleukin (IL)-5, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)-24, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in eosinophilic NP, whereas IL-17A, IL-1β, and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 were detected as signature inflammatory markers in non-eosinophilic NP. Despite differences in inflammatory cytokine profile between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic NP, the common upregulation of IL-5, CCL-11, IL-23, IL-2Rα, VCAM-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were shown in NP compared to UP within the same subject. In the PCA, we observed that Th2 immune response was helpful in discriminating between nasal tissues in subtypes of CRS and that there was a partial overlap between non-eosinophilic NP and eosinophilic NP in terms of Th2 mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Commonly upregulated mediators in NP were Th2-associated, compared with UP regardless of CRS subtypes, whereas signature markers were distinct in each NP subtype. These findings imply that Th2 inflammatory responses may play a role in the development of NP regardless of CRSwNP subtypes.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Eosinophils , Immunoassay , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Monocytes , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Population Characteristics , Principal Component Analysis , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Up-Regulation , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
4.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 425-427, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939192

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal communication between the coronary artery and the cardiac chambers. In particular, an abnormal connection between the conus branch of the right coronary artery and the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery is defined as Vieussens’ arterial ring. Coronary artery fistulas are usually asymptomatic, but some can cause complications such as infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case of Vieussens’ arterial ring causing infective endocarditis with severe mitral regurgitation.

5.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 425-427, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786663

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal communication between the coronary artery and the cardiac chambers. In particular, an abnormal connection between the conus branch of the right coronary artery and the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery is defined as Vieussens’ arterial ring. Coronary artery fistulas are usually asymptomatic, but some can cause complications such as infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case of Vieussens’ arterial ring causing infective endocarditis with severe mitral regurgitation.


Subject(s)
Conus Snail , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Coronary Vessels , Endocarditis , Fistula , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Pulmonary Artery
6.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 490-502, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716681

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The previously reported Japanese clinical scoring study (JESREC) suggests that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be divided into 4 subtypes according to the degree of eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and offers the information regarding the prognosis of CRS to clinicians. However, this scoring system has not yet been validated by an immunological study and needs to provide treatment guidelines based on underlying immunologic profiles. We investigated the immunologic profile of each CRS subgroup according to the JESREC classification and suggest its clinical application. METHODS: A total of 140 CRS patients and 20 control subjects were enrolled. All patients were classified into 4 groups according to the JESREC (non-, mild, moderate and severe ECRS). Nasal tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of major cytokines (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, IFN-γ, periostin, thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP] and ST2), major chemokines (CCL11, CCL24, CXCL1 and CXCL2), transcription factors (T-bet, GATA3, RORC and FOXP3) and COL1A1 for type I collagen. Protein levels of 3 major cytokines (IL-5, IL-17A and IFN-γ) were also measured by multiplex immunoassay. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to investigate the overall profile of multiple mediators. RESULTS: The moderate/severe ECRS showed up-regulation of type 2-related mediators (IL-5, IL-13, periostin, TSLP and ST-2), whereas INF-γ (type 1 cytokine) and CXCL1 (neutrophil chemokine) expressions were increased in non-/mild ECRS compared with moderate/severe ECRS. The JESREC classification reflected an immunological endotype. In PCA data, PCA1 indicates a relative type 2 profile, whereas PCA2 represents a type 1/type 17-related profile. In this analysis, mild ECRS was indistinguishable from non-ECRS, whereas moderate to severe ECRS showed a distinct distribution compared with non-ECRS. The JESREC classification could be divided into 2 categories, non-/mild vs. moderate/severe ECRS based on underlying immunological analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The CRS clinical scoring system from the JESREC study reflects an inflammatory endotype. However, the immunologic profile of mild ECRS was similar to that of non-ECRS. Therefore, we propose type 2-targeted medical treatment for moderate to severe ECRS and type 1/type 17-targeted for non-ECRS and mild ECRS as the first treatment option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Chemokines , Classification , Collagen Type I , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Immunoassay , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23 Subunit p19 , Nasal Polyps , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Principal Component Analysis , Prognosis , Rhinitis , RNA, Messenger , Sinusitis , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
7.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 182-185, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172851

ABSTRACT

Sialolithiasis, the most common salivary gland pathology, is caused by calculi in the gland itself and its duct. While patients with small sialoliths can undergo conservative treatment, those with standard-size or larger sialoliths require sialolithotomy. In the present case study, we removed two sialoliths located beneath the mucosa in the posterior and anterior regions of Wharton's duct, respectively. For the posterior calculus, we performed sialolithotomy via an intra-oral approach; thereafter, the small anterior calculus near the duct orifice was removed by hydraulic power. This method has not previously been reported. There were no complications either during the operation or postoperatively, and the salivary function of the gland remained normal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calculi , Methods , Mucous Membrane , Needles , Pathology , Salivary Ducts , Salivary Gland Calculi , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland
8.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 276-281, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155113

ABSTRACT

This case series study demonstrates the possibility of successful implant rehabilitation without bone augmentation in the atrophic posterior maxilla with cystic lesion in the sinus. Sinus lift without bone graft using the lateral approach was performed. In one patient, the cyst was aspirated and simultaneous implantation under local anesthesia was performed, whereas the other cyst was removed under general anesthesia, and the sinus membrane was elevated in a second process, followed by implantation. In both cases, tapered 11.5-mm-long implants were utilized. With all of the implants, good stability and appropriate bone height were achieved. The mean bone level gain was 5.73 mm; adequate bone augmentation around the implants was shown, the sinus floor was moved apically, and the cyst was no longer radiologically detected. Completion of all of the treatments required an average of 12.5 months. The present study showed that sufficient bone formation and stable implantation in a maxilla of insufficient bone volume are possible through sinus lift without bone materials. The results serve to demonstrate, moreover, that surgical treatment of mucous retention cyst can facilitate rehabilitation. These techniques can reduce the risk of complications related to bone grafts, save money, and successfully treat antral cyst.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Dental Implants , Maxilla , Maxillary Sinus , Membranes , Osteogenesis , Rehabilitation , Sinus Floor Augmentation , Transplants
9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 107-110, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135909

ABSTRACT

Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a disastrous mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. Although several surgical interventions have been developed, mortality due to surgical management remains high, especially in the case of posterior VSR. We report a successful case of repair of posterior VSR using an alternative transatrial approach to avoid the complications related to ventricular incision.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Septal Rupture
10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 107-110, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135904

ABSTRACT

Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a disastrous mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. Although several surgical interventions have been developed, mortality due to surgical management remains high, especially in the case of posterior VSR. We report a successful case of repair of posterior VSR using an alternative transatrial approach to avoid the complications related to ventricular incision.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Septal Rupture
11.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 468-471, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25154

ABSTRACT

An 81-year-old male patient presented with complaint of a pulsating neck mass. The patient had a previous history of cervical lymphadenopathy by non-tuberculous mycobacterium infection. Rapid growth of the mass on admission and contrast enhanced computed tomography of the neck resulted in a diagnosis of non-tuberculous mycobacterium induced pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent emergency open repair of the pseudoaneurysm. Pseudoaneurysm of the common carotid artery is regularly reported, but here we report a rare case of non-tuberculous mycobacterium induced pseudoaneurysm of the common carotid artery.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Aneurysm, False , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery, Common , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Lymphatic Diseases , Mycobacterium Infections , Mycobacterium , Neck , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Vascular Diseases
12.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 228-230, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181100

ABSTRACT

We report a rare case of an extremely large right ventricular myxoma involving the ventricular side of the tricuspid valve. The tumor was excised along with the entire posterior leaflet and part of the anterior leaflet. The tricuspid valve was repaired by sliding valvuloplasty combined with ring annuloplasty.


Subject(s)
Heart Ventricles , Myxoma , Tricuspid Valve
13.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 432-434, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95466

ABSTRACT

Anticoagulation therapy is essential after cardiac valve surgery. However, spontaneous bleeding remains a major concern during anticoagulation therapy. Spontaneous gallbladder (GB) hemorrhage (hemobilia) is a rare occurrence during standard anticoagulation therapy. This report presents a case of GB hemorrhage that occurred shortly after initiating oral anticoagulant therapy in a patient who had undergone mitral valve replacement surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticoagulants , Gallbladder , Heart Valves , Hemobilia , Hemorrhage , Mitral Valve
14.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 152-154, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24185

ABSTRACT

Vieussens' arterial ring (VAR) is the connection between the conus branch of the right coronary artery and the proximal right ventricular branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. VARs are found in 48% of the population; however, pathologic VAR is rare. We experienced a case of pathologic VAR that involved a fistula connecting to the main pulmonary artery.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Conus Snail , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Coronary Vessels , Fistula , Pulmonary Artery
15.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 59-62, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29888

ABSTRACT

Primary epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the lung is an extremely rare neoplasm that originates from submucosal bronchial glands and has been found in the salivary glands, breast tissue, and sweat glands. However, only a few cases in the respiratory tract have been identified. In the literature, most pulmonary EMCs have been reported to have developed endobronchially although a few EMC cases have been presented as intraparenchymatous tumors. We have identified a case of primary EMC that developed in the peripheral lung parenchyma.


Subject(s)
Breast , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Respiratory System , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Salivary Glands , Sweat Glands
16.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 24-29, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The conventional method of aortic cross-clamping is very difficult and increases the risk of cerebral infarct due to embolism of the calcified aorta in these patients. Accordingly, we analyzed our experience with 11 cases of ascending aorta and aortic valve replacement with hypothermic circulatory arrest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2002 to December 2009, 11 patients had ascending aorta and aortic valve replacement with hypothermic arrest at our hospital. We performed a retrospective study. RESULTS: There were 5 males and 6 females, with a mean age of 68 years (range, 44 to 82 years). Eight patients had aortic stenosis, and 3 patients had aortic regurgitation. An aortic cannula was inserted into the right axillary artery in 3 patients and ascending aorta in 6 patients. Two patients with aortic regurgitation had a remote access perfusion catheter inserted though the right femoral artery. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 180 minutes (range, 110 to 306 minutes) and mean hypothermic circulatory arrest time was 30 minutes (range, 20 to 48 minutes). The mean rectal temperature during hypothermic circulatory arrest was 21degrees C (range, 19degrees C to 23degrees C). No patient had any new onset of cerebral infarct or cardiovascular accident after surgery. There was no hospital mortality. Early complications occurred in 1 patient who needed reoperation due to postoperative bleeding. Late complications occurred in 1 patient who underwent a Bentall operation due to prosthetic valve endocarditis. The mean follow-up duration was 32 months (range, 1 month to 8 years) and 1 patient died suddenly due to unknown causes after 5 years. CONCLUSION: Patients with a calcified aorta can be safely treated with a technique based on aorta and aortic valve replacement under hypothermic circulatory arrest.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Aorta , Aortic Valve , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Axillary Artery , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Catheters , Embolism , Endocarditis , Femoral Artery , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , Perfusion , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies
17.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 355-357, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151524

ABSTRACT

Anomalous origin of a coronary aortic artery is a rare cardiac anomaly. Although it can cause angina, syncope, and palpitations, most patients are asymptomatic. This anomaly requires surgical treatment or intervention because it is associated with sudden death. Several surgical techniques, such as coronary reimplantation, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), unroofing, and neo-ostium formation, have been proposed as treatments. We report a case surgically treated with neo-ostium formation in anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right coronary sinus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Sinus , Coronary Vessels , Death, Sudden , Replantation , Syncope
18.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 145-148, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our retrospective study was designed to examine the efficacy of endovenous laser ablation (ELA) in patients with varicose vein. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five patients (157 limbs) underwent ELA from June 2008 to June 2011. Age of patients, sex, location of lesions, postoperative complications and recurrence rate were analyzed. Follow up was performed by 1week, 4weeks and 8weeks after operation. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 51.4 years old and men and women were 73 and 52. The prevalence of minor complications was 14.4% and the recurrence rate was 3.2%. CONCLUSIONS: ELA of the varicose vein is effective and safe methods. ELA is simple to perform, relatively atraumatic and well accepted by patients. In my opinion, ELA can be effectively implemented in surgical practice.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Follow-Up Studies , Laser Therapy , Postoperative Complications , Prevalence , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Varicose Veins
19.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 161-166, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to study the outcomes of operations in the patients with atherosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities. METHODS: Forty patients underwent vascular bypass operations from January 2006 to December 2010 and were analyzed retrospectively with clinical records. RESULTS: Forty six bypassing procedures were performed in 40 limbs. The type of operations were femoro-popliteal bypass in 29 limbs, femoro-femoral bypass in 15 patiens and popliteo-posterior tibial bypass in 2 limbs. Forty three procedure were done with polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) graft and 3 were done with great saphenous vein. The cumulative patency rates of 5years was 58.9% respectively. In two patients, amputations of the lower extremities were done. Reoperations were performed in 9 patients. CONCLUSIONS: A thoughtful management can prevent the progress of atherosclerosis obliterans(ASO) and may preserve the function of lower limb. In this study, bypass surgery using PTFE and great saphenous vein as conduit revealed acceptable patency rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amputation, Surgical , Atherosclerosis , Extremities , Lower Extremity , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Retrospective Studies , Saphenous Vein , Transplants
20.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 739-742, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126398

ABSTRACT

Two stents were placed across the right subclavian vein due to stenosis of the right subclavian vein in a 40-year-old patient with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. During the follow up period, one of stents migrated into the right ventricle inducing tricuspid valve insufficiency. Percutaneous stent removal had failed and the stent was removed by open heart surgery with Tricuspid valve repair with a good result, and then we report the case.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Constriction, Pathologic , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , Stents , Subclavian Vein , Thoracic Surgery , Tricuspid Valve , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency
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