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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 259-268, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913836

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We performed this study to determine whether the degree of neutropenia after the first chemotherapy cycle can be used as a surrogate marker of individual susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents affecting treatment outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#The study included 313 patients who received the first cycle chemotherapy with a CEDC (cisplatin+etoposide+doxorubicin+cyclophosphamide) regimen and had absolute neutrophil count (ANC) data available. The cumulative incidences of progression and treatment-related mortality (TRM) were estimated. To identify genetic variations associated with the ANC, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. @*Results@#An ANC of 32.5/μL was determined as the cutoff point to categorize patients into the good and poor prognosis subgroups in terms of progression. Patients with a high nadir ANC had a higher cumulative incidence of progression than those with a low nadir ANC (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, high nadir ANC, age, bone marrow involvement, and unfavorable histology were poor prognostic factors. With regard to the TRM, patients with a low nadir ANC (ANC < 51.0/μL) had a higher cumulative incidence of TRM than those with a high nadir ANC (p=0.010). In GWAS, single-nucleotide polymorphisms of LPHN2 and CRHR1 were significantly associated with the nadir ANC. @*Conclusion@#In neuroblastoma patients, the degree of neutropenia after the first chemotherapy cycle can be used as a surrogate marker to predict an individual’s susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents. Tailoring of treatment based on the degree of neutropenia needs to be considered.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 304-311, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903164

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with patients showing very frequent emotional problems. In the present study, patients with adult ADHD were subtyped based on their psychopathology using a person-centered approach. @*Methods@#In the present chart review study, detailed findings of psychological evaluation conducted as part of routine care were utilized. A total of 77 subjects with adult ADHD were included in the analysis. Detailed ADHD symptoms, psychiatric comorbid Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnoses, and severity of mood and anxiety symptoms were evaluated in the person-centered analysis. @*Results@#Three clusters were generated using clustering analysis. DSM comorbid conditions did not significantly impact the clustering. Cluster 1 consisted of ADHD combined presentation (ADHD-C) with less mood symptoms, cluster 2 of ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation and cluster 3 of ADHD-C with significant mood symptoms. Patients in cluster 3 had adulthood functional impairment more frequently compared with patients in cluster 1. Patients in cluster 3 showed recurrent thoughts of death and suicidal ideation more frequently compared with patients in cluster 1. @*Conclusion@#Further studies are needed to confirm the relationships observed in the present study.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 304-311, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895460

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with patients showing very frequent emotional problems. In the present study, patients with adult ADHD were subtyped based on their psychopathology using a person-centered approach. @*Methods@#In the present chart review study, detailed findings of psychological evaluation conducted as part of routine care were utilized. A total of 77 subjects with adult ADHD were included in the analysis. Detailed ADHD symptoms, psychiatric comorbid Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnoses, and severity of mood and anxiety symptoms were evaluated in the person-centered analysis. @*Results@#Three clusters were generated using clustering analysis. DSM comorbid conditions did not significantly impact the clustering. Cluster 1 consisted of ADHD combined presentation (ADHD-C) with less mood symptoms, cluster 2 of ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation and cluster 3 of ADHD-C with significant mood symptoms. Patients in cluster 3 had adulthood functional impairment more frequently compared with patients in cluster 1. Patients in cluster 3 showed recurrent thoughts of death and suicidal ideation more frequently compared with patients in cluster 1. @*Conclusion@#Further studies are needed to confirm the relationships observed in the present study.

4.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 237-244, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833610

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeSleep disturbance is common in patients with primary headache disorders. We were interest in whether poor sleep quality affects patients directly or via increases in the frequency and severity of headaches. To that end, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of sleep quality on the headache-related impact among patients with primary headache disorders. @*Methods@#We analyzed migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in patients included in the headache registry of our headache clinic from October 2015 to May 2018. We collected information on the headache frequency, severity, and psychological status. Sleep quality and headache-related impact were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Headache Impact Test-6, respectively. We performed path analyses with headache frequency and severity as covariates to determine the direct effect of sleep quality on the headache-related impact, and the indirect effects mediated by increases in the headache frequency and severity. @*Results@#This study included 915 patients: 784 with migraine and 131 with TTH. Worse sleep quality was independently associated with greater headache-related impact in both patients with migraine and those with TTH. Path analysis revealed a direct effect (β=0.207,p<0.001) of sleep quality and an indirect effect mediated by headache frequency and severity (β=0.067, p=0.004) on the headache-related impact in migraine. In TTH, only direct effects of sleep quality on the headache-related impact were significant (β=0.224, p=0.004). @*Conclusions@#We suggest that poor sleep quality can directly increase the headache-related impact in both patients with migraine and TTH as well as indirectly by increasing the headache frequency and severity in patients with migraine.

5.
Immune Network ; : 42-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785819

ABSTRACT

There have been few studies investigating the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and prenatal exposure to heavy metals. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to heavy metals is associated with the development or severity of AD in a birth cohort study. A total of 331 subjects were followed from birth for a median duration of 60.0 months. The presence and severity of AD were evaluated at ages 6 and 12 months, and regularly once a year thereafter. The concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and stimulated for analysis of cytokine production using ELISA. Heavy metal levels in cord blood were not associated with the development of AD until 24 months of age. However, a positive correlation was observed between the duration of AD and lead levels in cord blood (p=0.002). AD severity was also positively associated with chromium concentrations in cord blood (p=0.037), while cord blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium were not significantly associated with AD severity (p=0.562, p=0.054, and p=0.055, respectively). Interleukin-13 production in CBMCs was positively related with lead and chromium levels in cord blood (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). Prenatal exposure to lead and chromium is associated with the persistence and severity of AD, and the immune reaction toward a Th2 polarization.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Cadmium , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fetal Blood , Interleukin-13 , Mass Spectrometry , Metals, Heavy , Parturition , Plasma , Umbilical Cord
6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 464-471, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In some patients who receive adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for the left breast, the stomach is located inside the RT field. This study investigates the incidence of gastric complications following adjuvant RT for breast cancer using data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea. METHODS: We identified 37,966 women who underwent surgery and received adjuvant RT for breast cancer. The cumulative incidence rate of gastric hemorrhage and gastric cancer was calculated and compared for left and right breast cancers. RESULTS: Among 37,966 patients, 19,531 (51.4%) and 18,435 (48.6%) had right and left breast cancers, respectively. After a median follow-up duration of 6.3 years, the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer and gastric hemorrhage did not differ between right and left breast cancers (p = 0.414 and p = 0.166, respectively). The multivariable analysis revealed that old age was the only factor associated with the development of gastric cancer (p < 0.001) and gastric hemorrhage (p < 0.001). The incidence of gastric cancer and hemorrhage did not differ between patients who received adjuvant RT for right and left breast cancers. CONCLUSION: Irradiation-related chronic complications of the stomach in patients with breast cancer are minimal. A study with a longer follow-up duration might be needed to assess the risk of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Incidence , Insurance, Health , Korea , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms
7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 803-809, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25081

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in Korean schoolchildren and to evaluate its utility in the prediction of atopy and allergic diseases. A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in first grade students from randomly selected elementary and middle schools. Total IgE levels were measured by ImmunoCAP. Skin prick tests were performed for 18 common inhalant allergens to determine the presence of atopy. Children aged 12–13 years and parents of children aged 6–7 years were asked to complete questionnaire assessing allergic diseases. The cut-off levels of total IgE were determined by analyzing receiver operating characteristic curves. The median total IgE level was 86.7 kU/L (range: 1.5–4,523.1) in 3,753 children aged 6–7 years and 94.7 kU/L (range: 1.5–3,000.0) in 3,930 children aged 12–13 years. Total IgE concentrations were higher in children with atopy or allergic diseases than in those without (all P < 0.001). At the cut-off value of 127.7 kU/L, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 67.1%, 75.4%, 65.4%, and 76.7%, respectively, in elementary schoolchildren. At the cut-off value of 63.0 kU/L, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 81.9%, 66.6%, 75.0%, and 75.1%, respectively, in middle schoolchildren. PPV and NPV were ≥ 70% when cut-offs of 258.8 kU/L and 38.4 kU/L were used for the diagnosis of atopy in 6–7 year-olds and 12–13 year-olds, respectively. This nationwide population-based study provided the first normal reference ranges of total IgE in Korean schoolchildren.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Allergens , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Parents , Reference Values , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin
8.
Journal of Stroke ; : 77-87, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with active cancer are at an increased risk for stroke. Hypercoagulability plays an important role in cancer-related stroke. We aimed to test whether 1) hypercoagulability is a predictor of survival, and 2) correction of the hypercoagulable state leads to better survival in patients with stroke and active cancer. METHODS: We recruited consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and active systemic cancer between January 2006 and July 2015. Hypercoagulability was assessed using plasma D-dimer levels before and after 7 days of anticoagulation treatment. The study outcomes included overall and 1-year survival. Plasma D-dimer levels before and after treatment were tested in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We controlled for systemic metastasis, stroke mechanism, age, stroke severity, primary cancer type, histology, and atrial fibrillation using the forward stepwise method. RESULTS: A total of 268 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with high (3rd–4th quartiles) pre-treatment plasma D-dimer levels showed decreased overall and 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.46–3.31] and 2.70 [1.68–4.35], respectively). After anticoagulation treatment, post-treatment D-dimer level was significantly reduced and independently associated with poor 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01–1.05] per 1 μg/mL increase, P=0.015). The successful correction of hypercoagulability was a protective factor for 1-year survival (adjusted HR 0.26 [CI 0.10–0.68], P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability is associated with poor survival after stroke in patients with active cancer. Effective correction of hypercoagulability may play a protective role for survival in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , Methods , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Plasma , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Stroke , Thrombophilia
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 754-761, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44349

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Extrapyramidal signs (EPS) are common in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, few studies have assessed the effect of EPS on the clinical course of MCI. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with EPS show more frequent progression from MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to other types of dementia. METHODS: Participants (n=882) with MCI were recruited, and were followed for up to 5 years. The EPS positive group was defined by the presence of at least one EPS based on a focused neurologic examination at baseline. RESULTS: A total of 234 converted to dementia during the follow-up period. The risk of progression to AD was lower in the patients with EPS after adjusting for potential confounders [hazard ratio (HR)=0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53–0.93, p=0.01]. In contrast, the patients with EPS had a six-fold elevated risk of progression to dementia other than AD (HR=6.33, 95%CI=2.30–17.39, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: EPS in patients with MCI is a strong risk factor for progression of MCI to non-Alzheimer dementia. The careful neurologic examination for EPS in patients with MCI can yield important clinical information for prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurologic Examination , Prognosis , Risk Factors
10.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 6-16, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) is characterized by repeated apnea, hypopnea, and micro-arousals during sleep. Among various treatment modalities of OSAS, continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) treatment is the most effective and successful. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of newly developed Korean CPAP with standard CPAP in OSAS patients. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In total, 20 of 26 recruited OSAS patients completed the study. All subjects first used the standard CPAP for 4 weeks. After an at least 2 week wash-out period, the subjects used the newly developed CPAP for 4 weeks. Polysomnography, questionnaires associated with sleep, lipid profile, pulmonary function test, cardiac marker, and physical examinations were evaluated at baseline and were followed-up after each treatment. RESULTS: After treatment with the newly developed CPAP, the apnea-hypopnea index was decreased from 53.2/hr to 2.5/hr and was equivalent to that of the standard CPAP. Most of the changes in questionnaire scores, laboratory findings, and physical examinations after newly developed CPAP treatment were equivalent to those with standard CPAP. No serious adverse events were observed during the study. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of a newly developed CPAP are equivalent to those of standard CPAP in OSAS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apnea , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Methods , Physical Examination , Polysomnography , Respiratory Function Tests , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 312-321, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64174

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are not clear although thrombosis can be associated with host status, tumor burden, and inflammatory activity. We assessed the effect of those factors on VTE in a cross-sectional study of patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the occurrence of VTE in 322 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who received rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) between 2008 and 2011. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured from serum samples archived at diagnosis. RESULTS: With a median follow-up duration of 41.9 months, VTE was documented in 34 patients (10.6%). A comparison of baseline characteristics indicated the group with VTE had higher percentage of old age, stage III/IV and extranodal involvements than the group without VTE (p or = 60 years) and poor performance were independent risk factors for VTE. CONCLUSION: Among potential risk factors for VTE including tumor burden and inflammatory activity, age and performance status had a strong impact on the occurrence of VTE in patients with DLBCL who received R-CHOP.


Subject(s)
Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclophosphamide , Cytokines , Diagnosis , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Interleukin-10 , Interleukins , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisone , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombosis , Tumor Burden , Venous Thromboembolism , Vincristine
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 127-134, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Biological markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) will help clinicians make objective diagnoses early during the course of dementia. Previous studies have suggested that cell cycle dysregulation begins earlier than the onset of clinical manifestations in AD. METHODS: We examined the lymphocyte expression of cell cycle proteins in AD patients, dementia controls (DC), and normal controls (NC). One-hundred seventeen subjects (36 AD, 31 DC, and 50 NC) were recruited. The cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were measured in peripheral lymphocytes. Cell cycle protein expression in the three groups was compared after adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: The levels of cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were significantly higher in AD patients than in the NC subjects. The DC group manifested intermediate levels of cell cycle proteins compared with the AD patients and the NC subjects. The present study indicates that cell cycle proteins are upregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients. CONCLUSION: Cell cycle dysregulation in peripheral lymphocytes may present a promising starting point for identifying peripheral biomarkers of AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Biomarkers , Cell Cycle Proteins , Cell Cycle , Cyclin B , Cyclin D , Cyclins , Dementia , Diagnosis , Lymphocytes
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 341-348, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study compares the efficacy of the cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) galantamine on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's dementia (AD) who were either naïve to ChEI drugs or who had failed a trial of the ChEI donepezil. METHODS: Outpatients with AD were sequentially referred for screening and enrollment. Current outpatients who had taken donepezil for at least 6 months without demonstrated efficacy on cognition were switched to galantamine (switched group). New outpatients with no ChEI prescription history were classified as the naïve group and were given galantamine. The primary outcome measures for the between-group comparison were response rate on cognition at 26 and 52 weeks (categorical) and change on the Korean version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (dimensional). Secondary cognitive outcomes were measured using the subset of frontal executive function and the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination. RESULTS: Seventy outpatients were enrolled and 66 were analyzed by Intent-to-treat (ITT). There were 42 cases in the naïve group and 24 in the switched group. Response rates did not differ at 26 weeks (71.4% naïve vs. 58.3% switched; p=0.277) or at 52 weeks (59.5% naïve vs. 41.6% switched; p=0.162). No significant differences were observed in the pattern of change over the 52 weeks on the primary and secondary cognitive scales. CONCLUSION: As the efficacy of galantamine on cognition was not inferior in the switched group compared to that in the naïve group, switching ChEI drugs is clinically feasible for non-responding patients with mild-to-moderate AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Cholinesterases , Cognition , Dementia , Executive Function , Galantamine , Mass Screening , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Outpatients , Prescriptions , Weights and Measures
14.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 357-364, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Equine-assisted activities and therapy (EAA/T) have been used as adjunct treatment options for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. However, the therapeutic effects on resting-state brain function have not yet been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EAA/T on participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signals and their clinical correlates. METHODS: Ten participants with ADHD participated in a 12-week EAA/T program without any medication. Two rs-fMRIs were acquired for all participants before and after EAA/T. For estimating therapeutic effect, the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method was applied to capture the changes in the regional synchronization of functional signals. RESULTS: After the EAA/T program, clear symptom improvement was found even without medication. Surface-based pairwise comparisons revealed that ReHo in the right precuneus and right pars orbitalis clusters had significantly diminished after the program. Reduced ReHo in the right precuneus cluster was positively correlated with changes in the scores on DuPaul’s ADHD Rating Scale-Korean version. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that EAA/T is associated with short-range functional connectivity in the regions related to the default mode network and the behavioral inhibition system, which are associated with symptom improvement.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brain , Equine-Assisted Therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Parietal Lobe , Pilot Projects , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Therapeutic Uses
15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 112-118, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study researched the clinical effects of hippotherapy and medication in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. METHODS: The study employed an open label randomized controlled trial. Participants were 10 children of ages between 6 and 12 years. These subjects were placed in 2 groups : the hippotherapy group and the medication group. Evaluation tools used in this study include Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version- Korean Version, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, Korean Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL), ADHD rating scale (ARS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). RESULTS: Grossly scores of investigator-administered ADHD rating scale (ARS-I), K-CBCL, and CGI-Severity of Illness scale were improved in both the hippotherapy and the medication group. The ARS-I scores of the Hippotherapy group were not significantly different from baseline after 12 weeks. In the QEEG, theta/beta ratio of Pz area in the hippotherapy group was significantly different from baseline. Children treated with medication showed significant difference from baseline in ARS-I, K-CBCL subscales, and QEEG. CONCLUSION: The use of hippotherapy could be a viable treatment strategy as a part of a multimodal therapy for children with ADHD. This pilot study provides good prospects for future studies to document these positive trends on larger samples.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Child Behavior , Electroencephalography , Equine-Assisted Therapy , Intelligence , Mood Disorders , Pilot Projects
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 152-159, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Caregivers for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from psychological and financial burdens. However, the results of the relationship between burden and cognitive function, performance of activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms have remained inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine which factors are more significant predictors of heightened burden, cognitive impairment or functional decline, besides neuropsychiatric symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample comprised of 1,164 pairs of patients with AD and caregivers from the Clinical Research of Dementia of South Korea study cohorts. The cognitive function of each sub-domain, functional impairments, depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed using the dementia version of Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB-D), Barthel Index for Daily Living Activities (ADL), Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (S-IADL), the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Box (CDR-SB), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI), and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. RESULTS: We found that higher severity (higher CDR-SB and GDS scores) and more functional impairment (lower ADL and higher S-IADL scores) were significantly associated with higher caregiver burden. In addition, depressive symptoms of patients (higher Geriatric Depression Scale scores) were associated with higher caregiver burden. CONCLUSION: Therefore, interventions to help maintain activities of daily living in patients with AD may alleviate caregiver burden and improve caregiver well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Alzheimer Disease , Caregivers , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia , Depression , Korea , Mass Screening , Seoul
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 56-61, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Both clinical and biological factors influence the course of depressive disorders. This study tested for associations between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene at the Val66Met locus and the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Three hundred ten Korean subjects (209 patients, 101 controls) were genotyped for rs6265 at nucleotide 196 (G/A), which produces an amino acid substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) of the gene for BDNF. Course of illness was evaluated both by chronicity of current episode (episode duration >24 months) and by the lifetime history of recurrences. RESULTS: Patients with the Met/Met BDNF genotype had a significantly higher rate of chronic depression than all others. There was a significant dose effect of the Met allele on chronicity. Compared with the Val/Val genotype, the relative risk of chronicity was 1.67 for the Val/Met genotype, and 2.58 for the Met/Met genotype. Lifetime history of recurrent episodes was not related to BDNF genotypes but was significantly associated with younger age of onset and with a history of depression in first degree relatives. CONCLUSION: BDNF genotyping may be informative for anticipating chronicity in major depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Age of Onset , Alleles , Amino Acid Substitution , Biological Factors , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Codon , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Genotype
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 413-417, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We compared the cell responsiveness of activated lymphocytes to rapamycin, which blocks the G1/S transition, between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls to assess the early phase control defect in cell cycle. METHODS: Blood samples of 26 patients with AD and 28 normal controls were collected to separate peripheral lymphocytes. We measured the proportion of each cell cycle phase in activated lymphocytes using flow cytometry and evaluated the responsiveness of these lymphocytes to rapamycin. RESULTS: The patients with AD were older than the normal controls (AD 74.03+/-7.90 yr vs. control 68.28+/-6.21 yr, p=0.004). The proportion of G1 phase cells in the AD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (70.29+/-6.32% vs. 76.03+/-9.05%, p=0.01), and the proportion of S phase cells in the AD group was higher than that in control group (12.45+/-6.09% vs. 6.03+/-5.11%, p=0.001). Activated lymphocytes in patients with AD were not arrested in the G1 phase and they progressed to the late phase of the cell cycle despite rapamycin treatment, in contrast to those of normal subjects. CONCLUSION: The patients with AD probably have a control defect of early phase cell cycle in peripheral lymphocytes that may be associated with the underlying pathology of neuronal death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Flow Cytometry , G1 Phase , Lymphocytes , Neurons , S Phase , Sirolimus
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1173-1177, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28043

ABSTRACT

We attempted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of carotid artery stenosis in Korea. Twenty thousand seven hundred twelve individuals who underwent carotid artery ultrasonography for health screening between March 2005 and March 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. The population was divided into four groups, according to the degree of stenosis, as Group A, below 29%; Group B, 30% to 49%; Group C, 50% to 74%; Group D, above 75%. The medical records of the individuals were investigated, and Fisher's exact test, chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and a binary logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of carotid stenosis was Group B, 5.5%; Group C, 0.9%; Group D, 0.1%. Old age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease were significantly higher in Groups C and D (P = 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, 0.048, and 0.001, respectively). Among the males aged over 65 yr, the prevalence of carotid stenosis > or = 50% and > or = 30% were 4.0% and 18.2%, respectively. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is not uncommon in Korea. Carotid ultrasonography is necessary for people with above-listed risk factors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Age Factors , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Health Surveys , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 68-71, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated cell viability and proliferation activity of peripheral lymphocytes as potential models of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We analyzed the cell viability and proliferation activity of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated lymphocytes from 68 AD patients and 33 normal controls. The cellular measures were made at baseline (0 hr), 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, and 96 hrs after PHA stimulation. RESULTS: Cell viability in the AD patients was significantly decreased at 72 hrs and 96 hrs, compared with the normal controls. The declining ramp of the proliferation activity from 48 hrs to 72 hrs after PHA stimulation was significantly related to cell viability at 72 hrs and at 96 hrs in the AD patients. CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes from patients with AD have altered viability and proliferation characteristics in culture following PHA stimulation. These findings suggest that lymphocytes may be used as a peripheral tissue model of cell cycle dysregulation in AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Architectural Accessibility , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Lymphocytes , Neurons
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