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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903217

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 619-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903194

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to introduce a 4-week long fully immersive virtual reality-based cognitive training (VRCT) program that could be applied for both a cognitively normal elderly population and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, we attempted to investigate the neuropsychological effects of the VRCT program in each group. @*Methods@#A total of 56 participants, 31 in the MCI group and 25 in the cognitively normal elderly group, underwent eight sessions of VRCT for 4 weeks. In order to evaluate the effects of the VRCT, the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet was administered before and after the program. The program’ s safety was assessed using a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), and availability was assessed using the presence questionnaire. @*Results@#After the eighth session of the VRCT program, cognitive improvement was observed in the ability to learn new information, visuospatial constructional ability, and frontal lobe function in both groups. At the baseline evaluation, based on the SSQ, the MCI group complained of disorientation and nausea significantly more than the cognitively normal elderly group did. However, both groups showed a reduction in discomfort as the VRCT program progressed. @*Conclusion@#We conclude that our VRCT program helps improve cognition in both the MCI group and cognitively normal elderly group. Therefore, the VRCT is expected to help improve cognitive function in elderly populations with and without MCI.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e240-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900069

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for adulthood mental health, the impact of different types of childhood maltreatment on mental disorders is not yet clear. This study explored the association of each type of childhood maltreatment with adulthood mental disorders and suicidality in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 5,102 individuals from the general populations over the age of 18 responded to the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questions about childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). To evaluate the odds ratio for mental disorders and suicidality associated with each type of childhood maltreatment, we used logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#About 17.0% of the respondents reported having experienced a type of maltreatment in childhood. According to the type, 9.4% reported physical abuse, 9.3% reported emotional neglect, 7.9% reported psychological abuse, and 3.8% reported sexual abuse. Exposure to each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with most types of mental disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Each type of childhood maltreatment victim was associated with suicidality (suicidal ideations, suicide plans, and suicide attempts).Dose-response patterns for suicide attempts were observed in all types of victims. Moreover, the respondents who experienced frequent childhood emotional neglect were 14 times more likely to have attempted suicide. @*Conclusion@#Childhood maltreatment was associated with mental health in adulthood.The findings show the need for early detection and intervention of victims of childhood maltreatment to minimize its negative impact on adult mental health.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e244-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900042

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated trends in the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by sociodemographic factors in South Korea. @*Methods@#National samples of the general population aged 18 years or older collected from the nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001 (n = 6,206), 2006 (n = 6,466), and 2011 (n = 5,986) were used. For MDD diagnosis, we conducted face-to-face interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We performed logistic regression analyses stratified by gender, after adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, to calculate the 2006-to-2001 odds ratio (OR) and 2011-to-2001 OR by subgroups of sociodemographic factors to explore the association of MDD prevalence with sociodemographic factors over time. @*Results@#The prevalence of MDD in the general population of South Korea increased steadily from 2001, to 2006, and to 2011 (1.6%, 2.5%, and 3.1%, respectively). Among the men, the prevalence of MDD continued to increase significantly in 18–29 years of age group (2006: adjusted OR [AOR], 3.32; 2011: AOR, 7.42), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 3.56; 2011: AOR, 4.77), and not living with a partner group (2006: AOR, 3.24; 2011: AOR, 3.25).Meanwhile, among the women, the prevalence of MDD continued to significantly increase in the below-average household income group (2006: AOR, 2.58; 2011: AOR, 2.59), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 2.02; 2011: AOR, 2.47), and unemployed group (2006: AOR, 1.48; 2011: AOR, 2.04). @*Conclusion@#This study may provide significant information for public policymakers to allocate sufficient health resources on MDD to vulnerable groups, particularly, men aged 18–29 years and women living in households with below-average income, and for clinicians to develop appropriate screening and treatment modalities for MDD.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899959

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

6.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 232-244, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899491

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the modifiable factors affecting breastfeeding planning and duration among healthy mothers and their use of breastfeeding information resources. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a community setting. Four hundreds participants were recruited at five pediatric clinics and three community health centers located in Paju-si and Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, between January and May 2019. Based on the breastfeeding decision-making model, driven by Martens and Young’s work, the survey items consisted of demographics, childbirth and breastfeeding characteristics, and breastfeeding information resources. In the analysis, 389 responses were used in the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Information resource networks were compared before and after childbirth including a subgroup analysis depending on the breastfeeding duration. @*Results@#The modifiable factors affecting breastfeeding planning and duration were antenatal and postpartum breastfeeding education and the provision of information in the hospital.The frequency of Internet use and websites visited were notable and potentially modifiable factors, which were also observed in the networks showing different relationship patterns according to participant subgroups and times. The childbirth event increased the centralization of the network in the planned group, while the network of the non-planned group was more diffused after childbirth. The network of the short-term breastfeeding group was characterized by a more centralized pattern and the resources of high betweenness centrality than the long-term group. @*Conclusion@#Breastfeeding education is a consistent factor that affects breastfeeding behavior. A well-designed internet-based approach would be an effective nursing intervention to meet the needs of women seeking breastfeeding information and changing their behaviors.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 521-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897889

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Patients with breathing-related sleep disorder (BRSD) often complain of psychiatric symptoms such as depression in addition to snoring, excessive sleepiness, and disturbed sleep. However, the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and severity of sleep apnea in BRSD is controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and sleep electroencephalography (EEG) findings in BRSD patients using spectral analysis. @*Methods@#All participants underwent polysomnography and evaluation using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) scale. We analyzed the absolute spectral power density values of standard EEG frequency bands in the participants (n = 169) with BRSD during the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep period. We performed correlation analysis between the domain scores of SCL-90-R scale and the absolute values of the EEG frequency bands. @*Results@#Significant positive correlation was observed between the absolute spectral power density values in the slow oscillation band and the degree of paranoid ideation (r = 0.226, p = 0.028) and depression (r = 0.216, p = 0.044) in SCL-90-R. The multiple linear regression model showed that higher paranoid ideation domain score (B = 0.007, p = 0.020), younger age (B = −0.011, p < 0.001), and female sex (B = 0.213, p = 0.004) were associated with higher slow oscillation power during NREM sleep. @*Conclusion@#The results of the present study suggested a relationship between sleep EEG and psychiatric symptoms in patients with BRSD. This relationship needs to be validated with further studies.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895513

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 619-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895490

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to introduce a 4-week long fully immersive virtual reality-based cognitive training (VRCT) program that could be applied for both a cognitively normal elderly population and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, we attempted to investigate the neuropsychological effects of the VRCT program in each group. @*Methods@#A total of 56 participants, 31 in the MCI group and 25 in the cognitively normal elderly group, underwent eight sessions of VRCT for 4 weeks. In order to evaluate the effects of the VRCT, the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet was administered before and after the program. The program’ s safety was assessed using a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), and availability was assessed using the presence questionnaire. @*Results@#After the eighth session of the VRCT program, cognitive improvement was observed in the ability to learn new information, visuospatial constructional ability, and frontal lobe function in both groups. At the baseline evaluation, based on the SSQ, the MCI group complained of disorientation and nausea significantly more than the cognitively normal elderly group did. However, both groups showed a reduction in discomfort as the VRCT program progressed. @*Conclusion@#We conclude that our VRCT program helps improve cognition in both the MCI group and cognitively normal elderly group. Therefore, the VRCT is expected to help improve cognitive function in elderly populations with and without MCI.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 117-124, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874488

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The response to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, augmentation with other antipsychotics is common in clinical situations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of psychiatric symptoms and side effects after amisulpride add-on therapy. @*Methods@#Forty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder without treatment response to second-generation antipsychotics were included in this study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Korean version of Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after the addition of amisulpride. @*Results@#Among the 29 subjects who completed the 8-week study, 34.5% were responders according to PANSS total score. At week 8, the mean positive (p < 0.001), negative (p < 0.001), general (p < 0.001), and total (p < 0.001) PANSS scores and CDSS scores (p = 0.002) showed significant improvement compared to baseline. There was no increase in extrapyramidal side effects according to Simpson Angus Scale (p = 0.379) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (p = 0.070) and no weight gain (p = 0.308) after the add-on treatment. @*Conclusion@#The addition of amisulpride for schizophrenia patients without therapeutic response to second-generation antipsychotics is considered an effective and safe treatment. This study's results suggested that augmentation of second-generation antipsychotics with amisulpride could be a useful option for patients with schizophrenia unresponsive to second-generation antipsychotics. Further studies investigating the efficacy of amisulpride add-on therapy using placebo control are necessary to confirm these results.

11.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 521-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890185

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Patients with breathing-related sleep disorder (BRSD) often complain of psychiatric symptoms such as depression in addition to snoring, excessive sleepiness, and disturbed sleep. However, the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and severity of sleep apnea in BRSD is controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and sleep electroencephalography (EEG) findings in BRSD patients using spectral analysis. @*Methods@#All participants underwent polysomnography and evaluation using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) scale. We analyzed the absolute spectral power density values of standard EEG frequency bands in the participants (n = 169) with BRSD during the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep period. We performed correlation analysis between the domain scores of SCL-90-R scale and the absolute values of the EEG frequency bands. @*Results@#Significant positive correlation was observed between the absolute spectral power density values in the slow oscillation band and the degree of paranoid ideation (r = 0.226, p = 0.028) and depression (r = 0.216, p = 0.044) in SCL-90-R. The multiple linear regression model showed that higher paranoid ideation domain score (B = 0.007, p = 0.020), younger age (B = −0.011, p < 0.001), and female sex (B = 0.213, p = 0.004) were associated with higher slow oscillation power during NREM sleep. @*Conclusion@#The results of the present study suggested a relationship between sleep EEG and psychiatric symptoms in patients with BRSD. This relationship needs to be validated with further studies.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e240-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892365

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for adulthood mental health, the impact of different types of childhood maltreatment on mental disorders is not yet clear. This study explored the association of each type of childhood maltreatment with adulthood mental disorders and suicidality in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 5,102 individuals from the general populations over the age of 18 responded to the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questions about childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). To evaluate the odds ratio for mental disorders and suicidality associated with each type of childhood maltreatment, we used logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#About 17.0% of the respondents reported having experienced a type of maltreatment in childhood. According to the type, 9.4% reported physical abuse, 9.3% reported emotional neglect, 7.9% reported psychological abuse, and 3.8% reported sexual abuse. Exposure to each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with most types of mental disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Each type of childhood maltreatment victim was associated with suicidality (suicidal ideations, suicide plans, and suicide attempts).Dose-response patterns for suicide attempts were observed in all types of victims. Moreover, the respondents who experienced frequent childhood emotional neglect were 14 times more likely to have attempted suicide. @*Conclusion@#Childhood maltreatment was associated with mental health in adulthood.The findings show the need for early detection and intervention of victims of childhood maltreatment to minimize its negative impact on adult mental health.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e244-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892338

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated trends in the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by sociodemographic factors in South Korea. @*Methods@#National samples of the general population aged 18 years or older collected from the nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001 (n = 6,206), 2006 (n = 6,466), and 2011 (n = 5,986) were used. For MDD diagnosis, we conducted face-to-face interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We performed logistic regression analyses stratified by gender, after adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, to calculate the 2006-to-2001 odds ratio (OR) and 2011-to-2001 OR by subgroups of sociodemographic factors to explore the association of MDD prevalence with sociodemographic factors over time. @*Results@#The prevalence of MDD in the general population of South Korea increased steadily from 2001, to 2006, and to 2011 (1.6%, 2.5%, and 3.1%, respectively). Among the men, the prevalence of MDD continued to increase significantly in 18–29 years of age group (2006: adjusted OR [AOR], 3.32; 2011: AOR, 7.42), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 3.56; 2011: AOR, 4.77), and not living with a partner group (2006: AOR, 3.24; 2011: AOR, 3.25).Meanwhile, among the women, the prevalence of MDD continued to significantly increase in the below-average household income group (2006: AOR, 2.58; 2011: AOR, 2.59), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 2.02; 2011: AOR, 2.47), and unemployed group (2006: AOR, 1.48; 2011: AOR, 2.04). @*Conclusion@#This study may provide significant information for public policymakers to allocate sufficient health resources on MDD to vulnerable groups, particularly, men aged 18–29 years and women living in households with below-average income, and for clinicians to develop appropriate screening and treatment modalities for MDD.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892255

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

15.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 232-244, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891787

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the modifiable factors affecting breastfeeding planning and duration among healthy mothers and their use of breastfeeding information resources. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a community setting. Four hundreds participants were recruited at five pediatric clinics and three community health centers located in Paju-si and Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, between January and May 2019. Based on the breastfeeding decision-making model, driven by Martens and Young’s work, the survey items consisted of demographics, childbirth and breastfeeding characteristics, and breastfeeding information resources. In the analysis, 389 responses were used in the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Information resource networks were compared before and after childbirth including a subgroup analysis depending on the breastfeeding duration. @*Results@#The modifiable factors affecting breastfeeding planning and duration were antenatal and postpartum breastfeeding education and the provision of information in the hospital.The frequency of Internet use and websites visited were notable and potentially modifiable factors, which were also observed in the networks showing different relationship patterns according to participant subgroups and times. The childbirth event increased the centralization of the network in the planned group, while the network of the non-planned group was more diffused after childbirth. The network of the short-term breastfeeding group was characterized by a more centralized pattern and the resources of high betweenness centrality than the long-term group. @*Conclusion@#Breastfeeding education is a consistent factor that affects breastfeeding behavior. A well-designed internet-based approach would be an effective nursing intervention to meet the needs of women seeking breastfeeding information and changing their behaviors.

16.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 128-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915402

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cognitive reserve (CR) protects against cognitive decline by utilizing functional connectivity (FC) in the brain, such as the default mode network (DMN). We studied whether CR in individuals with predementia would correlate with better cognition and increased DMN FC in the resting brain. @*Methods@#Fifty-four participants with subjective cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment completed the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) questionnaire, and underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Correlation and regression analyses for clinical variables and seed-to-voxel analyses of CR-related FC in the DMN were conducted. @*Results@#CRI total (β=0.42, p=0.001), education (β=0.39, p=0.001), and leisure time (β=0.33, p=0.009) predicted the MiniMental State Examination. The CRI education predicted verbal memory recall (β=0.32, p=0.017), confrontational naming (β=0.57, p<0.001), and phonemic fluency (β=0.43, p=0.004). In the DMN in the resting brain, the CRI total correlated with increased FC, based on the posterior cingulate to both lateral parietal cortices. @*Conclusion@#In individuals with predementia, comprehensive CR correlated with an enhanced network in the DMN in the resting state. These results may support the neural correlate of CR during the initial stage of cognitive decline.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e319-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831736

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the impact of getting older than the mean marriage age on mental disorders and suicidality among never-married people. @*Methods@#We performed an epidemiological survey, a nationwide study of mental disorders, in 2016. In this study, a multi-stage cluster sampling was adopted. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was conducted with 5,102 respondents aged 18 years or above. The associations between never-married status, mental disorders, and suicidality were explored according to whether the mean age of first marriage (men = 32.8 years; women = 30.1 years) had passed. @*Results@#Never-married status over the mean marriage age was associated with agoraphobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and major depressive disorder after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Respondents with never-married status above the mean marriage age were associated with suicide attempts (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–7.60) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, while respondents with never-married status under the mean marriage age were not. Moreover, in respondents with never-married status, getting older than the mean marriage age was associated with suicidal ideations (aOR, 1.49;95% CI, 1.04–2.15) and suicide attempts (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.46–7.84) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. @*Conclusion@#Never-married status above the mean first marriage age was associated with mental disorders and suicidality. These findings suggest the need for a national strategy to develop an environment where people with never-married status do not suffer even if their marriage is delayed.

18.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 132-136, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830599

ABSTRACT

Oral mucosal melanoma is a very rare type of malignant melanoma, the characteristics of whichdiffer from those of cutaneous melanoma. Primary amelanotic melanoma of the mandibular gingiva,which can invade the mandibular bone, is very rare worldwide. Here, we report a case in whichwe performed a reconstruction of the mandible and gingiva using the fibula osteocutaneous freeflap procedure to treat a patient diagnosed with a primary amelanotic melanoma of the mandibulargingiva. The procedure was successful, and no recurrence was observed 10 months after surgery.Oral mucosal melanoma has a much poorer prognosis and a lower 5-year survival rate thancutaneous melanoma. However, recently, immunomodulatory therapies for mutations in melanocyticlesions have been used effectively to treat the increasing number of patients developing thistype of melanoma, thus improving the prognosis of patients with oral mucosal melanoma.

19.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 16-22, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between insufficient sleep and visuospatial memory in adolescents using a computerized neurocognitive function test. METHODS: A total of 103 high school students (26 males and 77 females; mean age 17.11 ± 8.50 years) without a serious psychiatric problem was recruited. All subjects were requested to complete a self-report questionnaire about weekday total sleep time and weekend total sleep time. The epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and the beck depression inventory (BDI) were administered to measure daytime sleepiness and symptoms of depression. Seven subsets of the Cambridge Neuropsychological test automated battery were examined to assess visuospatial memory. RESULTS: After controlling for age, sex, ESS, and BDI, longer weekend total sleep time was correlated with poor performance on delayed matching to sample (r = −0.312, p = 0.002) and immediate recall on pattern recognition memory (r = −0.225, p = 0.025). Increased weekend catch-up sleep time was correlated with poor performance of delayed matching to sample (r = −0.236, p = 0.018), immediate recall on pattern recognition memory (r = −0.220, p = 0.029), and delayed recall on pattern recognition memory (r = −0.211, p = 0.036) after controlling for age, sex, ESS, and BDI. CONCLUSION: This study showed that increased weekend catch-up sleep time reflecting insufficient weekday sleep were associated with poor performance in delayed recall tasks of visual memory. This finding suggests that insufficient sleep during adolescence might produce a decline of visuospatial memory.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Depression , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Neuropsychological Tests
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e295-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between childhood bullying and adulthood mental disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria. We investigated the association of childhood peer bullying with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders and suicidality in adults. METHODS: A total of 5,102 respondents aged 18 or over completed the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and a questionnaire for suicidal ideas, plans, and attempts. We evaluated peer bullying using an item in the Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between victimization of peer bullying, adult psychiatric disorders, and suicidality. RESULTS: Around 8.8% of the general population in Korea reported the experience of being bullied when growing up. Bullying experience was associated with an increase in the adulthood prevalence of nicotine use disorders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75–3.49), alcohol use disorders (aOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.49–2.51), mood disorders (aOR, 4.23; 95% CI, 3.01–5.94), and anxiety disorders (aOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.89–4.43) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Among anxiety disorders, the OR for post-traumatic stress disorder (aOR, 9.95; 95% CI, 5.62–17.63) was notably high. Frequent victimization (many times) was significantly associated with suicidality even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders, whereas occasional victimization (once or a few times) was not. CONCLUSION: Childhood bullying experience was associated with adult psychiatric disorders and suicidality. The findings indicated the importance of the early detection and management of childhood peer bullying to reduce detrimental adulthood consequences.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anxiety Disorders , Bullying , Crime Victims , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Korea , Logistic Models , Mental Disorders , Mood Disorders , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use Disorder
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