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1.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 354-361, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968770

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the three-dimensional positions of the mandibular posterior teeth after applying the biocreative reverse curve (BRC) system. @*Methods@#Thirty-four patients (mean age, 20.5 ± 8.56 years) were treated using the BRC system (mean period, 8.17 ± 2.19 months). Cone-beam computed tomography was performed before treatment and after treatment with the BRC system. The three-dimensional movement of each tooth was analyzed in the coordinate system at points on the crown and root apex. A paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effects of the BRC system. @*Results@#The application of the BRC system spanning from the first premolar to the second molar resulted not only in buccal and distal uprighting, but also in increased buccal and distal tipping of the teeth. The premolars and the first molar were extruded, and the second molar was intruded. @*Conclusions@#When the BRC system is applied, simultaneous distal and buccal uprighting of the premolars and molars can be achieved bilaterally using a temporary skeletal anchorage device without unnecessary movement of the anterior teeth.

2.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 372-382, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968768

ABSTRACT

Anterior open bite and transverse discrepancy are often accompanied by hyperdivergent skeletal patterns. In addition, degenerative joint disorders and vertical maxillary excess contribute to an unfavorable convex facial profile with a retruded chin. Correction of this complex three-dimensional problem with orthodontic treatment alone is considered challenging owing to anatomical limitations. Moreover, a history of orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction makes retreatment difficult. This case report illustrates the application of a maxillary tissue bone-borne expander and biocreative reverse curve system in a 23-year-old female patient with a severe anterior open bite and transverse discrepancy who underwent orthodontic treatment with four premolar extractions. By setting the treatment target under precise diagnosis and using appropriate appliances, a satisfactory treatment result could be achieved without orthognathic surgery.

3.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 308-312, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939111

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of neonatal infant orthodontics for treatments of cleft lip and palate with or without Robin sequence (RS) in Europe in the 1950s, advancements in design and scope of its application have been remarkable. As the first institution to adopt orthodontic airway plate (OAP) treatment in the United States in 2019, we saw a need for innovation of the original design to streamline the most labor-intensive and time-consuming aspects of OAP utilization. A solution is introduced using a systematic split expansion mechanism to re-size the OAP periodically to accommodate the neonate’s maxillary growth. To date, seven RS patients have received this modified treatment protocol at our institution. Each patient completed full treatment using only one OAP. This innovative utilization method is aptly named the split orthodontic airway plate (S-OAP). Details of the S-OAP and its modifications from conventional OAP are reported.

4.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 121-127, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938751

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: In gallbladder cancer (GBC), gender differences in incidence and mortality rates have been reported with geographic variation. However, there is little known about sex-related difference in GBC prognosis. This study compares prognostic factors according to gender for GBC. @*Methods@#We searched clinicopathological factors in all stages of 952 GBC patients from seven medical centers in Korea. A total of 927 patients were enrolled and surgery with curative resection was performed in 499 patients. @*Results@#Carbohydrate antigen (≥37 U/mL) was a significant prognostic factor in both females and males (odd ratio [OR], 4.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.13-5.89; p2; an independent predictor of poor prognosis via multivariate analysis (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; p=0.005, OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; p=0.002). Body mass index (BMI) also showed gender difference, and lower BMI (≤25 kg/m2) was the significant good indicator of multivariate analysis for lymph node metastasis in female patients (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.77; p=0.005) but, the significant poor indicator of univariate analysis for advanced T-stage in male (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.40-5.54; p=0.003). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that there is a possibility of gender difference in GBC prognosis. Age and high BMI were poor prognostic factors for curative resection for female GBC patients.

5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 193-202, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938345

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Peritonitis is a life-threatening, emergent surgical disease with very high mortality and morbidity. Currently, there are insufficient Korean studies using the P-POSSUM (Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) and the Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI) as risk prediction models for nontraumatic peritonitis patients who visit the emergency room. @*Methods@#This retrospective study was carried out on 196 cases of non-traumatic peritonitis in a single emergency center from January 2015 to December 2019. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was compared using both P-POSSUM and MPI. The observed mortality and expected mortality for P-POSSUM were compared using the goodness of fit assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow equation. @*Results@#Diastolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, potassium, length of stay, and intensive care unit admissions were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. The AUC was 0.812 for P-POSSUM and 0.646 for MPI. The observed-to-expected mortality ratio for P-POSSUM indicated fewer than expected deaths in all quintiles of risk and this was more pronounced, especially when the expected mortality was over 60%. @*Conclusion@#In non-traumatic peritonitis patients, P-POSSUM was more useful in predicting risk than the MPI score. However, P-POSSUM overestimated the risk in high-risk patients. Although the MPI score is only somewhat useful for predicting mortality in patients with non-traumatic peritonitis, it is useful as an adjuvant.

6.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 15-20, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937364

ABSTRACT

Tendon disorders commonly cause wrist and hand disability and curtail the performance of work-related tasks. Sonography allows for cost-effective, noninvasive, and dynamic evaluation of soft tissue structures, thus representing a valuable tool for ruling out musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist and hand. Because of the complexity of the wrist joint, sonographic training and familiarity with normal and variant anatomy are needed to avoid misdiagnosis and improper treatment. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the structures representing normal findings during sonographic evaluations of the wrist and hand. The main reviews the gross anatomy and procedures that are recommended to assess the soft tissue structures of the wrist and hand, with particular emphasis given to tendons, nerves, and ligaments. In conclusion, sonography is effective in assessing the tendons of the hand and wrist and related disorders and represents a valuable tool for diagnosis.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 474-482, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925027

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) provides high-resolution images and is superior to computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing small pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As a result, the use of EUS for early detection of PDAC has attracted attention. This study aimed to identify the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with PDAC diagnosed by EUS but not found on CT scan. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients diagnosed with PDAC at 12 tertiary referral centers in Korea from January 2003 to April 2019 were reviewed. This study included patients with pancreatic masses not clearly observed on CT scan but identified on EUS. The clinical characteristics and radiological features of the patients were analyzed, and survival analysis was performed. @*Results@#A total of 83 patients were enrolled. The most common abnormal CT findings other than a definite mass was pancreatic duct dilatation, which was identified in 61 patients (73.5%). All but four patients underwent surgery. The final pathologic stages were as follows: IA (n=31, 39.2%), IB (n=8, 10.1%), IIA (n=20, 25.3%), IIB (n=17, 21.5%), III (n=2, 2.5%), and IV (n=1, 1.4%). The 5-year survival rate of these patients was 50.6% (95% confidence interval, 38.8% to 66.7%). Elevated liver function testing and R1 resection emerged as significant predictors of mortality in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. @*Conclusions@#This multicenter study demonstrated favorable long-term prognosis in patients with PDAC diagnosed by EUS but indeterminate on CT scan. EUS should be considered for patients with suspected PDAC but indeterminate on CT scan.

8.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 125-147, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902372

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

9.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 168-175, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902370

ABSTRACT

Acute pancreatitis has two mortality peaks, which occurs within the first 2 weeks due to organ failure and then weeks or months later as result of multi-organ failure and local complications. Although there have been several clinical and multidisciplinary evaluation measures, imaging tests, and serological tests proposed to forecast severe acute pancreatitis, there is still no single test available to reliably predict the disease severity and time of death. Future large-scale studies are required to develop an assessment scale that can accurately predict the prognosis and mortality risk of severe acute pancreatitis.

10.
Journal of Korean Dental Science ; : 40-45, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915369

ABSTRACT

During orthodontic treatment of impacted teeth, use of appropriate anchorage against the traction force is important. Tooth anchorage with multi-bracket appliances is commonly used but sometimes it causes unwanted movements of adjacent teeth. Skeletal anchorage devices are therefore considered to minimize such side effects. Still their survival rate and positioning are highly limited according to the bone density and the interradicular space. This case report presents a case of two impacted teeth, one of which is dilacerated and horizontally angulated. Using the microplate with short screws and a bendable neck, negative effects on adjacent teeth were minimized and impacted teeth were repositioned with good stability.

11.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 179-188, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903769

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the sagittal and vertical positions of mandibular molars after applying an orthodontic miniplate with a nickel-titanium (NiTi) reverse curve arch wire (biocreative reverse curve [BRC] system). @*Methods@#A total of 30 female patients (mean age, 25.99 ± 8.96 years) were treated with the BRC system (mean BRC time, 10.3 ± 4.07 months). An I-shaped C-tube miniplate (Jin Biomed) was placed at the labial aspect for the alveolar bone of the mandibular incisors. A 0.017 × 0.025-inch NiTi reverse curve arch wire was engaged at the C-tube mini-plate anteriorly and the first and second premolars and molars posteriorly in the mandibular arch. Pre- and post-BRC lateral cephalograms were analyzed. A paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effects of BRC. @*Results@#The mandibular second molars were intrusively uprighted successfully by the BRC system. Distal uprighting with a controlled vertical dimension was noted on the first molars when they remained engaged in the BRC and the distal ends of the arch wire were laid on the second molars. The mandibular first and second premolars showed a slight extrusion. The changes in the mandibular incisors were unremarkable, while the mandibular molar angulation improved significantly. The lower occlusal plane rotated counterclockwise (MP-LOP:1.13° ± 2.60°). @*Conclusions@#The BRC system can provide very effective molar uprighting without compromising the position of the mandibular anterior teeth.

12.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 77-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903765

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the accuracy of a multi-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) model-based automated identification system for posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks. @*Methods@#The multi-stage CNN model was implemented with a personal computer. A total of 430 PA-cephalograms synthesized from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-PA) were selected as samples. Twenty-three landmarks used for Tweemac analysis were manually identified on all CBCT-PA images by a single examiner. Intra-examiner reproducibility was confirmed by repeating the identification on 85 randomly selected images, which were subsequently set as test data, with a two-week interval before training. For initial learning stage of the multi-stage CNN model, the data from 345 of 430 CBCT-PA images were used, after which the multi-stage CNN model was tested with previous 85 images. The first manual identification on these 85 images was set as a truth ground. The mean radial error (MRE) and successful detection rate (SDR) were calculated to evaluate the errors in manual identification and artificial intelligence (AI) prediction. @*Results@#The AI showed an average MRE of 2.23 ± 2.02 mm with an SDR of 60.88% for errors of 2 mm or lower. However, in a comparison of the repetitive task, the AI predicted landmarks at the same position, while the MRE for the repeated manual identification was 1.31 ± 0.94 mm. @*Conclusions@#Automated identification for CBCT-synthesized PA cephalometric landmarks did not sufficiently achieve the clinically favorable error range of less than 2 mm. However, AI landmark identification on PA cephalograms showed better consistency than manual identification.

13.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 231-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903757

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This outcome analysis study evaluated the actual positions of the orthodontic miniplate and miniplate anchoring screws (MPASs) and the risk factors affecting adjacent anatomic structures after miniplate placement in the mandibular incisal area. @*Methods@#Cone-beam computed tomographic images of 97 orthodontic miniplates and their 194 MPASs (diameter, 1.5 mm; length, 4 mm) in patients whose miniplates provided sufficient clinical stability for orthodontic treatment were retrospectively reviewed. For evaluating the actual positions of the miniplates and analyzing the risk factors, including the effects on adjacent roots, MPAS placement height (PH), placement depth (PD), plate angle (PA), mental fossa angle (MA), and root proximity were assessed using the paired t-test, analysis of variance, and generalized linear model and regression analyses. @*Results@#The mean PDs of MPASs at positions 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) were 2.01 mm and 2.23 mm, respectively. PA was significantly higher in the Class III malocclusion group than in the other groups. PH was positively correlated with MA and PD at P1. Of the 97 MPASs at P1, 49 were in the no-root area and 48 in the dentulous area; moreover, 19 showed a degree of root contact (19.6%) without root perforation. All MPASs at P2 were in the no-root area. @*Conclusions@#Positioning the miniplate head approximately 1 mm lower than the mucogingival junction is highly likely to provide sufficient PH for the P1-MPASs to be placed in the no-root area.

14.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 260-269, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903754

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To identify the most favorable sites that optimize the initial stability and survival rate of orthodontic mini-implants, this study measured hard and soft tissue thicknesses in the median and paramedian regions of the palate using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and determined possible sexand age-related differences in these thicknesses. @*Methods@#The study sample comprised CBCT images of 189 healthy subjects. The sample was divided into four groups according to age. A grid area was set for the measurement of hard and soft tissue thicknesses in the palate. Vertical lines were marked at intervals of 0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm lateral to the midpalatal suture, while horizontal lines were marked at 2-mm intervals up to 24 mm from the posterior margin of the incisive foramen. Measurements were made at 65 points of intersection between the horizontal and vertical lines. @*Results@#The palatal hard tissue thickness decreased from the anterior to the posterior region, with a decrease in the medial-to-lateral direction in the middle and posterior regions. While the soft tissue was rather thick around the lateral aspects of the palatal arch, it formed a constant layer that was only 1–2-mm thick throughout the palate. Statistically significant differences were observed according to sex and age. @*Conclusions@#The anterolateral palate as well as the midpalatal suture seem to be the most favorable sites for insertion of orthodontic mini-implants. The thickness of the palate differed by age and sex; these differences should be considered while planning the placement of orthodontic mini-implants.

15.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 73-93, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903564

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues.This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 354-374, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898451

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a task force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

17.
Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow ; : 166-171, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898000

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aims to compare the clinical outcomes of steroid injections during the rehabilitation period after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ACRC). @*Methods@#Among patients who underwent ARCR, 117 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Pain and rangeof motion (ROM) recovery at the 3-, 6-, and 24-month follow-up visits and functional outcome at the 24-month follow-up were comparedbetween 45 patients who received ultrasound-guided subacromial steroid injection at postoperative week 4 or 6 and 72 patients who didnot. Functional outcome was assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score and Constant score. Healing of therepaired tendon and retear were observed at the 6-month follow-up via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT)arthrography. @*Results@#At the 3-month follow-up, the steroid injection group showed lower visual analog scale scores than the control group (p<0.05) andshowed faster recovery of forward flexion and internal rotation (p<0.05). From the 6-month follow-up, the two groups did not show differences in pain and ROM, and the ASES score and Constant score also did not significantly differ at the 24-month follow-up. The two groupsdid not differ in retear rate as determined by MRI or CT arthrography at the 6-month follow-up. @*Conclusions@#This study demonstrated that ultrasound-guided subacromial steroid injection at 4 or 6 weeks after ARCR leads to quick painreduction and ROM recovery until 3 months after surgery. Therefore, subacromial steroid injection is speculated to be an effective and relatively safe method to assist rehabilitation.

18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 314-323, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897769

ABSTRACT

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an important treatment option for pancreatic cancer, which is known to be one of the malignancies with the worst prognosis. However, the high radiation doses delivered during SBRT may cause damage to adjacent radiosensitive organs. To minimize such damage, fiducial markers are used for localization during SBRT for pancreatic cancer. The development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has enabled fiducial markers to be inserted into the pancreas using an EUS fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle, unlike in the past when percutaneous placement was generally performed. For successful EUS-guided fiducial marker placement, it is necessary for the fiducial markers to be loaded within the EUS-FNA needles to have a low probability of complications and a low migration risk, and to be stably observed in SBRT imaging. A systematic review has shown that the technical success rate of EUS-guided fiducial marker placement is 96.27%, whereas the fiducial marker migration and adverse event rates are 4.33% and 4.85%, respectively. Nonetheless, standardized techniques for fiducial marker placement and the characteristics of optimal fiducial markers have not yet been established. This review will introduce the characteristics (e.g., materials and shapes) of fiducial markers used in fiducial marker placement for pancreatic cancer and will discuss conventional techniques along with their success rates, difficulties, and adverse events.

19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 161-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897748

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in 8 categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

20.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 179-188, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896065

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the sagittal and vertical positions of mandibular molars after applying an orthodontic miniplate with a nickel-titanium (NiTi) reverse curve arch wire (biocreative reverse curve [BRC] system). @*Methods@#A total of 30 female patients (mean age, 25.99 ± 8.96 years) were treated with the BRC system (mean BRC time, 10.3 ± 4.07 months). An I-shaped C-tube miniplate (Jin Biomed) was placed at the labial aspect for the alveolar bone of the mandibular incisors. A 0.017 × 0.025-inch NiTi reverse curve arch wire was engaged at the C-tube mini-plate anteriorly and the first and second premolars and molars posteriorly in the mandibular arch. Pre- and post-BRC lateral cephalograms were analyzed. A paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effects of BRC. @*Results@#The mandibular second molars were intrusively uprighted successfully by the BRC system. Distal uprighting with a controlled vertical dimension was noted on the first molars when they remained engaged in the BRC and the distal ends of the arch wire were laid on the second molars. The mandibular first and second premolars showed a slight extrusion. The changes in the mandibular incisors were unremarkable, while the mandibular molar angulation improved significantly. The lower occlusal plane rotated counterclockwise (MP-LOP:1.13° ± 2.60°). @*Conclusions@#The BRC system can provide very effective molar uprighting without compromising the position of the mandibular anterior teeth.

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