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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874521

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the recent prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥30 years by analyzing nationally representative data. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 to 2018, and the percentage and total number of people ≥30 years of age with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were estimated. @*Results@#In 2018, 13.8% of Korean adults aged ≥30 years had diabetes, and adults aged ≥65 years showed a prevalence rate of 28%. The prevalence of IFG was 26.9% in adults aged ≥30 years. From 2016 to 2018, 35% of the subjects with diabetes were not aware of their condition. Regarding comorbidities, 53.2% and 61.3% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 72% had hypercholesterolemia as defined by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 mg/dL in people with diabetes. Of the subjects with diabetes, 43.7% had both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. With regard to glycemic control, only 28.3% reached the target level of <6.5%. Moreover, only 11.5% of subjects with diabetes met all three targets of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. The percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was higher in diabetes patients than in those without diabetes, while that from protein and fat was lower in subjects with diabetes. @*Conclusion@#The high prevalence and low control rate of diabetes and its comorbidities in Korean adults were confirmed. More stringent efforts are needed to improve the comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900853

ABSTRACT

Surgeries performed for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) place the medical staff at very high risk of infection. We suggest recommendations for appropriate operation preparation, anesthetic management, and infection control for COVID-19 patients in operating rooms.Current Concepts: Surgeries must be performed in an airborne infection isolation room, such as a negative-pressure operating room. It is recommended that scheduled surgeries for COVID-19 patients be postponed to an acceptable extent, with the exception of emergency cases. Moreover, the number of medical staff participating in the surgery should be minimized. Medical staffs should practice proper hand hygiene and wear an appropriate level of personal protective equipment depending on the infection risk. While performing surgery and inducing anesthesia in COVID-19 patients, endotracheal intubation should be performed by trained anesthesiologists with a video laryngoscope, preferably using high-efficiency viral filters, which can prevent contamination in the anesthesia machine. Use of disposable equipment or COVID-19 patient-specific devices is recommended to prevent the spread of infection, but instruments that require sharing among multiple patients must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before their use for the next patient.Discussion and Conclusion: Medical staff performing surgeries for COVID-19 patients are at very high risk of infection. Therefore, the use of appropriate personal protective equipment, high-efficiency viral filters in breathing circuits during anesthesia, and disinfection of contaminated equipment after the operation are mandatory.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893149

ABSTRACT

Surgeries performed for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) place the medical staff at very high risk of infection. We suggest recommendations for appropriate operation preparation, anesthetic management, and infection control for COVID-19 patients in operating rooms.Current Concepts: Surgeries must be performed in an airborne infection isolation room, such as a negative-pressure operating room. It is recommended that scheduled surgeries for COVID-19 patients be postponed to an acceptable extent, with the exception of emergency cases. Moreover, the number of medical staff participating in the surgery should be minimized. Medical staffs should practice proper hand hygiene and wear an appropriate level of personal protective equipment depending on the infection risk. While performing surgery and inducing anesthesia in COVID-19 patients, endotracheal intubation should be performed by trained anesthesiologists with a video laryngoscope, preferably using high-efficiency viral filters, which can prevent contamination in the anesthesia machine. Use of disposable equipment or COVID-19 patient-specific devices is recommended to prevent the spread of infection, but instruments that require sharing among multiple patients must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before their use for the next patient.Discussion and Conclusion: Medical staff performing surgeries for COVID-19 patients are at very high risk of infection. Therefore, the use of appropriate personal protective equipment, high-efficiency viral filters in breathing circuits during anesthesia, and disinfection of contaminated equipment after the operation are mandatory.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832394

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to inflammatory conditions inducing conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts, promoting fibrotic diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokine is the most potent inducer of EndMT. We investigated inhibition of interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced EndMT by gemigliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor. @*Methods@#We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to 10 ng/mL IL-1β/20 μM gemigliptin and analyzed the expression of endothelial, smooth muscle, mesenchymal, and osteoblastic markers, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Smad, and non-Smad signaling pathway proteins. @*Results@#Morphological changes showed gemigliptin blocked IL-1β-induced EndMT, upregulated EC markers, and downregulated smooth muscle and mesenchymal markers. IL-1β activation of HUVECs is initiated by the BMP/Smad and non-smad BMP signaling pathways. Gemigliptin inhibited IL-1β induction of BMP2 and 7, activin receptor type IA, BMP receptor type IA, and BMP receptor type II. Reversal of IL-1β-mediated inhibition of BMP-induced Smad1/5/8, Smad2, and Smad3 phosphorylation by gemigliptin suggests involvement of the Smad pathway in gemigliptin action. In the non-Smad BMP pathway, gemigliptin treatment significantly increased the deactivation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38, and JNK by IL-1β. Gemigliptin treatment suppressed BMP-2-induced expression of key osteoblastic markers including osterix, runt-related transcription factor 2, and hepcidin during IL-1β-induced EndMT. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated a novel protective mechanism of gemigliptin against fibrosis by suppressing IL-1β-induced EndMT.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Surgeries in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) put medical staff at a high risk of infection. We report the anesthetic management and infection control of a mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patient who underwent exploratory laparotomy for suspected duodenal ulcer perforation.Case: A 73-year-old man, mechanically ventilated for confirmed COVID-19, showed clinical and radiographic signs of a perforated duodenal ulcer, and he was transferred under sedation and intubation to a negative-pressure operating room. The operating and assistant staff wore personal protective equipment. High-efficiency particulate absorbing (HEPA) filters were inserted into the expiratory circuits of the anesthesia machine and portable ventilator. No participating staff contracted COVID-19, although the patient later died due to pneumonia. @*Conclusions@#This report can contribute to establishing clinical guidelines for the surgical management and operation room setting of COVID-19 patients.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830276

ABSTRACT

Background@#The analgesic effect of perineural opioid in clinical practice are still controversial. This randomized controlled trial compared analgesic effect of ropivacaine with fentanyl or ropivacaine alone for continuous femoral nerve block following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. @*Methods@#Fourty patients of ASA PS Ⅰ or Ⅱ receiving total knee arthroplasty with spinal anesthesia were enlisted and randomly allocated into two groups. Group R; bolus injection of 0.375% ropivacaine, 30 ml and an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine at 8 ml/h (n = 20). Group RF; 0.375% ropivacaine, 29 ml added with 50 μg of fentanyl as a bolus and an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine mixed with 1 μg/ml of fentanyl at 8 ml/h (n = 20). Local anesthetic infusion via a femoral nerve catheter was started at the end of operation and continued for 48 h. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with hydromorphone (0.15 mg/ml, 0-1-10) were used for adjuvant analgesics. Position of catheter tip and contrast distribution, visual analog scale of pain, hydromorphone consumption, side effects were recorded for 48 h after operation. Patient satisfaction for the pain control received were noted. @*Results@#The pain visual analogue scale, incidences of side effects and satisfaction were not different between the two groups (P > 0.05), but the hydromorphone usage at 48 h after operation were lower in the Group RF than in the Group R (P = 0.047). @*Conclusions@#The analgesic effect of ropivacaine with fentanyl for continuous femoral nerve block after knee replacement arthroplasty was not superior to that of the ropivacaine alone.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153714

ABSTRACT

Allergic reaction to insulin is uncommon since the introduction of human recombinant insulin preparations and is more rare in pregnant than non-pregnant females due to altered immune reaction during pregnancy. Herein, we report two cases of allergic reaction to insulin in gestational diabetes that were successfully managed. One case was a 33-year-old female using isophane-neutral protamine Hagedorn human insulin and insulin lispro. She experienced dyspnea, cough, urticaria and itching sensation at the sites of insulin injection immediately after insulin administration. We discontinued insulin therapy and started oral hypoglycemic agents with metformin and glibenclamide. The other case was a 32-year-old female using insulin lispro and insulin detemer. She experienced pruritus and burning sensation and multiple nodules at the sites of insulin injection. We changed the insulin from insulin lispro to insulin aspart. Assessments including immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG, eosinophil, insulin antibody level and skin biopsy were performed. In the two cases, the symptoms were resolved after changing the insulin to oral agents or other insulin preparations. We report two cases of allergic reaction to human insulin in gestational diabetes due to its rarity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Burns , Cough , Diabetes, Gestational , Dyspnea , Eosinophils , Female , Glyburide , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Hypoglycemic Agents , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Insulin Aspart , Insulin Lispro , Insulin , Metformin , Pregnancy , Pruritus , Sensation , Skin , Urticaria
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727368

ABSTRACT

Alcohol consumption increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, its effects on prediabetes or early diabetes have not been studied. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pancreas and liver resulting from chronic alcohol consumption in the prediabetes and early stages of diabetes. We separated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a type-2 diabetic animal model, into two groups based on diabetic stage: prediabetes and early diabetes were defined as occurrence between the ages of 11 to 16 weeks and 17 to 22 weeks, respectively. The experimental group received an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 6 weeks. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted after 16 and 22 weeks for the prediabetic and early diabetes groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight between the control and ethanol groups. Fasting and 120-min glucose levels were lower and higher, respectively, in the ethanol group than in the control group. In prediabetes rats, alcohol induced significant expression of ER stress markers in the pancreas; however, alcohol did not affect the liver. In early diabetes rats, alcohol significantly increased most ER stress-marker levels in both the pancreas and liver. These results indicate that chronic alcohol consumption increased the risk of diabetes in prediabetic and early diabetic OLETF rats; the pancreas was more susceptible to damage than was the liver in the early diabetic stages, and the adaptive and proapoptotic pathway of ER stress may play key roles in the development and progression of diabetes affected by chronic alcohol ingestion.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Animals , Body Weight , Diet , Eating , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Ethanol , Fasting , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver , Models, Animal , Pancreas , Prediabetic State , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146598

ABSTRACT

Atypical antipsychotics have replaced conventional antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia because they have less of a propensity to cause undesirable neurologic adverse events including extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). However, atypical antipsychotics have been known to result in various metabolic complications such as impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes and even diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In addition, a number of NMS cases have been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, although the absolute incidence of neurologic side effects is currently significantly low. Here, we report a patient who simultaneously developed DKA, acute renal failure and NMS with rhabdomyolysis after olanzapine treatment. Olanzapine-induced metabolic complications and NMS were dramatically improved with cessation of the olanzapine treatment and initiation of supportive management including fluid therapy, hemodialysis, and intensive glycemic control using insulin. At short-term follow-up, insulin secretion was markedly recovered as evidenced by a restoration of serum C-peptide level, and the patient no longer required any hypoglycemic medications. Despite the dramatic increase in the use of atypical antipsychotics treatment, individualized treatments along with careful monitoring may be prudent for high risk or vulnerable patients in order to avoid the development of metabolic side effects.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Antipsychotic Agents , Benzodiazepines , C-Peptide , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Fluid Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Humans , Incidence , Insulin , Movement Disorders , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome , Renal Dialysis , Rhabdomyolysis , Schizophrenia
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 149-154, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the changes in blood glucose control and lipid profiles after 2-months of smoking cessation in healthy males. METHODS: Smoking abstinence was evaluated through self-report and urine cotinine levels. 12 individuals who succeeded in quitting smoking were analyzed. Fasting values of glucose and insulin were used to estimate the beta-cell activity and insulin resistance was evaluated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). RESULTS: The data showed that the subjects had a significant increase in weight, body mass index and fasting plasma glucose levels after smoking cessation. The HOMA-Insulin Resistance and the HOMA beta-cell function increased significantly (p=0.005, p=0.047 respectively). The QUICKI showed a significant decrease (p=0.005). In addition, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly (p=0.028); however, changes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were not significant (p=0.284, p=0.445 respectively). CONCLUSION: During the initial stage of smoking abstinence, insulin resistance increased and insulin sensitivity decreased due to elevated body weight and fat composition. Therefore, it is important to educate individuals that stop smoking about the necessity of weight control during smoking cessation programs.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Cotinine , Fasting , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Lipoproteins , Male , Plasma , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation
13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 321-326, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86084

ABSTRACT

Cases of combined primary hyperaldosteronism and subclinical Cushing's syndrome are extremely rare. We identified a left adrenocortical tumor in a 41-year-old woman by computed tomography (CT) during an evaluation for hypokalemia and hypertension. Hormonal assessment demonstrated normal aldosterone concentrations, low plasma renin activity, an increased aldosterone/renin ratio, and normal serum cortisol levels. Selective adrenal venous sampling for the determination of aldosterone concentrations showed an overfunctioning left adrenal gland. Dexamethasone (overnight 1mg, 2 mg, 8 mg) suppression tests showed insuppressible cortisol. We diagnosed the patient as having an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma associated with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adrenal Glands , Adrenocortical Adenoma , Adult , Aldosterone , Cushing Syndrome , Dexamethasone , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypertension , Hypokalemia , Plasma , Renin
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727064

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate identification criteria for the cases of osteoporotic hip fracture using the National Health Insurance Database, and we calculated the incidence rate of osteoporotic hip fracture in the Korean population using these criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The criteria to identify osteoporotic hip fracture using a diagnosis code, a procedure code, the type and number of medical service usages and the patients' ages were developed via discussions among experts. These criteria were validated by using a hip fracture cohort in which all the genuine osteoporotic hip fracture patients in the Jeju area were identified by reviewing the registered medical records and radiographs. By applying the identification criteria to the National Health Insurance Database that was accumulated until June 2009, we calculated the incidence rate of osteoporotic hip fracture in patients between 50 and 100 years of age in 2008. RESULTS: The identification criteria had a sensitivity of 93.1% and a positive predictive value of 77.4%. A total of 20,432 osteoporotic hip fracture cases were identified in 2008, and the incidence rate was 15.7 cases per 10,000 persons. The osteoporotic hip fracture incidence rate for females was 20.7 (per 10,000persons), and this was 2.1 times higher than that for the males (9.8case per 10,000persons), and the rates were increased with age. CONCLUSION: The incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture that occurred on a nationwide scale can be more precisely estimated by using the National Health Insurance Database with its comprehensive information on the overall details of treatment as well as the diagnosis codes, and so the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture can be reliably calculated for each year. The results from this research could be used as evidence in a hip fracture management plan for establishing Korean Health policy.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Female , Health Policy , Hip , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medical Records , National Health Programs
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although osteoporosis is increasing in the elderly population, attempts to analyze the patterns of medical service utilization for osteoporosis are currently not sufficient. The medical services and treatment patterns were investigated using Korea's National Health Insurance claims data, which includes all of the Korean population. METHODS: Through the patient identification algorithm developed by using the administrative claims data in 2007, the adult patients (between 50-100 years) with osteoporosis were identified. The age and gender of the patients who used medical service for osteoporosis were described, in relation with six dichotomous variables. The medical service use patterns such as the type of medical institution and conducting bone mineral density measurement were investigated. RESULTS: The number of patients who used medical service were 1,230,580 (females 89.9%). Sixty one point six percent of the patients were prescribed osteoporosis medicine (indicated for osteoporosis only), and 12.9% of the patients had experienced osteoporotic fracture. The primary medical institutions for treatment were clinics (54.3%), while hospitals were mainly used among the patients with a history of fracture and disease or drug use that may induce secondary osteoporosis. The number of visited medical institutions was 6.4 (as an outpatient) and 0.2 (as admissions) during 6 months. The proportion of patients who conducted bone mineral density measurements within one year before and after the diagnosis of osteoporosis was 66.7% and DXA was the most frequently used densitometry (46.3%). The average number of days for the prescriptions for osteoporosis medicine was 70 days. CONCLUSION: In order to prevent further osteoporotic fractures, appropriate management and treatment should be implemented for osteoporosis patients. To do this, we need to understand the current state of medical service utilization and the treatment of osteoporosis using the National Health Insurance claims data.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Bone Density , Densitometry , Humans , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Prescriptions
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treatment using multiple daily insulin (MDI) should give diabetic patients many benefits. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the impact of an increased frequency of daily insulin injection on quality of life, anxiety levels, and depression in diabetic patients, and individual's continued compliance with MDI is unclear. This study examined these issues using standardized questionnaires. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, randomized study. Ninety-nine insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 53.1+/-12 years, mean duration of diabetes 10.3+/-6.5 years) were divided a group (n=50) who injected insulin four times daily (mean age 49.6+/-12.3 years, mean duration of diabetes 6.5+/-6.4 years) and a group (n=49) who injected insulin once or twice daily (mean age 56.4+/-11.6 years, mean duration of diabetes 11.5+/-5.8 years). All patients independently completed the Korean Version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version and standardized Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for Koreans. RESULTS: No significant differences were evident with respect to age, gender, and duration of diabetes between the two groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were evident in the results of the questionnaires between the two groups, except for the physical health domain (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Multiple daily insulin injections had nearly no influence on quality of life, anxiety levels, or depression in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, treatment with MDI should be considered for patients who would benefit from this.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Compliance , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Insulin , Quality of Life , World Health Organization , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18431

ABSTRACT

Identified risk factors for neonatal candidemia are low-birth weight, use of a central venous catheter, parenteral nutrition, and broad spectrum antibiotics. Candidemia is also the source of considerable morbidity endophthalmitis, meningitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, and renalare all examples of the potential consequences of candidemia abscess. In this study, we report a premature infant case whose candidemia involving candidal meningitis and multiple brain microabscesses was completely remedied through antifungal therapy without any onset of neurodevelopmental disability.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Amphotericin B , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Brain Abscess , Brain , Candidemia , Candidiasis , Central Venous Catheters , Endocarditis , Endophthalmitis , Fluconazole , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Meningitis , Parenteral Nutrition , Risk Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83850

ABSTRACT

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare disease in which the third portion of the duodenum is compressed by SMA. There are many causes leading to the SMA syndrome, however it's extremely rare that aortic aneurysm causes a SMA syndrome. We report a case of a successfully treated SMA syndrome due to an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a renal transplant recipient. The patient was a 52-yr-old woman with a thin stature (weight 40 kg, height 164 cm). She received a renal transplant 8 yr before, and had hypertension and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Her SMA syndrome developed in a prolonged supine position for the accidental rib fractures and was diagnosed by clinical and radiological findings. After a surgical correction (resection of an aneurysm and aortobiiliac bypass with an inverted Y graft), her symptoms relieved without deterioration of the graft function.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/complications , Duodenal Obstruction , Duodenum/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Middle Aged , Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Korean Journal of Nephrology ; : 1031-1038, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99330

ABSTRACT

Cerivastatin is novel HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Clinical trials showed no significant differences of serum creatine kiase between cerivastatin and placebo, and cerivastatin-induced myopathy was rarely reported. This beneficial effect of cerivastatin is thought to be related to the the dual pathway metabolism by hapatic CYP3A4 and 2C8. We here report three cases of rhabdomyolysis which is associated with cerivastatin therapy. Two patients had diabetes mellitus, and received cerivastatin(0.8 mg/day) for treating hyperlipidemia and the other patient had chronic renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy and has maintained peritoneal dialysis and received cerivastatin(0.4 mg/day). Within one month of cerivastatin treatment, those patients experienced myalgia or muscle weakness. At that time, laboratory findings including muscle enzyme level, and bone scan finding were compatible with rhadomyolysis. Under the impression of cerivastatin- induced rhabodmyolysis, cerivastatin was withdrwan, and conventional treatment for rhabdomyolysis was started. Clinical course was uneventful, and these patients were discharged with good general condition. In conclusion, cerivastatin is regarded as a safe drug as compared with other statins, but it also causes rhabdomyolysis. Careful history taking and regular follow-up of muscle enzyme levels would be necessary to detect cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis.


Subject(s)
Creatine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipidemias , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Metabolism , Muscle Weakness , Muscular Diseases , Myalgia , Peritoneal Dialysis , Rhabdomyolysis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53136

ABSTRACT

Anatomical lesions of hypothalamic area associated with hypodipsic hypernatremia have been reported only rarely. We report here a case of hypodipsic hypernatremia induced by a hypothalamic lesion. A 25-yr-old man, who had been treated with radiation for hypothalamic tumor 5-yr before, was admitted for evaluation of hypernatremia and hypokalemia. He never felt thirst despite the elevated plasma osmolality and usually refused to drink intentionally. Plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level was normal despite the severe hypernatremic hyperosmolar state and urine was not properly concentrated, while AVP secretion was rapidly induced by water deprivation and urine osmolality also progressively increased to the near maximum concentration range. All of these findings were consistent with an isolated defect in osmoregulation of thirst, which was considered as the cause of chronic hypernatremia in the patient without an absolute deficiency in AVP secretion. Hypokalemia could be induced by activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as a result of volume depletion. However, inappropriately low values of plasma aldosterone levels despite high plasma renin activity could not induce symptomatic hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. The relatively low serum aldosterone levels compared with high plasma renin activity might result from hypernatremia. Hypernatremia and hypokalemia were gradually corrected by intentional water intake only.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arginine Vasopressin/metabolism , Humans , Hypernatremia/etiology , Hypothalamic Neoplasms/metabolism , Male , Osmolar Concentration , Thirst
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