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1.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 165-176, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976738

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Using tissue-engineered materials for esophageal reconstruction is a technically challenging task in animals that requires bioreactor training to enhance cellular reactivity. There have been many attempts at esophageal tissue engineering, but the success rate has been limited due to difficulty in initial epithelialization in the special environment of peristalsis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of an artificial esophagus that can enhance the regeneration of esophageal mucosa and muscle through the optimal combination of a double-layered polymeric scaffold and a custom-designed mesenchymal stem cell-based bioreactor system in a canine model. @*Methods@#. We fabricated a novel double-layered scaffold as a tissue-engineered esophagus using an electrospinning technique. Prior to transplantation, human-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded into the lumen of the scaffold, and bioreactor cultivation was performed to enhance cellular reactivity. After 3 days of cultivation using the bioreactor system, tissue-engineered artificial esophagus was transplanted into a partial esophageal defect (5×3 cm-long resection) in a canine model. @*Results@#. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the electrospun fibers in a tubular scaffold were randomly and circumferentially located toward the inner and outer surfaces. Complete recovery of the esophageal mucosa was confirmed by endoscopic analysis and SEM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography also showed that there were no signs of leakage or stricture and that there was a normal lumen with complete epithelialization. Significant regeneration of the mucosal layer was observed by keratin-5 immunostaining. Alpha-smooth muscle actin immunostaining showed significantly greater esophageal muscle regeneration at 12 months than at 6 months. @*Conclusion@#. Custom-designed bioreactor cultured electrospun polyurethane scaffolds can be a promising approach for esophageal tissue engineering.

2.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 177-183, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976734

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Subglottic cysts (SGCs) are a rare cause of respiratory distress resulting from upper airway obstruction in infants and young children. Risk factors other than prematurity with a history of endotracheal intubation have not yet been well elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to describe the clinical features and analyze the risk factors of SGCs. @*Methods@#. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric patients who underwent marsupialization for SGCs between January 2017 and March 2022. These records were then compared with those of controls with a history of neonatal intubation, with a case-to-control ratio of 1:3. @*Results@#. Eleven patients (eight boys and three girls) diagnosed with SGCs and 33 control patients (26 boys and seven girls) were included. All patients had a history of premature birth and neonatal intubation. Symptoms of SGCs appeared at a mean age of 8.2 months (range, 1–14 months) after extubation. The mean duration of intubation was 21.5 days (range, 2–90 days), and the intubation period was longer in patients with SGCs than in controls (21.5±24.8 days vs. 5.3±7.1 days; P<0.001). Furthermore, gestational age (28.3±4.2 weeks vs. 33.8±4.4 weeks; P=0.001) and birth weight (1,134.1±515.1 g vs. 2,178.2±910.1 g; P=0.001) were significantly lower in patients with SGCs than in controls. Multivariable analysis identified the intubation period as an independent risk factor. @*Conclusion@#. This study showed that gestational age, birth weight, and the intubation period were significantly associated with the development of SGCs. Pediatric patients presenting with progressive dyspnea who have the corresponding risk factors should undergo early laryngoscopy for the differential diagnosis of SGC.

3.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 259-274, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999861

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. This study aimed to assess predictors of the response to varying durations of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and lifestyle modification treatment for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). @*Methods@#. Between October 2014 and June 2016, a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-cohort, intention-to-treat, observational study was conducted at eight referral hospitals across the Republic of Korea to examine predictors of early and late response to treatment in adult patients (age ≥19 years) with LPRD. Participants underwent standard treatment (PPI [Esomezol] and lifestyle modification) for 3 months. Response to treatment was defined as greater than 50% improvement in reflux symptom index score. The primary outcome was potential predictors of treatment response at 1 and 3 months. The secondary outcome was potential predictors distinguishing early from late responders. @*Results@#. In total, 394 patients were enrolled. Improved sleep habits was a positive predictor (odds ratio [OR], 1.785; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–3.007; P=0.029), while initial alcohol consumption (OR, 0.587; 95% CI, 0.355–0.969; P=0.037) and past medication history (OR, 0.438; 95% CI, 0.215–0.891; P=0.005) were negative predictors of response after 1 month of treatment. High pre-reflux finding score was a positive predictor (OR, 1.187; 95% CI, 1.049– 1.344; P=0.007), while male sex (OR, 0.516; 95% CI, 0.269–0.987; P=0.046), higher depression score (OR, 0.867; 95% CI, 0.784–0.958; P=0.005), and past thyroid hormone medication history (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.033–0.788; P=0.024) were negative predictors of response after 3 months of treatment. Past medication history (OR, 0.438; 95% CI, 0.215–0.891; P=0.023) was the only negative predictor for early responders compared to late responders. @*Conclusion@#. Adult patients with LPRD and a history of prior medication use may require longer treatment durations to achieve a therapeutic response. Future research should explore the incorporation of diverse treatment approaches to improve treatment outcomes for patients exhibiting negative prognostic indicators.

4.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 57-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001889

ABSTRACT

A 16-year-old girl was incidentally found to have a mediastinal lipogenic mass, which was confirmed as a hibernoma on biopsy. Mediastinal mass excision with full sternotomy was performed, and follow-up chest computed tomography at postoperative 1 year revealed a residual or recurred mass at the left neck (level VI). Consequently, left level-VI neck dissection was performed, and the biopsy also confirmed hibernoma. During neck dissection, an electromyography tube was used to monitor the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and complete removal was achieved without damage to the vagus nerve, carotid vessels, or thyroid gland. When managing cervical lipogenic tumors, clinical suspicion is necessary, followed by radiological and pathological evaluations to differentiate malignancies. If a hibernoma is suspected, en bloc resection of the tumor is crucial to prevent hemorrhage and recurrence. Cervical hibernoma can cause symptoms such as dysphagia, weight loss, and exertional dyspnea owing to its mass effect. Surgeons should be cautious during tumor removal to protect the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We successfully removed the residual or recurred hibernoma in the neck without complications.

5.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 67-74, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966540

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. This study evaluated the surgical outcomes of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome who underwent tongue-reduction surgery and analyzed whether the malocclusion and mandibular prognathism caused by macroglossia could be improved. @*Methods@#. A retrospective medical record review was performed for 11 patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome whose macroglossia was surgically treated. Demographic data, symptoms and signs, and intraoperative and postoperative surgical outcomes were evaluated. Surgery was performed by a single surgeon using the “keyhole” technique, involving midline elliptical excision and anterior wedge resection. Preoperative and postoperative plain skull lateral X-rays were evaluated to assess prognathism improvement. @*Results@#. The median age at the time of surgery was 35.09 months, and the ratio of males to females was 4:7. The median surgical time was 98±31.45 minutes, and the median duration of the postoperative intensive care unit stay was 3.81±2.4 days. There were no airway complications. Two patients (18.2%) had postoperative wound dehiscence; however, there was no nerve damage, recurrence, or other complications. Among the five patients who underwent postoperative speech evaluation, all showed normal speech development, except one patient who had brain dysfunction and developmental delay. Measurements of the A point-nasion-B point (ANB) angles and sella-nasion-B point (SNB) angles (point A is the most concave point of the anterior maxilla; point B is the most concave point on the mandibular symphysis) on plain X-rays showed a significant decrease in the postoperative SNB angle (P <0.001) and a significant increase in the ANB angle (P <0.011). @*Conclusion@#. Tongue-reduction surgery is an effective and safe technique for severe forms of macroglossia associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. In addition, it improves mandibular prognathism in young Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome patients with macroglossia.

6.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 120-126, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938988

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes and toxicity profile of patients with early glottic cancer who underwent hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) with 3.5 Gy per fraction. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective review was performed of the medical records of 35 patients with early stage (T1-2N0M0) glottic cancer who underwent definitive RT. The dose fractionation scheme was 59.5 Gy in 17 fractions. Posterior commissure was excluded from the clinical target volume (CTV) for 26 patients (74.3%) without glottic lesions close to this region. @*Results@#With a median follow-up of 16.23 months (range, 6.82 to 67.15 months), no local, regional, or distant recurrence was reported. Acute hoarseness (65.7%), mucositis (68.6%), radiation dermatitis (60.0%) was frequent. One patient (2.9%) reported grade 3 acute toxicity (mucositis) and there was no grade 4–5 acute toxicity. There was no grade ≥3 late toxicities; however, grade 1 late intermittent hoarseness was frequent (45.7%). The receiver operative characteristic analysis revealed that mean hypopharyngeal dose was predictive for acute grade ≥2 mucositis (area under the curve=0.9314; 95% confidence interval, 0.8524–1). The optimal threshold of mean hypopharyngeal dose for occurrence of acute grade ≥2 mucositis was 26.31 Gy, with a specificity and sensitivity of 83.3% and 88.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Hypofractionated RT with fraction size of 3.5 Gy for early glottic cancer is effective. The hypopharyngeal mean dose could predict the occurrence of grade ≥2 acute mucositis. The posterior commissure can be safely excluded from the CTV.

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 37-41, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926398

ABSTRACT

Airway foreign body aspiration in children can lead to accidental death, due to the foreign body itself or the removal procedure. Depending on its location, removal of the foreign body can be challenging. Here, we present a case of successful removal of a foreign body from the left upper lobar bronchus via ventilating bronchoscopy with a rigid bronchoscope and Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter. Tracheobronchial foreign bodies in locations that are difficult to reach with forceps, due to an acute angle or the small diameter of the pediatric bronchial tree, can be effectively removed with a Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter.

8.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 50-53, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926395

ABSTRACT

A case is presented to show tracheal cartilaginous sleeve in Antley-Bixler syndrome, which is the second case to be reported so far. In this patient, W290C mutation in FGFR2, the mutation previously known to cause Pfeiffer syndrome, was newly identified. After receiving tracheostomy, the patient recovered from repetitive respiratory distress, and retrieved normal respiratory function. Thorough airway examination and active surgical management such as tracheostomy is necessary in children with syndromic craniosynostosis, including Antley-Bixler syndrome.

9.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 118-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925379

ABSTRACT

Subglottic cysts are rare but can cause significant airway obstruction that potentially threatens infants’ lives. It is critically important to suspect subglottic cysts in infants with upper-airway obstructive symptoms because it can be treated effectively with only marsupialization without tracheostomy or complicated surgery. Here, we report an infant case of subglottic cyst, who showed prominent stridor and respiratory distress that abruptly progressed 2 months after extubation. The patient was born prematurely and had a history of endotracheal intubation in for a total of 16 days. He was stable with minimal stridor without respiratory distress until he was successfully discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. However, he showed abrupt progress in stridor and respiratory difficulty about 2 weeks after discharge. Laryngoscopic exam revealed multiple subglottic cysts obstructing the trachea, and all of them were successfully removed by marsupialization. No recurrence of subglottic cysts was observed for 12 months thereafter. Subglottic cysts should be primarily suspected in infants with stridor, especially with a history of prematurity and intubation. Increased awareness of this fatal but curable condition is needed for timely and proper management.

10.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 328-337, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897587

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. A polydioxanone (PDO) stent was developed to treat tracheomalacia in pediatric patients. However, its safety and efficacy need to be verified in animal studies before clinical trials in patients can be conducted. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a PDO stent in normal and tracheomalacia-model rabbits. @*Methods@#. In total, 29 New Zealand white rabbits were used: 13 for evaluating the biocompatibility of the PDO stent in normal rabbits and 16 for the creation of a tracheomalacia model. The tracheomalacia model was successfully established in 12 rabbits, and PDO stents were placed in eight of those rabbits. @*Results@#. The PDO stent was successfully positioned in the trachea of the normal rabbits using an endoscopic approach, and its degradation was observed 10 weeks later. The stent fragments did not induce distal airway obstruction or damage, and the mucosal changes that occurred after stent placement were reversed after degradation. The same procedure was performed on the tracheomalacia-model rabbits. The survival duration of the tracheomalacia rabbits with and without stents was 49.0±6.8 and 1.0±0.8 days, respectively. Thus, the PDO stent yielded a significant survival gain (P=0.001). In the tracheomalacia rabbits, stent degradation and granulation tissue were observed 7 weeks after placement, leading to airway collapse and death. @*Conclusion@#. We successfully developed a PDO stent and an endoscopic guide placement system. The degradation time of the stent was around 10 weeks in normal rabbits, and its degradation was accelerated in the tracheomalacia model. The mucosal changes associated with PDO stent placement were reversible. Placement of the PDO stent prolonged survival in tracheomalacia-model rabbits.

11.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 225-233, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Long segmental tracheal repair is challenging in regenerative medicine due to low adhesion of stem cells to tracheal scaffolds. Optimal transplantation of stem cells for tracheal defects has not been established. We evaluated the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) coating of tracheal scaffolds in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion and tracheal regeneration in a rabbit model. @*METHODS@#A three-dimensionally printed tubular tracheal prosthesis was incubated with dopa-HA-fluorescein isothiocyanate in phosphate-buffered saline for 2 days. MSCs were incubated with an HA-coated scaffold, and their adhesion was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. HA coated scaffolds with or without MSC seeding were transplanted at the circumferential tracheal defect in rabbits, and survival, rigid bronchoscopy, radiologic findings, and histologic findings were compared between the two groups. @*RESULTS@#HA-coated scaffolds showed better MSC adhesion than non-coated scaffolds. The HA-coated scaffolds with MSC group showed a wider airway and greater mucosal regeneration compared to the HA-coated scaffolds without MSC group. @*CONCLUSION@#HA coating of scaffolds can promote MSC adhesion and tracheal regeneration.

12.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 29-34, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893522

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Tracheostomy lead to persistent bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract. Surgical site infection and restenosis by the pathogenic bacteria is the most fatal complication after open airway surgery. The aim of this study is to describe the culture results of larynx and tracheostoma in patients with tracheostomy and the preoperative, intraoperative culture results in patients underwent open airway surgery.Materials and Method A retrospective review was performed on 18 patients who underwent culture between 2017 and 2019. @*Results@#Pseudomonas or antibiotic resistance bacteria were identified in 11 patients out of 18 patients (61.1%); Ceftriaxone-resistant Streptococcus (38.9%), Pseudomonas (33.3%), Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (16.7%), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.1%). Among 18 patients, 6 patients showed the different culture result between larynx and tracheostoma. In 4 out of 10 patients who underwent open airway surgery, the bacteria were not identified before surgery, but the bacteria were isolated in the intraoperative culture. In one patient, the bacteria detected intraoperatively were different from those detected before surgery. @*Conclusion@#Preoperative respiratory tract culture and usage of perioperative antibiotics according to the culture are necessary. It is crucial to verify the bacterial culture in both tracheostoma and larynx. And it should be performed immediately before open airway surgery.

13.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 328-337, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889883

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. A polydioxanone (PDO) stent was developed to treat tracheomalacia in pediatric patients. However, its safety and efficacy need to be verified in animal studies before clinical trials in patients can be conducted. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a PDO stent in normal and tracheomalacia-model rabbits. @*Methods@#. In total, 29 New Zealand white rabbits were used: 13 for evaluating the biocompatibility of the PDO stent in normal rabbits and 16 for the creation of a tracheomalacia model. The tracheomalacia model was successfully established in 12 rabbits, and PDO stents were placed in eight of those rabbits. @*Results@#. The PDO stent was successfully positioned in the trachea of the normal rabbits using an endoscopic approach, and its degradation was observed 10 weeks later. The stent fragments did not induce distal airway obstruction or damage, and the mucosal changes that occurred after stent placement were reversed after degradation. The same procedure was performed on the tracheomalacia-model rabbits. The survival duration of the tracheomalacia rabbits with and without stents was 49.0±6.8 and 1.0±0.8 days, respectively. Thus, the PDO stent yielded a significant survival gain (P=0.001). In the tracheomalacia rabbits, stent degradation and granulation tissue were observed 7 weeks after placement, leading to airway collapse and death. @*Conclusion@#. We successfully developed a PDO stent and an endoscopic guide placement system. The degradation time of the stent was around 10 weeks in normal rabbits, and its degradation was accelerated in the tracheomalacia model. The mucosal changes associated with PDO stent placement were reversible. Placement of the PDO stent prolonged survival in tracheomalacia-model rabbits.

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 175-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875449

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare salivary gland tumor characterized by indolence, with a high rate of local recurrence and distant metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) on locally advanced unresectable ACC. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 10 patients with pathologically confirmed ACC of the head and neck who received CCRT with cisplatin in Seoul National University Hospital between 2013 and 2018. @*Results@#Ten patients with unresectable disease at the time of diagnosis or with positive margins after surgical resection received CCRT with weekly cisplatin. Eight patients (80%) achieved complete remission, of which three later developed distant metastases without local relapse; one patient developed distant metastasis and local relapse. Two patient achieved partial remission without progression. Patients experienced several toxicities, including dry mouth, radiation dermatitis, nausea, and salivary gland inflammation of mostly grade 1 to 2. Only one patient showed grade 3 oral mucositis. Median relapse-free survival was 34.5 months (95% confidence interval, 22.8 months to not reached). @*Conclusions@#CCRT with cisplatin is effective for local control of ACC with manageable toxicity and may be an effective treatment option for locally advanced unresectable ACC.

15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 146-149, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916570

ABSTRACT

Papillary cystadenoma is a rare, benign salivary gland neoplasm containing cystic cavities with intraluminal papillary projections. In the head and neck area, it occurs mainly in major and intraoral minor salivary glands, but rarely in the larynx. We report a case of a 67-year-old female with a chief complaint of hoarse voice diagnosed as laryngeal papillary cystadenoma. This paper emphasizes the need to consider papillary cystadenoma as one of differential diagnosis when benign looking lesions are observed in the larynx, where it uncommonly occurs.

16.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 414-423, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913913

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. In this study, we review our institutional experience with pediatric laryngomalacia (LM) and report our experiences of patients undergoing supraglottoplasty using the spontaneous respiration using intravenous anesthesia and high-flow nasal oxygen (STRIVE Hi) technique. @*Methods@#. The medical records of 29 children with LM who visited Seoul National University Hospital between January 2017 and March 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical management was performed using the STRIVE Hi technique. Intraoperative findings and postoperative surgical outcomes, including complications and changes in symptoms and weight, were analyzed. @*Results@#. Of the total study population of 29 subjects, 20 (68.9%) were female. The patients were divided according to the Onley classification as follows: type I (n=13, 44.8%), II (n=10, 34.5%), and III (n=6, 20.7%). Twenty-five patients (86.2%) had comorbidities. Seventeen patients (58.6%) underwent microlaryngobronchoscopy under STRIVE Hi anesthesia. Four patients with several desaturation events required rescue oxygenation by intermittent intubation and mask bagging during the STRIVE Hi technique. However, the procedure was completed in all patients without any severe adverse effects. Overall, 15 children (51.7%) underwent supraglottoplasty, of whom 14 (93.3%) showed symptom improvement, and their postoperative weight percentile significantly increased (P=0.026). One patient required tracheostomy immediately after supraglottoplasty due to associated neurological disease. @*Conclusion@#. The STRIVE Hi technique is feasible for supraglottoplasty in LM patients, while type III LM patients with micrognathia or glossoptosis may have a higher risk of requiring rescue oxygenation during the STRIVE Hi technique.

17.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 225-233, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Long segmental tracheal repair is challenging in regenerative medicine due to low adhesion of stem cells to tracheal scaffolds. Optimal transplantation of stem cells for tracheal defects has not been established. We evaluated the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) coating of tracheal scaffolds in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion and tracheal regeneration in a rabbit model. @*METHODS@#A three-dimensionally printed tubular tracheal prosthesis was incubated with dopa-HA-fluorescein isothiocyanate in phosphate-buffered saline for 2 days. MSCs were incubated with an HA-coated scaffold, and their adhesion was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. HA coated scaffolds with or without MSC seeding were transplanted at the circumferential tracheal defect in rabbits, and survival, rigid bronchoscopy, radiologic findings, and histologic findings were compared between the two groups. @*RESULTS@#HA-coated scaffolds showed better MSC adhesion than non-coated scaffolds. The HA-coated scaffolds with MSC group showed a wider airway and greater mucosal regeneration compared to the HA-coated scaffolds without MSC group. @*CONCLUSION@#HA coating of scaffolds can promote MSC adhesion and tracheal regeneration.

18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 29-34, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901226

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Tracheostomy lead to persistent bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract. Surgical site infection and restenosis by the pathogenic bacteria is the most fatal complication after open airway surgery. The aim of this study is to describe the culture results of larynx and tracheostoma in patients with tracheostomy and the preoperative, intraoperative culture results in patients underwent open airway surgery.Materials and Method A retrospective review was performed on 18 patients who underwent culture between 2017 and 2019. @*Results@#Pseudomonas or antibiotic resistance bacteria were identified in 11 patients out of 18 patients (61.1%); Ceftriaxone-resistant Streptococcus (38.9%), Pseudomonas (33.3%), Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (16.7%), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.1%). Among 18 patients, 6 patients showed the different culture result between larynx and tracheostoma. In 4 out of 10 patients who underwent open airway surgery, the bacteria were not identified before surgery, but the bacteria were isolated in the intraoperative culture. In one patient, the bacteria detected intraoperatively were different from those detected before surgery. @*Conclusion@#Preoperative respiratory tract culture and usage of perioperative antibiotics according to the culture are necessary. It is crucial to verify the bacterial culture in both tracheostoma and larynx. And it should be performed immediately before open airway surgery.

19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1313-1323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Since patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have favorable outcomes after treatment, treatment de-escalation for these patients is being actively investigated. However, not all HPV-positive HNSCCs are curable, and some patients have a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC.@*METHODS@#Patients who received a diagnosis of HNSCC and tested positive for HPV from 2000 to 2015 at a single hospital site (n = 152) were included in this retrospective analysis. HPV typing was conducted using the HPV DNA chip assay or liquid bead microarray system. Expression of p16 in the tumors was assessed by immunohistochemistry. To determine candidate factors associated with overall survival (OS), univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 152 patients with HPV-positive HNSCC were included in this study; 82.2% were male, 43.4% were current or former smokers, and 84.2% had oropharyngeal cancer. By univariate analysis, old age, performance status ≥ 1, non-oropharyngeal location, advanced T classification (T3–4), and HPV genotype 18 were significantly associated with poor OS. By multivariable analysis, performance status ≥ 1 and non-oropharyngeal location were independently associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.36, p = 0.015; HR, 11.83, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, HPV genotype 18 positivity was also an independent poor prognostic factor of OS (HR, 10.87, p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Non-oropharyngeal cancer, poor performance status, and HPV genotype 18 were independent poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC. Patients with these risk factors might not be candidates for de-escalation treatment.

20.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 107-144, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763307

ABSTRACT

Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery appointed a Task Force to provide guidance on the implementation of a surgical treatment of oral cancer. MEDLINE databases were searched for articles on subjects related to “surgical management of oral cancer” published in English. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. The quality of evidence was rated with use RoBANS (Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies) and AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Evidence-based recommendations for practice were ranked according to the American College of Physicians grading system. Additional directives are provided as expert opinions and Delphi questionnaire when insufficient evidence existed. The Committee developed 68 evidence-based recommendations in 34 categories intended to assist clinicians and patients and counselors, and health policy-makers. Proper surgical treatment selection for oral cancer, which is directed by patient- and subsite-specific factors, remains the greatest predictor of successful treatment outcomes. These guidelines are intended for use in conjunction with the individual patient's treatment goals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Advisory Committees , Bias , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Counseling , Expert Testimony , Mouth Neoplasms , Neck , Republic of Korea
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