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1.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 320-341, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968292

ABSTRACT

Background@#Radiotherapy improves overall survival in patients with abdominopelvic malignancies. However, the toxic effects of radiation restrict the maximum dose that can be given, and there are no well-established preventive or therapeutic strategies. This study was conducted to evaluate whether rebamipide, sucralfate, and rifaximin have a suppressive effect on acute ionizing radiation (IR)-induced inflammation in the intestines of mice. @*Methods@#Thirty-six ICR mice were divided into a vehicle-treated group with sham irradiation; a vehicle-treated group with irradiation; rebamipide, sucralfate, or rifaximin-treated groups with irradiation; and a rebamipide-treated group with sham irradiation. The expression of proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, and antiapoptotic factors was investigated. @*Results@#The downregulated expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase by IR was attenuated by all drugs (p<0.05). All drugs suppressed the IR-induced activation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of MAPKs (p<0.05) and attenuated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in response to IR (p<0.05). The administration of all drugs markedly attenuated IR-induced increases in iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2 (p<0.05), as well as [Ca2+] oscillations that were increased by IR. The expression of proapoptotic genes and antiapoptotic genes was suppressed and induced, respectively, by all drugs. IR treatment increased the release of cytochrome C, which was attenuated by all drugs (p<0.05). All drug treatments resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-7 (p<0.05), which were both upregulated following IR treatment. @*Conclusions@#The administration of rebamipide, sucralfate, or rifaximin prior to radiation therapy may prevent or attenuate acute radiation-induced enterocolitis.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 475-486, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937425

ABSTRACT

Background@#Current evidence support that the gut microbiota plays a potential role in obesity. Bariatric surgery can reduce excess weight and decrease the risk of life-threatening weight-related health problems and may also influence gut microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery and evaluate the association of the gut microbial shift and altered body mass index (BMI) after bariatric surgery. @*Methods@#Between January 2019 and July 2020, stools from 58 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were collected. Six months after bariatric surgery, stools from 22 of these patients were re-collected, and the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery were evaluated. In addition, the differences in gut microbiota between patients with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2, n=42) and healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.8 to 22.8 kg/m2, n=41) were investigated. @*Results@#The gut microbiota of patients who underwent bariatric surgery showed increased α-diversity and differed β-diversity compared with those before surgery. Interestingly, Blautia was decreased and Bacteriodes was increased at the genus level after bariatric surgery. Further, the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio showed a positive correlation with BMI. To validate these results, we compared the gut microbiota from severely obese patients with high BMI with those from healthy volunteers and demonstrated that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio correlated positively with BMI. @*Conclusion@#In the gut microbial analysis of patients who underwent bariatric surgery, we presented that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio had changed after bariatric surgery and showed a positive correlation with BMI.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 304-312, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926999

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Helicobacter pylori infection is presumably associated with iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between H. pylori infection and the decline in iron stores in non-elderly adults during their health check-ups. @*Methods@#We identified a total of 1,069 subjects who were tested for iron, ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity during their health check-ups, from January 2016 to May 2017. Of these, subjects who underwent endoscopy via rapid urease test and those aged 65 years or below were finally enrolled. @*Results@#Overall, 281 subjects were enrolled, and 187 patients (66.5%) tested positive for H. pylori. The mean age was 36.1 years (range, 22 to 65), and 176 subjects (62.6%) were male. The mean levels of hemoglobin (14.1 ± 1.7 g/dL vs. 14.6 ± 1.4 g/dL, p = 0.019) and ferritin (121.7 ± 106.9 ng/mL vs. 151.8 ± 107.8 ng/mL, p = 0.027) in the H. pylori-positive group were significantly lower than those in the H. pylori-negative group. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 30 ng/mL) was more common in patients with H. pylori infection (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in anemia (hemoglobin < 13 g/dL in men, < 12 g/dL in women) or IDA (anemia, ferritin < 10 ng/mL, and transferrin saturation < 16%) with H. pylori. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that female sex (odds ratio, 197.559; 95% confidence interval, 26.461 to 1,475.015) and H. pylori infection (odds ratio, 3.033; 95% confidence interval, 1.216 to 7.567) were factors associated with iron deficiency. @*Conclusions@#H. pylori infection is associated with iron deficiency, suggesting a decline in iron stores among infected non-elderly adults.

4.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 320-327, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918945

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This multicenter study reviewed the clinical features and prognosis according to the primary site of involvement and the treatment modality in patients with B-cell primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL). @*Methods@#Among 125 consecutive patients diagnosed with PIL, 100 patients were analyzed. @*Results@#The median age was 59 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.86:1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (66/100, 66.0%) was the most common histological subtype. The estimated 5-year survival rate (5-YSR) was 48.5%. The 5-YSR was similar regardless of the type of primary treatment (chemotherapy alone vs. surgery/chemotherapy, 50.7 vs. 45.3%, p=0.582). A comparison of the survival according to the primary site of involvement revealed a 5-YSR of 32.5% (p=0.027), 64.3% (reference), 46.5% (p=0.113), and 49.8% (p=0.024) for the small intestine, ileocecal region, large intestine, and multiple sites, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, revealed a low hemoglobin level, advanced Ann Arbor stage, and aggressive histological type to be independent prognostic factors for shorter survival but not ileocecal region involvement. @*Conclusions@#The Ann Arbor stage, hemoglobin level, and histological type were independent prognostic factors for survival, while the primary site of involvement and treatment modality did not affect the prognosis in patients with B-cell PIL.

5.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 12-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875418

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) alone therapy is as effective as mesalamine in inducing and maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis (UC). The efficacy and safety of EcN in combination with standard therapies have not been studied.This study examined the changes in the inflammation markers and symptoms following the additional administration of EcN to patients showing the clinical remission of UC. @*Methods@#UC patients who received EcN after being in clinical remission for more than 3 months at Kosin University Gospel Hospital between 2013 and 2018 were evaluated through the retrospective medical-record-based review. The partial Mayo score, fecal calprotectin (FC), BMI, hemoglobin, serum cholesterol, serum albumin levels, and the safety profiles were examined at 3rd and 6th months after initiating EcN. @*Results@#Ninety-four patients were included. After 3 months of treatment, there was no significant change in FC (156.3 μg/g to 141.1 μg/g) (p=0.653). On the other hand, partial Mayo score decreased significantly from 0.085 to 0.014 (p=0.025), and the bodyweight (p=0.001), BMI (p<0.001), hemoglobin (p=0.009), and cholesterol level increased (p=0.148). One patient (1.1%) experienced a serious adverse event with UC flare-up, and 14 patients (14.9%) discontinued EcN due to adverse events; all developed within 3 months. @*Conclusions@#Additional administration of EcN to clinically remission-attained UC patients may improve the UC symptoms without changing the FC levels. EcN-associated adverse events develop within the early few weeks.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 841-850, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914361

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The mucoprotective drug rebamipide is used to treat gastritis and peptic ulcers. We compared the efficacy of Mucosta Ⓡ (rebamipide 100 mg) and its new formulation, AD-203 (rebamipide 150 mg), in treating erosive gastritis. @*Methods@#This double-blind, active control, noninferiority, multicenter, phase 3 clinical trial randomly assigned 475 patients with endoscopically proven erosive gastritis to two groups: AD-203 twice daily or Mucosta Ⓡ thrice daily for 2 weeks. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis included 454 patients (AD-203, n=229; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=225), and the per-protocol (PP) analysis included 439 patients (AD-203, n=224; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=215). The posttreatment assessments included the primary (erosion improvement rate) and secondary endpoints (erosion and edema cure rates; improvement rates of redness, hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal symptoms). Drug-related adverse events were evaluated. @*Results@#According to the ITT analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.7% and 43.8%, respectively. According to the PP analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.3% and 43.7%, respectively. The one-sided 97.5% lower limit for the improvement rate difference between the study groups was −4.01% (95% confidence interval [CI], –13.09% to 5.06%) in the ITT analysis and −4.44% (95% CI, –13.65% to 4.78%) in the PP analysis. The groups did not significantly differ in the secondary endpoints in either analysis. Twenty-four AD-203-treated and 20 Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients reported adverse events but no serious adverse drug reactions; both groups presented similar adverse event rates. @*Conclusions@#The new formulation of rebamipide 150 mg (AD-203) twice daily was not inferior to rebamipide 100 mg (Mucosta Ⓡ ) thrice daily. Both formulations showed a similar efficacy in treating erosive gastritis.

7.
Intestinal Research ; : 341-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891116

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Minor complications that might occur after colonoscopy, including abdominal discomfort, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation, could a barrier for patients to undergo a screening colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to identify the effect of gut microbial diversity and composition on minor complications after colonoscopy. @*Methods@#A total of 24 healthy subjects provided their stools before bowel preparation and on the 7th and 28th day after colonoscopy. On the 7th day after colonoscopy, the presence of minor complications was investigated using a questionnaire. We divided patients into 2 groups, the no complication group and complications group. The fecal microbial diversity, distribution, and composition were then compared between the groups. @*Results@#Five of the 24 subjects reported that they had undergone minor complications after colonoscopy. Most of the symptoms were mild and self-limited, but 1 patient needed medication. Interestingly, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the initial stool samples before bowel preparation in the complication group was significantly higher than that in no complication group. After bowel preparation, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the complication group decreased, but not in the no complication group. The microbial diversity of the no complication group decreased after bowel preparation, but not in the complication group. @*Conclusions@#The gut microbial composition and diversity before and after bowel preparation could be considered as one of the causes of minor complications after colonoscopy. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of gut microbiota in the occurrence of minor complications after colonoscopy.

8.
Intestinal Research ; : 341-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898820

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Minor complications that might occur after colonoscopy, including abdominal discomfort, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation, could a barrier for patients to undergo a screening colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to identify the effect of gut microbial diversity and composition on minor complications after colonoscopy. @*Methods@#A total of 24 healthy subjects provided their stools before bowel preparation and on the 7th and 28th day after colonoscopy. On the 7th day after colonoscopy, the presence of minor complications was investigated using a questionnaire. We divided patients into 2 groups, the no complication group and complications group. The fecal microbial diversity, distribution, and composition were then compared between the groups. @*Results@#Five of the 24 subjects reported that they had undergone minor complications after colonoscopy. Most of the symptoms were mild and self-limited, but 1 patient needed medication. Interestingly, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the initial stool samples before bowel preparation in the complication group was significantly higher than that in no complication group. After bowel preparation, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the complication group decreased, but not in the no complication group. The microbial diversity of the no complication group decreased after bowel preparation, but not in the complication group. @*Conclusions@#The gut microbial composition and diversity before and after bowel preparation could be considered as one of the causes of minor complications after colonoscopy. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of gut microbiota in the occurrence of minor complications after colonoscopy.

10.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 159-163, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837282

ABSTRACT

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS), also called sideropenic dysphagia or Paterson-Kelly syndrome, is a condition characterized by a triad of chronic iron-deficiency anemia, esophageal webs, and dysphagia. This syndrome is considered as a precancerous condition due to the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in the hypopharynx, upper esophagus and oral cavity. Although exact data on the prevalence of the syndrome are not evidently available, physicians need to recognize this rare syndrome. Most of the patients are elderly Caucasian women aged 40 to 70 years, but cases in children, adolescents, or men have also been described. At present, the prevalence of PVS is decreasing due to improvement in nutritional habits and intake of iron supplements. Therefore, the syndrome accompanied with gastric cancer is even more uncommon. We report a case of a 61-year-old woman with PVS who was diagnosed with gastric cancer and improved after treatment.

11.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 142-149, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834118

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication have declined with the use of proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-clarithromycin as the first-line triple therapy. On the other hand, several studies have suggested that high gastric pH levels could affect the H. pylori eradication rate by enhancing the efficacy of antimicrobials. This study compared the efficacy of seven-day high-dose esomeprazole-based triple therapy (7-HEAC) for first-line H. pylori eradication with the seven-day standard dose non-esomeprazole-based triple therapy (7-NEAC) to identify the risk factors related to eradication failure. @*Methods@#This study included 223 patients who were diagnosed with a H. pylori infection and received 7-HEAC or 7-NEAC between June 2016 and January 2017. The H. pylori eradication rates, as well as demographic and clinical factors, were investigated retrospectively. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13C-urea breath test or rapid urease test at least 4 weeks after the completion of therapy. @*Results@#The eradication rates were 67.7% (105/155; 95% CI 59.5-74.8%) in the 7-NEAC group and 80.9% (55/68; 95% CI 69.9-89.8%) in the 7-HEAC group (p=0.045). The adverse event rates were 5.8% (9/155) in the 7-NEAC group and 7.4% (5/68) in the 7-HEAC group (p=0.661). Multivariate analysis revealed being female (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.15-3.76) to be associated with the failure of H. pylori eradication therapy. @*Conclusions@#The eradication rate of the 7-HEAC group was higher than that of the 7-NEAC group. Nevertheless, more effective first-line therapies may be necessary for H. pylori eradication in the near future.

12.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 17-27, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834068

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The molecular underpinnings of colorectal cancer (CRC) vary according to the tumor location. The advantages of a palliative primary tumor resection in patients with metastatic CRC are controversial. This study examined the survival outcomes of a palliative primary tumor resection based on the tumor location in patients with metastatic CRC. @*Methods@#The medical records of 600 patients diagnosed with metastatic CRC between January 2000 and June 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients undergoing surgery for both the primary tumor and metastatic lesions were excluded. The clinical factors affecting the long-term outcomes were evaluated according to the primary tumor location, and the long-term survival was compared between patients with and without a palliative primary tumor resection. The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and multivariate Cox regression models. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 18 months (interquartile range, 10-28). Patients with right-sided CRC had a poor overall- and progression-free survival compared to those with left-sided CRC. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the palliative primary tumor resection was an independent prognostic factor predicting better overall survival in patients with metastatic CRC, regardless of the primary tumor location. @*Conclusions@#The primary tumor location influences the prognosis, and that a primary tumor resection can improve the overall survival in patients with metastatic CRC, regardless of the primary tumor location.

13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 42-45, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834065

ABSTRACT

Although not as common as foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract, rectal foreign body insertion is often encountered in emergency departments. The diverse types of rectal foreign bodies have led to various removal methods. When removing a foreign body, the first thing to consider is which method is the least invasive and safest for the patient. This paper reports the successful removal of a rectal foreign body from the rectum using the Valsalva maneuver without anesthesia in a patient.

14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 78-82, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834057

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune or antigen-mediated chronic inflammatory esophageal disorder that is relatively rarein Asian countries. The main symptoms of EoE are dysphagia and food impaction. Although chest pain is a symptom of EoE, it isalso a symptom of coronary heart disease. This paper reports a case of EoE with angina pectoris in a 45-year-old male who wasreferred to the authors’ hospital for chest pain. He was diagnosed with angina pectoris because of mild stenosis in the left coronaryartery on coronary angiography. On the other hand, the symptoms did not improve with angina medication therapy.Therefore, he underwent a chest CT scan, which revealed esophageal thickening. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed.His endoscopic findings showed linear furrows with edema, and >90 eosinophils existed per high-power field on the histologyfindings. He was diagnosed with EoE. Through additional examinations, he was also diagnosed with asthma. The patient wastreated with a proton pump inhibitor and a fluticasone inhaler. His symptoms and abnormal endoscopic findings disappeared aftereight weeks of treatment. This case shows that physicians should consider the possibility of the symptoms for EoE when unexplainedchest pain persists.

15.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 212-215, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834047

ABSTRACT

Malignant lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract is mainly secondary. Primary gastric malignant lymphoma constitutes 1-4% of gastric malignant tumors without specific endoscopic findings, and histopathologically, it is mainly classified as non-Hodgkin lymphoma of B-cell origin. Otherwise, a rare type of gastrointestinal lymphoma is small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). SLL is the same as a chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and tends to grow slowly. Here, we report a case of a patient diagnosed with primary gastrointestinal SLL upon endoscopy screening with non-specific mucosal findings.

16.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 232-240, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833831

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#High-resolution manometry (HRM) has broadened the awareness of minor esophageal peristaltic disorders. However, the treatments for these minor disorders are limited and the role of prokinetics has been controversial. This study evaluates the effect of mosapride in patients with minor peristaltic disorders. @*Methods@#This study prospectively enrolled 21 patients with esophageal symptoms who were diagnosed with minor peristaltic disorders by gastroscopy and HRM using the Chicago classification version 3.0. Patients received mosapride 30 mg daily for 2 weeks. Symptoms were assessed using the abbreviated World Health Organization quality of life scale (WHOQOL-BREF) and a HRM study was performed before and after 2 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#HRM metrics of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) respiratory mean pressure (median 14.6 mmHg vs 17.3 mmHg; interquartile range [IQR] 8.7-22.5 mmHg vs 12.5-25.9 mmHg; P = 0.004) and distal contractile integral (median 343.8 mmHg·sec·cm vs 698.1 mmHg·sec·cm; IQR 286.5-795.9 mmHg·sec·cm vs 361.0-1127.6 mmHg·sec·cm; P = 0.048) were significantly increased after treatment. Complete response (≥ 80.0%), satisfactory response (≥ 50.0%), partial response (< 50.0%), and refractory response rates were 19.0%, 52.4%, 14.3%, and 14.3%, respectively. However, there was no statistical difference in all WHOQOL-BREF scores before and after treatment. Univariate analysis showed LES respiratory mean pressure (P = 0.036) was associated with symptom improvement (complete + satisfactory group). However, no statistical difference was found in other factors after multivariate analysis. @*Conclusions@#Mosapride improved esophageal symptoms and significantly increased LES respiratory mean pressure and distal contractile integral. Therefore, mosapride could enhance LES and esophageal body contraction pressures in patients with minor peristaltic disorders.

17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 555-561, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832204

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#In this study, we compared the efficacy and safety of etomidate with those of propofol or midazolam for the maintenance of sedation during endoscopy. @*Methods@#The study enrolled patients who underwent sedative endoscopy in our hospital and divided them into three groups. Patients in each group were administered midazolam as induction therapy and were subsequently administered either midazolam (M + M group), propofol (M + P group), or etomidate (M + E group) as maintenance medication. The primary outcome was overall cardiovascular and respiratory adverse events. @*Results@#In total, 105 patients who underwent sedative endoscopic examination were enrolled. The outcomes related to the procedure and sedation were not significantly different among the groups. Overall cardiovascular and respiratory adverse events were observed in 9 patients (25.7%) in the M + M group, 8 patients (23.5%) in the M + P group, and 10 patients (27.8%) in the M + E group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that etomidate use was not an independent risk factor for overall cardiovascular and respiratory adverse events. @*Conclusions@#The outcomes following the use of etomidate for maintenance after induction with midazolam for sedation in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were not inferior to those following midazolam or propofol use from the perspectives of safety and efficacy.

18.
Journal of Digestive Cancer Report ; (2): 71-75, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891542

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is easy to infiltrate and metastasize because esophagus does not have serosa, and is difficult to remove it because esophagus is in the middle of the chest. Because of this, treatments of esophageal cancer do not always follow the guideline. In this situation, efforts to increase treatment efficiency and improve survival rate through multidisciplinary treatment are increasing. In this case, we report the patient with three superficial esophageal cancers (one in cervical esophagus and two in thoracic esophagus). The patient was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy instead of surgery through multidisciplinary discussion. The patient reached a complete remission through this discussion. This case is intended to inform the usefulness of multidisciplinary treatment in patients with esophageal cancer.

19.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 314-321, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903543

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Crohn’s disease (CD) is characterized by uncontrolled inflammation of the intestine. Saccharomyces Boulardii (S. boulardii), a probiotic, stabilizes the intestinal wall. This study examined the changes in the CD activity index (CDAI) after taking S. boulardii in patients with CD in clinical remission. @*Methods@#In this single hospital-based retrospective cohort study, the medical records of CD patients in clinical remission, who had received S. boulardii for more than 6 months, were reviewed. The CDAI, BMI, and serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, iron, vitamin B12, folate, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, CRP, and fecal calprotectin (FC) between the initiation and the 6th month were compared. The timing and reasons for the discontinuation were also investigated. @*Results@#One hundred and fifty-four patients were included, and 92 patients, who received for more than 6 months, were analyzed. The changes in CDAI, BMI, Hb, and total cholesterol were significant as follows: CDAI from 38.52 to 30.53 (p<0.01), BMI (kg/m2 ) from 23.38 to 23.97 (p<0.01), Hb (g/dL) from 13.73 to 14.03 (p<0.01), and total cholesterol (mg/dL) from 154.9 to 161.5 (p<0.01). On the other hand, the changes in FC, CRP, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, total protein, and albumin were not statistically significant. Only one patient stopped due to a flare-up, but this was not believed to be related to the drug. @*Conclusions@#In patients with CD in remission, S. boulardii appears to improve the CDAI, BMI, serum Hb, and total cholesterol level without safety issues. Further randomized controlled studies will be needed.

20.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 114-124, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902618

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Since endoscopic findings of primary gastric lymphoma are ambiguous and diverse, it is not easy to distinguish them from gastric adenocarcinoma or secondary gastric lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in clinical and endoscopic features between primary gastric lymphoma and gastric involvement of lymphoma. @*Methods@#Forty-eight patients were enrolled in this retrospective study between June 2008 and February 2017. The patients were divided into primary gastric lymphoma group (primary group, n = 18) and gastric involvement group (secondary group, n = 30) based on whether or not they carried gastric lesions alone. Patients’ clinical characteristics, endoscopic findings and pathologic data were retrospectively reviewed based on electronic medical records. @*Results@#The mean age of patients was 63.3 ± 13.1 years and 29 patients were female (60.4%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma pathology (81.3%), gastric body involvement (47.9%) and ulceroinfiltrative morphology on endoscopy (43.8%) were common features. Regardless of the two groups, the initial endoscopic diagnosis was considered as lymphoma only in 41.7%. Compared with the primary group, fundus (P = 0.035) and regional lymph node (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with the secondary group. However, there was no significant difference in endoscopic findings including location, size, number, and morphology of lesion. @*Conclusions@#Endoscopic diagnosis of gastric lymphoma is a challenge. There is no difference in endoscopic findings between the primary and secondary groups even when confirmed separately. However, when the lesion is present in the fundus, we keep in mind the possibility of secondary gastric lymphoma.

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