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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875436

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Organization revised the diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) based on the discovery of disease-driving genetic aberrations and extensive analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with MPNs. Recent studies have suggested that additional somatic mutations have a clinical impact on the prognosis of patients harboring these genetic abnormalities. Treatment strategies have also advanced with the introduction of JAK inhibitors, one of which has been approved for the treatment of patients with myelofibrosis and those with hydroxyurea-resistant or intolerant polycythemia vera. Recently developed drugs aim to elicit hematologic responses, as well as symptomatic and molecular responses, and the response criteria were refined accordingly. Based on these changes, we have revised the guidelines and present the diagnosis, treatment, and risk stratification of MPNs encountered in Korea.

2.
Blood Research ; : 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874333

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874191

ABSTRACT

Background@#Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is caused by immune dysregulation. We evaluated the expression of immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) on T cell subsets in PCM patients according to disease course and cytogenetic abnormalities.This study aimed to find a target group suitable for therapeutic use of PD-1 blockade in PCM. @*Methods@#A total of 188 bone marrow (BM) samples from 166 PCM patients and 32 controls were prospectively collected between May 2016 and May 2017. PD-1 expression on BM T cell subsets was measured using flow cytometry. @*Results@#At diagnosis, the median PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was 24.6%, which did not significantly differ from that in controls. After stem cell transplantation, PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was higher than that at diagnosis (P < 0.001), regardless of residual disease. PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells in patients with residual disease after chemotherapy was significantly higher than that at diagnosis (P = 0.001) and after complete remission following chemotherapy (P = 0.044). PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells was higher in PCM patients with cytogenetic abnormalities, including monosomy 13, 1q gain, complex karyotype, and hypodiploidy. @*Conclusions@#PD-1 blockade might have therapeutic potential in refractory PCM patients after chemotherapy, especially in those with high- or intermediate-risk cytogenetic abnormalities.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: JL1, a CD43 epitope and mucin family cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on leukemic cells. An anti-JL1 antibody combined with a toxic substance can have targeted therapeutic effects against JL1-positive leukemia; however, JL1 expression on bone marrow (BM) lymphoma cells has not been assessed using flow cytometry. We investigated JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to assess the potential of JL1 as a therapeutic target. METHODS: Patients with BM involvement of mature B-cell (N=44) or T- and natural killer (NK)-cell (N=4) lymphomas were enrolled from May 2015 to September 2016. JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Clinical, pathological, and cytogenetic characteristics, and treatment responses were compared according to JL1 expression status. RESULTS: Of the patients with NHL and BM involvement, 37.5% (18/48) were JL1-positive. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, 100%, 38.9%, 33.3%, 100%, and 25.0% of Burkitt lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell leukemias, mantle cell leukemias, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and other B-cell lymphomas, respectively, were JL1-positive. Three mature T- and NK-cell NHLs were JL1-positive. JL1 expression was associated with age (P=0.045), complete response (P=0.004), and BM involvement at follow-up (P=0.017), but not with sex, performance status, the B symptoms, packed marrow pattern, cytogenetic abnormalities, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: JL1 positivity was associated with superior complete response and less BM involvement in NHL following chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Burkitt Lymphoma , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, B-Cell , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mucins , Therapeutic Uses , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a subset of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with bone marrow (BM) involvement and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy of any level. We aimed to identify the clinical, laboratory, and BM findings of patients with WM and to evaluate the usefulness of CD154 for the diagnosis and prognosis of WM.METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and BM studies and/or flow cytometric immunotyping of 31 patients with untreated WM. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD138, tryptase, and CD154) of BM was performed.RESULTS: Only six patients presented with symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome. Eleven patients had solid cancer and/or another hematologic malignancy. Mast cells (MC) increased in all samples, with some in close contact with tumor cells. Tryptase-positive MC (17.1/ high-power fields [HPF], 1.2–72.0/HPF) and CD154-positive MC (8.6/HPF, 0.1–31.1/HPF) were observed. The high CD154-positive MC (≥8.6/HPF) group showed a lower overall five-year survival rate than the low CD154-positive MC (<8.6/HPF) group (71.9% vs. 100.0%; P=0.012). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of BM aspirates showed increased B lymphocytes and plasma cells with a normal phenotype (CD138⁺/CD38⁺/CD19⁺/CD45⁺/CD56⁻).CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of WM patients showed other malignancies and all patients had increased MC. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric immunophenotyping are useful for diagnosing WM, and increased CD154-positive MC can indicate poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Lymphoma , Mast Cells , Medical Records , Paraproteinemias , Phenotype , Plasma Cells , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tryptases , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), an important cause of acquired thrombophilia, is diagnosed when vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity occurs with persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS is a risk factor for unprovoked recurrence of pulmonary embolism (PE). Performing laboratory testing for aPL after a first unprovoked acute PE is controversial. We investigated if a specific phenotype existed in patients with unprovoked with acute PE, suggesting the need to evaluate them for APS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with PE and APS (n=24) and those with unprovoked PE with aPL negative (n=44), evaluated 2006–2016 at the Asan Medical Center. We compared patient demographics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and radiological findings between the groups. RESULTS: On multivariate logistic regression analysis, two models of independent risk factors for APS-PE were suggested. Model I included hemoptysis (odds ratio [OR], 12.897; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025–162.343), low PE severity index (OR, 0.948; 95% CI, 0.917–0.979), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; OR, 1.166; 95% CI, 1.040–1.307). Model II included age (OR, 0.930; 95% CI, 0.893–0.969) and aPTT (OR, 1.104; 95% CI, 1.000–1.217). CONCLUSION: We conclude that patients with first unprovoked PE with hemoptysis and are age <40; have a low pulmonary embolism severity index, especially in risk class I–II; and/or prolonged aPTT (above 75th percentile of the reference interval), should be suspected of having APS, and undergo laboratory testing for aPL.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Demography , Hemoptysis , Humans , Logistic Models , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Embolism , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739114

ABSTRACT

Assessment of bone marrow (BM) involvement in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL) is straightforward in cases of extensive involvement but difficult in cases of minimal to partial involvement. We evaluated the usefulness of CD3 as an immunohistochemical marker for assessing BM involvement in PTCL patients. BM biopsies of 92 PTCL patients were immunohistochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD56, and evaluated by two hematopathologists. CD3 positivity was graded according to the proportion of CD3-positive cells and the number of CD3-positive cells in a cluster. These criteria were used to determine the cut-offs at which significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were observed. Multivariate analysis controlling the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score and its individual factors revealed that >20 CD3-positive cells in a cluster adversely affected PFS (relative risk [RR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–4.3; P=0.047) and OS (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.1; P=0.028) independent of IPI score. A cluster with >20 CD3-positive cells is a candidate indicator for BM involvement in PTCL.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Multivariate Analysis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762438

ABSTRACT

POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, which includes polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes due to plasma cell (PC) neoplasm. Diagnosis of this disease is challenging because of its rarity and complex clinical manifestations. We attempted to identify the key clinical features and characteristic bone marrow (BM) findings of POEMS syndrome, by reviewing the medical records and BM analyses of 24 Korean patients. Frequent clinical manifestations included polyneuropathy (100%), monoclonal gammopathy (100%), organomegaly (92%), extravascular volume overload (79%), and endocrinopathy (63%). The BM analyses revealed mild PC hyperplasia (median PCs: 5.5%) and frequent megakaryocytic hyperplasia (88%), megakaryocyte clusters (88%), and hyperlobation (100%). Flow cytometry of BM aspirates using CD138/CD38/CD45/CD19/CD56 showed normal (67%, 4/6) or neoplastic PC immunophenotypes (33%, 2/6). A diagnosis of POEMS syndrome must be considered when a patient suspected of having PC dyscrasia shows the above clinical presentation and BM findings.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hyperplasia , Medical Records , Megakaryocytes , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Paraproteinemias , Plasma Cells , POEMS Syndrome , Polyneuropathies , Skin
14.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 185-188, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760495

ABSTRACT

The three-dimensional (3-D) shape of erythrocytes is strongly associated with various diseases. However, conventional optical imaging approaches with Wright's staining only provide information on two-dimensional morphology. Here, we employed optical diffraction tomography (ODT), a label-free 3-D quantitative phase imaging technique, and observed uniquely shaped red blood cells (RBCs) in the peripheral blood of a patient diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome. Peripheral blood samples were collected when the patient visited our hospital for his two out-patient follow-ups in May 2018. The 3-D tomograms of randomly chosen RBCs were reconstructed using a commercial ODT setup. From the reconstructed 3-D RBCs, 37.5% and 32.8% of RBCs demonstrated cup-like shapes at the first and the second out-patient follow-up, respectively. Even though this is a single case report, the finding is novel and can be a potential dyserythropoietic feature found in peripheral blood.


Subject(s)
Erythrocytes , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Optical Imaging , Outpatients , Refractometry
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Alveolar RMS (ARMS) is characterized by FOXO1-related chromosomal translocations that result in a poorer clinical outcome compared with embryonal RMS (ERMS). Because the chromosomal features of RMS have not been comprehensively defined, we analyzed the clinical and laboratory data of childhood RMS patients and determined the clinical significance of chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. METHODS: Fifty-one Korean patients with RMS < 18 years of age treated between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Clinical factors, bone marrow and cytogenetic results, and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 36 patients (70.6%) had ERMS and 15 (29.4%) had ARMS; 80% of the ARMS patients had stage IV disease. The incidences of bone and bone marrow metastases were 21.6% and 19.6%, respectively, and these results were higher than previously reported results. Of the 40 patients who underwent bone marrow cytogenetic investigation, five patients had chromosomal abnormalities associated with the 13q14 rearrangement. Patients with a chromosomal abnormality (15 vs 61 months, P=0.037) and bone marrow involvement (17 vs 61 months, P=0.033) had a significantly shorter median OS than those without such characteristics. Two novel rearrangements associated with the 13q14 locus were detected. One patient with concomitant MYCN amplification and PAX3/FOXO1 fusion showed an aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive approach involving conventional cytogenetics and FOXO1 FISH of the bone marrow is needed to assess high-risk ARMS patients and identify novel cytogenetic findings.


Subject(s)
Arm , Bone Marrow , Child , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Sarcoma , Translocation, Genetic
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 196-204, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Decreasing the time delay for thrombolysis, including intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with tissue plasminogen activator and intra-arterial thrombectomy (IAT), is critical for decreasing the morbidity and mortality of patients experiencing acute stroke. We aimed to decrease the in-hospital delay for both IVT and IAT through a multidisciplinary approach that is feasible 24 h/day. METHODS: We implemented the Stroke Alert Team (SAT) on May 2, 2016, which introduced hospital-initiated ambulance prenotification and reorganized in-hospital processes. We compared the patient characteristics, time for each step of the evaluation and thrombolysis, thrombolysis rate, and post-thrombolysis intracranial hemorrhage from January 2014 to August 2016. RESULTS: A total of 245 patients received thrombolysis (198 before SAT; 47 after SAT). The median door-to-CT, door-to-MRI, and door-to-laboratory times decreased to 13 min, 37.5 min, and 8 min, respectively, after SAT implementation (P<0.001). The median door-to-IVT time decreased from 46 min (interquartile range [IQR] 36–57 min) to 20.5 min (IQR 15.8–32.5 min; P<0.001). The median door-to-IAT time decreased from 156 min (IQR 124.5–212.5 min) to 86.5 min (IQR 67.5–102.3 min; P<0.001). The thrombolysis rate increased from 9.8% (198/2,012) to 15.8% (47/297; P=0.002), and the post-thrombolysis radiological intracranial hemorrhage rate decreased from 12.6% (25/198) to 2.1% (1/47; P=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: SAT significantly decreased the in-hospital delay for thrombolysis, increased thrombolysis rate, and decreased post-thrombolysis intracranial hemorrhage. Time benefits of SAT were observed for both IVT and IAT and during office hours and after-hours.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Mortality , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
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