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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 100-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926904

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to present the study design and baseline cross-sectional participant characteristics of biobank innovations for chronic cerebrovascular disease with Alzheimer’s disease study (BICWALZS) participants. @*Methods@#A total of 1,013 participants were enrolled in BICWALZS from October 2016 to December 2020. All participants underwent clinical assessments, basic blood tests, and standardized neuropsychological tests (n=1,013). We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, n=817), brain amyloid positron emission tomography (PET, n=713), single nucleotide polymorphism microarray chip (K-Chip, n=949), locomotor activity assessment (actigraphy, n=200), and patient-derived dermal fibroblast sampling (n=175) on a subset of participants. @*Results@#The mean age was 72.8 years, and 658 (65.0%) were females. Based on clinical assessments, total of 168, 534, 211, 80, and 20 had subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s dementia, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia or not otherwise specified, respectively. Based on neuroimaging biomarkers and cognition, 199, 159, 78, and 204 were cognitively normal (CN), Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related cognitive impairment, vascular cognitive impairment, and not otherwise specified due to mixed pathology (NOS). Each group exhibited many differences in various clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging results at baseline. Baseline characteristics of BICWALZS participants in the MCI, AD, and vascular dementia groups were generally acceptable and consistent with 26 worldwide dementia cohorts and another independent AD cohort in Korea. @*Conclusion@#The BICWALZS is a prospective and longitudinal study assessing various clinical and biomarker characteristics in older adults with cognitive complaints. Details of the recruitment process, methodology, and baseline assessment results are described in this paper.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900051

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the relationship between guideline adherence for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) at discharge and relevant clinical outcomes in patients with acute HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) with or without atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#We analyzed Korean Acute Heart Failure Registry data for 707 patients with HFpEF with documented AF and 687 without AF. Guideline adherence was defined as good or poor according to the prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Anticoagulation adherence was also incorporated for the AF group. @*Results@#Among patients with normal sinus rhythm, those with poor guideline adherence had a reduced prevalence of comorbidities and favorable clinical characteristics when compared with those with good guideline adherence. Using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to address the bias of nonrandom treatment assignment, good adherence was associated with a poor 60-day composite endpoint in the multivariable Cox model (weighted hazard ratio [wHR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–3.00; P = 0.045). For patients with AF, baseline clinical characteristics were similar according to the degree of adherence. The IPTW-adjusted analysis indicated that good adherence was significantly associated with the 60-day composite endpoint (wHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27–0.79; P = 0.005). In the analysis excluding warfarin, good adherence was associated with 60-day rehospitalization (wHR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37–0.98; P = 0.040), 1-year re-hospitalization (wHR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.93; P = 0.018), and the composite endpoint (wHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–0.99; P = 0.041). @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that good adherence to guidelines for HFrEF is associated with a better 60-day composite endpoint in patients with HFpEF with AF.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914168

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Everyday Cognition (ECog) has been widely used to differentiate individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia from normal elderly individuals. It has also been used to assess subjective cognitive decline (SCD). This study investigated the feasibility of using ECog as a screening measure for SCD in communitydwelling elderly individuals. @*Methods@#The participants included 84 older adults with and 93 without SCD living in the community. These 2 groups were classified based on their response (“yes” or “no”) to the question “Do you perceive memory or cognitive difficulties?” All participants were evaluated using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), Short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS), and the Korean version of Everyday Cognition (K-ECog). @*Results@#The scores of all participants were within the normal range on the K-MMSE and SGDS. The total K-MMSE score did not differ significantly between the 2 groups after controlling for age, education, and depression. The scores of SCD group were significantly higher than those of the non-SCD group for memory, language, and executive function:planning domains, as well as K-ECog total score. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the K-ECog total score was effective in moderately differentiating between subjects with and without SCD (area under the curve: 0.73). @*Conclusions@#ECog is a feasible and useful screening measure for SCD in older adults living in the community, and can be used to assess the full spectrum of cognitive and functional deficits, ranging from SCD to MCI and dementia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892347

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the relationship between guideline adherence for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) at discharge and relevant clinical outcomes in patients with acute HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) with or without atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#We analyzed Korean Acute Heart Failure Registry data for 707 patients with HFpEF with documented AF and 687 without AF. Guideline adherence was defined as good or poor according to the prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Anticoagulation adherence was also incorporated for the AF group. @*Results@#Among patients with normal sinus rhythm, those with poor guideline adherence had a reduced prevalence of comorbidities and favorable clinical characteristics when compared with those with good guideline adherence. Using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to address the bias of nonrandom treatment assignment, good adherence was associated with a poor 60-day composite endpoint in the multivariable Cox model (weighted hazard ratio [wHR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–3.00; P = 0.045). For patients with AF, baseline clinical characteristics were similar according to the degree of adherence. The IPTW-adjusted analysis indicated that good adherence was significantly associated with the 60-day composite endpoint (wHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27–0.79; P = 0.005). In the analysis excluding warfarin, good adherence was associated with 60-day rehospitalization (wHR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37–0.98; P = 0.040), 1-year re-hospitalization (wHR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.93; P = 0.018), and the composite endpoint (wHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–0.99; P = 0.041). @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that good adherence to guidelines for HFrEF is associated with a better 60-day composite endpoint in patients with HFpEF with AF.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831664

ABSTRACT

Multiple neurological complications have been associated with the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This is a narrative review to gather information on all aspects of COVID-19 in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. First, the following three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the neurological complications associated with COVID-19: 1) direct invasion, 2) immune and inflammatory reaction, and 3) hypoxic brain damage by COVID-19. Next, because the elderly dementia patient population is particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, we discussed risk factors and difficulties associated with cognitive disorders in this vulnerable population. We also reviewed the effects of the patient living environment in COVID-19 cases that required intensive care unit (ICU) care. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of stringent social restrictions and COVID-19 pandemic-mediated policies on dementia patients and care providers. Finally, we provided the following strategies for working with elderly dementia patients: general preventive methods; dementia care at home and nursing facilities according to the activities of daily living and dementia characteristics; ICU care after COVID-19 infection; and public health care system and government response. We propose that longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to fully examine COVID-19 associated neurological complications, such as dementia, and the efficacy of telemedicine/telehealth care programs.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831550

ABSTRACT

Background@#β-blockers (BBs) are considered primary therapy in stable heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) without atrial fibrillation (AF); evidence-based benefits of BB on outcome have been documented. However, BBs have not been shown to improve mortality or reduce hospital admissions in HF patients with AF. This study assessed the relationship between BBs at discharge and relevant clinical outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF) patients with AF. @*Methods@#From the Korean Acute Heart Failure Registry, 936 HFrEF and 639 HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and AF were selected. Propensity score (PS) matching accounted for BB selection bias when assessing associations. @*Results@#BB-untreated patients in the overall cohort of HFrEF and HFpEF had greater deteriorated clinical and laboratory characteristics. In the 670 PS-matched cohort of HFrEF patients, incidences of all clinical events at 60 days and 1 year were not different according to use of BBs. In the 470 PS-matched cohort of HFpEF, rehospitalization and composite outcome at 6 months and 1 year more frequently occurred in non-users of BBs. After adjusting for covariates in the multivariable Cox model of matched cohorts, BB was not associated with clinical outcomes at 60 days and 1 year in HFrEF with AF patients. In HFpEF patients with AF, BB use was associated with reduced 6-month (hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20–0.74) and 1-year rehospitalization (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34–0.82). @*Conclusion@#In the HFrEF with AF PS-matched cohort, the use of BBs at discharge was not associated with clinical outcome. However, in HFpEF with AF, the use of BB was associated with reduced rehospitalization during the 6-month and 1-year follow up.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated risk factors for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia at the initial assessment for Alzheimer disease in large patient samples. In this study, the factors influencing Alzheimer disease were examined using the Clinical Research of Dementia of South Korea data. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data of 1,128 patients with Alzheimer disease. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were examined using the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, neuropsychological tests, comorbidities, blood test results, and caregiver characteristics were assessed. Median logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates was conducted. RESULTS: The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were negatively associated with memory (P=0.022) and frontal/executive (P < 0.001) function in the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-dementia, Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living (P < 0.001), Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination score (P=0.003), and caregiver age (P=0.005) after adjustment for confounding factors, and positively associated with the Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score (P < 0.001), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Box (P < 0.001), Global Deterioration Scale score (P < 0.001), abnormality of free T4 level (P < 0.001), anemia (P < 0.001), and family history of stroke (P=0.001). Patients with female caregivers exhibited more severe behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia than those with male caregivers. CONCLUSION: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer disease patients were associated with various risk factors including the inability to live independently and Alzheimer disease severity. These findings suggest that prevention and treatment strategies for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia should be comprehensive.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Alzheimer Disease , Anemia , Behavioral Symptoms , Caregivers , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Mass Screening , Memory , Neuropsychological Tests , Risk Factors , Seoul , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chigger mites are vectors for scrub typhus. This study evaluated the annual fluctuations in chigger mite populations and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections in South Korea.METHODS: During 2006 and 2007, chigger mites were collected monthly from wild rodents in 4 scrub typhus endemic regions of South Korea. The chigger mites were classified based on morphological characteristics, and analyzed using nested PCR for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi.RESULTS: During the surveillance period, the overall trapping rate for wild rodents was 10.8%. In total, 17,457 chigger mites (representing 5 genera and 15 species) were collected, and the average chigger index (representing the number of chigger mites per rodent), was 31.7. The monthly chigger index was consistently high (> 30) in Spring (March to April) and Autumn (October to November). The mite species included Leptotrombidium pallidum (43.5%), L. orientale (18.9%), L. scutellare (18.1%), L. palpale (10.6%), and L. zetum (3.6%). L. scutellare and L. palpale populations, were relatively higher in Autumn. Monthly O. tsutsugamushi infection rates in wild rodents (average: 4.8%) and chigger mites (average: 0.7%) peaked in Spring and Autumn.CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrated a bimodal pattern of the incidence of O. tsutsugamushi infections. Higher infection rates were observed in both wild rodents and chigger mites, in Spring and Autumn. However, this did not reflect the unimodal incidence of scrub typhus in Autumn. Further studies are needed to identify factors, such as human behavior and harvesting in Autumn that may explain this discordance.


Subject(s)
Globus Pallidus , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mites , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rodentia , Scrub Typhus , Trombiculidae
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the early diagnosis of dementia, an important factor is the evaluation of activities of daily living. The Everyday Cognition (ECog) scale was developed to measure functional changes that are the everyday correlates of specific neuropsychological impairments. This study aimed to examine the validity of the Korean version of Everyday Cognition (K-ECog). METHODS: The participants were 268 cognitively normal older adults (NA), 151 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 77 dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). The Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), Korean-Montreal Cognitive Assessment (K-MoCA), and Short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS) were administered to all the participants. The K-ECog and Korean-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (K-IADL) were rated by their informants. RESULTS: Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) of K-ECog global function was 0.93, and its test-retest reliability (Pearson's r) was 0.73. K-ECog was significantly correlated with K-IADL (0.66), K-MMSE (−0.38), and K-MoCA (−0.26). Confirmatory factor analysis of K-ECog yielded seven factor model that the original ECog proposed. K-ECog global score and six domain scores were significantly different across the NA, aMCI, and DAT groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that K-ECog effectively differentiated aMCI and DAT patients from NA, suggesting that K-ECog is as sensitive for detecting functional impairments as K-IADL. The proposed optimal cut-off score to differentiate aMCI from NA was 1.41. CONCLUSION: K-ECog is proven reliable and valid for clinical use. K-ECog can be used to distinguish very early stages of impaired ADL and cognitive impairment in the community.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Cognition Disorders , Cognition , Dementia , Depression , Early Diagnosis , Fibrinogen , Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1162-1167, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Motor, perceptual, and cognitive functions are known to affect driving competence. Subcortical ischemic changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reflect reduction in cognitive and motor performance. However, few studies have reported the relationship between subcortical ischemic changes and driving competence of the elderly. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between subcortical ischemic changes on MRI and driving abilities of the elderly. METHODS: Participants (n=540) were drawn from a nationwide, multicenter, hospital-based, longitudinal cohort. Each participant underwent MRI scan and interview for driving capacity categorized into ‘now driving’ and ‘driving cessation (driven before, not driving now)’. Participants were divided into three groups (mild, n=389; moderate, n=116; and severe, n=35) depending on the degree of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on MRI at baseline. Driving status was evaluated at follow-up. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2 test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), structured equation model (SEM), and generalized estimating equation (GEE). RESULTS: In SEM, greater baseline degree of WMH was directly associated with driving cessation regardless of cognitive or motor dysfunction (β=-0.110, p < 0.001). In GEE models after controlling for age, sex, education, cognitive, and motor dysfunction, more severe change in the degree of WMH was associated with faster change from ‘now driving’ state to ‘driving cessation’ state over time in the elderly (β=-0.508, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal results, the degree of subcortical ischemic change on MRI might predict driving cessation in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Education , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mental Competency , White Matter
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Visual assessment of medial temporal-lobe atrophy (MTA) has been quick, reliable, and easy to apply in routine clinical practice. However, one of the limitations in visual assessments of MTA is the lack of widely accepted age-adjusted norms and cutoff scores for MTA for a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to determine the optimal cutoff score on a T1-weighted axial MTA Visual Rating Scale (VRS) for differentiating patients with AD from cognitively normal elderly people. METHODS: The 3,430 recruited subjects comprising 1,427 with no cognitive impairment (NC) and 2003 AD patients were divided into age ranges of 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years. Of these, 446 participants (218 in the NC group and 228 in the AD group) were chosen by random sampling for inclusion in this study. Each decade age group included 57 individuals, with the exception of 47 subjects being included in the 80- to 89-year NC group. The scores on the T1-weighted axial MTA VRS were graded by two neurologists. The cutoff values were evaluated from the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The optimal axial MTA VRS cutoff score from discriminating AD from NC increased with age: it was ≥as ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 in subjects aged 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years, respectively (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the optimal cutoff score on the axial MTA VRS for diagnosing of AD differed according to the decade age group. This information could be of practical usefulness in the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Atrophy , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Pemetrexed , ROC Curve
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765180

ABSTRACT

This study reviews evidence for the use of acetyl-choline esterase inhibitors (AChEIs) in treating Alzheimer's patients for the past decades. Even though large number of clinical trials have been conducted to prove the efficacy of these drugs in various clinical situations, questions remain to be answered due to the use of heterogeneous subject population, trial designs, and measurement tools in these studies. Many drugs with unproven clinical benefits, including vitamins, ginko biloba extracts, anti-inflammatory agents, estrogen hormone, and statins, are commonly prescribed in real-world settings for dementia patients. Despite the lack of clinical benefits statistically proven by clinical trials or meta-analyses, anecdotal dramatic improvements in some patients may foster such practices. A further look into why some patients benefit from these medications, while other don't, may shed light on future individually tailored medicine for dementia patients. This study provides a brief review of currently existing immuno-therapeutics in the hope that we can learn from the failures of the amyloid-based active and passive immunization. Issues that we need to address for the successful development of new anti-AD drugs include : 1) the brain pathology precedes clinical symptoms by several decades, 2) we need biological markers that reliably reflect cognitive or functional impairment of AD patients, and 3) we need more detailed and plausible explanations for our brain immune responses and neurodegenerative changes.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Biomarkers , Brain , Dementia , Estrogens , Ginkgo biloba , Hope , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Immunization, Passive , Pathology , Vitamins
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 754-761, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44349

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Extrapyramidal signs (EPS) are common in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, few studies have assessed the effect of EPS on the clinical course of MCI. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with EPS show more frequent progression from MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to other types of dementia. METHODS: Participants (n=882) with MCI were recruited, and were followed for up to 5 years. The EPS positive group was defined by the presence of at least one EPS based on a focused neurologic examination at baseline. RESULTS: A total of 234 converted to dementia during the follow-up period. The risk of progression to AD was lower in the patients with EPS after adjusting for potential confounders [hazard ratio (HR)=0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53–0.93, p=0.01]. In contrast, the patients with EPS had a six-fold elevated risk of progression to dementia other than AD (HR=6.33, 95%CI=2.30–17.39, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: EPS in patients with MCI is a strong risk factor for progression of MCI to non-Alzheimer dementia. The careful neurologic examination for EPS in patients with MCI can yield important clinical information for prognosis.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurologic Examination , Prognosis , Risk Factors
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 392-399, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) is characterized by states of “embitterment”, characteristically similar to “Hwa-byung”, which is a Korean culture-bound syndrome. The present study aimed to assess diagnostic relationships between PTED and Hwa-byung. METHODS: A total of 290 participants completed our survey. PTED and Hwa-byung were diagnosed using a diagnostic interview and scale. Scales for depression, suicide ideation, and anger were used for evaluation. Fisher's exact tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to evaluate diagnostic overlap between PTED and Hwa-byung, and associations of scale scores for depression, suicide ideation, and anger between the PTED, Hwa-byung, and non-diagnosed groups. Associations of these scales between the depressive and non-depressive groups, and suicidal and non-suicidal groups were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among the participants, 1.7% of the sample fit the diagnostic criteria for PTED and 2.1% fit the criteria for Hwa-byung. No individual fit the criteria for both. Anger scores were significantly higher in the Hwa-byung group than in the non-diagnostic group. There were not any significant differences in anger scores between the PTED and non-diagnostic groups. Depression scores were significantly higher in the PTED than in the non-diagnostic groups. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between depression scores in the Hwa-byung and non-diagnostic groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PTED may be a disorder category that is distinct from Hwa-byung.


Subject(s)
Anger , Asians , Depression , Ethnopsychology , Humans , Suicide , Weights and Measures
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to find the sex differences of the way how educational attainment influence on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We recruited 424 patients with AD from a large hospital-based multi-center cohort. We evaluated cognitive subdomains using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Dementia version. We employed multiple linear regression analysis to compare the score of cognitive subdomains between the groups with high versus low educational attainment based on the high school graduate. Interaction between educational attainment and sex was also included in the analysis. RESULTS: High and low educational attainment group had 33.0% and 67.0% of patients in the study population. In the multiple regression analysis, score of all cognitive subdomains were significantly higher in the high educational attainment group. The score of attention was also significantly affected by interaction between educational attainment and sex. This result may be helpful to develop cognitive intervention therapy. CONCLUSION: In the female patients with AD, educational attainment showed higher influence on the attention score.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Education , Female , Humans , Korea , Linear Models , Mass Screening , Seoul , Sex Characteristics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their caregivers are concerned with the likelihood and time course of progression to dementia. This study was performed to identify the clinical predictors of the MCI progression in a Korean registry, and investigated the effects of medications without evidence, frequently prescribed in clinical practice. METHODS: Using a Korean cohort that included older adults with MCI who completed at least one follow-up visit, clinical characteristics and total medical expenses including prescribed medications were compared between two groups: progressed to dementia or not. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: During the mean 1.42±0.72 years, 215 (27.63%) of 778 participants progressed to dementia. The best predictors were age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.036; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.006–1.067; p=0.018], apolipoprotein ε4 allele (HR, 2.247; 95% CI, 1.512–3.337; p<0.001), Clinical Dementia Rating scale-sum of boxes scores (HR, 1.367; 95% CI, 1.143–1.636; p=0.001), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores (HR, 1.035; 95% CI, 1.003–1.067; p=0.029), and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (HR, 0.892; 95% CI, 0.839–0.949; p<0.001). Total medical expenses were not different. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are in accordance with previous reports about clinical predictors for the progression from MCI to dementia. Total medical expenses were not different between groups with and without progression.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Alleles , Apolipoproteins , Caregivers , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195414

ABSTRACT

Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P < 0.001) compared to India. Yet, the percentage of responders expressed willingness to participate was 39.3%, a significantly lower rate than the result of the India (58.9% vs. 39.3%, P < 0.001). Treatment benefit was the single most influential reason for participation, followed by financial gain. Concern about safety was the main reason for refusal, succeeded by fear and lack of trust. Public awareness and educational programs addressing these negative perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Awareness , Biomedical Research , Clinical Trials as Topic , Demography , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to find the sex differences of the way how educational attainment influence on cognitive function in the mild cognitive impairment patients. METHODS: A total of 1,704 patients were recruited from a large hospital-based multi-center cohort. Cognitive subdomains were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Dementia version. We employed multiple linear regression analysis to compare the score of cognitive subdomains between the groups with high versus low educational attainment based on the high school graduate. Interaction between educational attainment and sex was also included in the analysis RESULTS: High and low educational attainment group had 41.2% and 58.8% of patients in the study population. In the multiple regression analysis, score of all cognitive subdomains were significantly higher in the high educational attainment group. The score of attention, language, and visuospatial function were also significantly affected by interaction between educational attainment and sex. CONCLUSION: In the female patients, educational attainment showed higher influence on the attention, language, and visuospatial function score.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Cognitive Reserve , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Education , Female , Humans , Korea , Linear Models , Mass Screening , Cognitive Dysfunction , Seoul , Sex Characteristics
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