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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 133-140, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919604

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is considered a gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. Some people show discordance in BMD values measured at the femur and that at the lumbar spine (LS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in BMD T-scores between the LS and femur neck (FN) are associated with renal dysfunction in the general population of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed national data for 17306 adults from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2011. BMD T-score differences between LS and FN (termed BMD offset) were calculated by subtracting FN T-scores from LS T-scores. Diminished renal function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . @*Results@#Among those aged ≥50 years, BMD offset was negatively associated with eGFR levels. Additionally, eGFR levels decreased linearly across increasing BMD offset quartiles. Men and women with an offset of >1.5 showed a 4.79-times and 2.51-times higher risk of renal dysfunction, respectively, compared to individuals with an offset of ≤0, after adjusting for age, body mass index, educational level, current smoking, and physical activity. In contrast, there was little evidence of an association between renal dysfunction and BMD offset in subjects aged <50 years. @*Conclusion@#Discordance between LS and FN BMDs was significantly associated with renal dysfunction in subjects aged ≥50 years. When assessing bone health in older chronic kidney disease patients, physicians should consider the possibility of BMD discordance between LS and FN.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919475

ABSTRACT

Background@#With the introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert), its incorporation into tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic algorithm has become an important issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Xpert assay in comparison with a commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. @*Methods@#Medical records of patients having results of both Xpert and AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time PCR (AdvanSure) assays using the same bronchial washing specimens were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Of the 1,297 patients included in this study, 205 (15.8%) were diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Using mycobacterial culture as the reference method, sensitivity of the Xpert assay using smear-positive specimens was 97.5%, which was comparable to that of the AdvanSure assay (96.3%, p=0.193). However, the sensitivity of the Xpert assay using smear-negative specimens was 70.6%, which was significantly higher than that of the AdvanSure assay (52.9%, p=0.018). Usng phenotypic drug susceptibility testing as the reference method, sensitivity and specificity for detecting rifampicin resistance were 100% and 99.1%, respectively. Moreover, a median turnaround time of the Xpert assay was 1 day, which was significantly shorter than 3 days of the AdvanSure assay (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#In comparison with the AdvanSure assay, the Xpert assay had a higher sensitivity using smear-negative specimens, a shorter turnaround time, and could reliably predict rifampin resistance. Therefore, the Xpert assay might be preferentially recommended over TB-PCR in Korean TB diagnostic algorithm.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918129

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm accounting less than 1% of malignant pancreatic tumors. A 47-year-old male patient visited the emergency room with epigastric pain. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4.7-cm heterogeneously enhanced solid and cystic mass with internal necrosis located in the head of the pancreas. Radiological diagnosis was borderline malignancy such as neuroendocrine tumor or solid pseudopapillary neoplasm. Two months later, the necrotic mass in the pancreas head had grown up to 11 cm, compressing the duodenum, superior mesenteric vein, and proximal transverse colon. Pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental resection of transverse colon was performed. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was pancreatic ACC. The patient recovered without any complication and was doing well without recurrence for 12 months after surgery.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926451

ABSTRACT

Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare benign disorder characterized by the proliferation of dense fibrous tissue within the mediastinum. It typically manifests as localized or infiltrative soft-tissue masses in the middle mediastinum or hilar area, which cause compression and encasement of adjacent mediastinal structures, such as the vessels or airway. Here, we report a rare case of fibrosing mediastinitis in a 13-year-old girl that presented as a middle mediastinal mass lesion on CT scan with obliterating left lower lobar bronchus. The patient’s symptoms and follow-up chest CT showed significant improvement following systemic corticosteroid treatment. As fibrosing mediastinitis can improve with systemic steroid therapy, radiologists must be aware of its radiologic findings when discriminating between infiltrating soft tissue lesions in the mediastinum.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926153

ABSTRACT

Background@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a relatively poor prognosis. Research has identified potential metabolic targets, including fatty acid metabolism, in TNBC. The absence of effective target therapies for TNBC led to exploration of the role of fatty acid synthetase (FASN) as a potential target for TNBC therapy. Here, we analyzed the expression of FASN, a representative lipid metabolism–related protein, and investigated the association between FASN expression and Ki-67 and the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) biomarkers in TNBC. @*Methods@#Immunohistochemical expression of FASN was analyzed in 166 patients with TNBC. For analytical purposes, patients with 0–1+ FASN staining were grouped as low-grade FASN and patients with 2–3+ FASN staining as high-grade FASN. @*Results@#FASN expression was observed in 47.1% of TNBC patients. Low and high expression of FASN was identified in 75.9% and 24.1%, respectively, and no statistically significant difference was found in T category, N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, or recurrence rate between the low and high-FASN expression groups. Ki-67 proliferation level was significantly different between the low and high-FASN expression groups. FASN expression was significantly related to Ki-67 as the level increased. There was no significant difference in PD-L1 positivity between the low- and high-FASN expression groups. @*Conclusions@#We identified FASN expression in 166 TNBC patients. The Ki-67 proliferation index was positively correlated with FASN level, indicating higher proliferation activity as FASN increases. However, there was no statistical association with PD-L1 SP142, the currently FDA-approved assay, or FASN expression level.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925071

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Brain organoids have the potential to improve our understanding of brain development and neurological disease. Despite the importance of brain organoids, the effect of vascularization on brain organoids is largely unknown. The objective of this study is to develop vascularized organoids by assembling vascular spheroids with cerebral organoids. @*Methods@#and Results: In this study, vascularized spheroids were generated from non-adherent microwell culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells. These vascular spheroids were used for fusion with iPSCs induced cerebral organoids. Immunostaining studies of vascularized organoids demonstrated well organized vascular structures and reduced apoptosis. We showed that the vascularization in cerebral organoids up-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. @*Conclusions@#We developed vascularized cerebral organoids through assembly of brain organoids with vascular spheroids. This method could not only provide a model to study human cortical development but also represent an opportunity to explore neurological disease.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924956

ABSTRACT

Background@#Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is associated with an elevated risk of fractures. However, little is known about the association between proteinuric or non-proteinuric DKD and the risk of hip fracture. Thus, we investigated the incidence of hip fractures among Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) stratified by DKD phenotype. @*Methods@#In this retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, patients with T2DM who received at least one general health checkup between 2009 and 2012 were followed until the date of hip fracture, death, or December 31, 2018. We classified the DKD phenotype by proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as follows: no DKD (PU−GFR−), proteinuric DKD with normal eGFR (PU+GFR−), non-proteinuric DKD with reduced eGFR (PU−GFR+), and proteinuric DKD with reduced eGFR (PU+GFR+) @*Results@#The cumulative incidence of hip fractures was highest in the PU+GFR+ group, followed by the PU−GFR+ group and the PU+GFR− group. After adjustment for confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for hip fracture was still highest in the PU+GFR+ group. However, the PU+GFR− group had a higher HR for hip fracture than the PU−GFR+ group (PU+GFR+ : HR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57 to 1.81; PU+GFR− : HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.46; PU−GFR+ : HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.24 using the PU−GFR− group as the reference category). @*Conclusion@#The present study demonstrated that DKD was significantly associated with a higher risk of hip fracture, with proteinuria as a major determinant.

8.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021043-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890599

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to identify relapse patterns in smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment program and to investigate factors related to relapse. @*METHODS@#The participants comprised 463 smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment operated by the Daejeon Tobacco Control Center from 2015 to 2018. Participants received high-intensity smoking cessation intervention for 5 consecutive days, including pharmacotherapy and behavioral support, and continued with follow-up for 1 year to determine whether they maintained smoking cessation after discharge from inpatient treatment. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. @*RESULTS@#Participants’ relapse rate within 1 year was 72.8%, and 59.8% of participants smoked again within 6 months after participation. A higher number of counseling sessions was significantly associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.32 for ≥9 vs. ≤5 counseling sessions). Conversely, higher relapse rates were significantly associated with the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.55 for use vs. no use), and higher levels of baseline expired carbon monoxide (CO) (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.06 for expired CO concentrations of 10-19 ppm vs. expired CO concentrations <10 ppm). @*CONCLUSIONS@#High-intensity smoking cessation interventions in hospital settings can be effective for smoking cessation in smokers with high nicotine dependence. In addition, the results suggest that for quitters to maintain long-term abstinence, they should receive regular follow-up counseling for 1 year after completing a high-intensity smoking cessation intervention.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875560

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic metastasis from malignant phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast is rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of pancreatic metastasis from malignant PT of the breast in a 48-year-old woman. She had had three episodes of recurrence of malignant PT in her right breast. She presented with epigastric pain for 2 months. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6 cm-sized, well-defined, heterogeneous mass with peripheral enhancement in the body of the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed, and the pathologic report suggested spindle cell mesenchymal neoplasm. Subsequently, surgical excision was performed, and the mass was confirmed as a metastatic malignant PT. The imaging findings are discussed and the literature is briefly reviewed in this report.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875148

ABSTRACT

Background@#Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is caused by the mutation of NPC genes, which leads to the abnormal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids in lysosomes. This autosomal recessive disease is characterized by liver dysfunction, hepatosplenomegaly, and progressive neurodegeneration. Recently, the application of induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), converted from fibroblasts using specific transcription factors, to repair degenerated lesions has been considered a novel therapy. @*Objectives@#The therapeutic effects on NPC by human iNSCs generated by our research group have not yet been studied in vivo; in this study, we investigate those effects. @*Methods@#We used an NPC mouse model to efficiently evaluate the therapeutic effect of iNSCs, because neurodegeneration progress is rapid in NPC. In addition, application of human iNSCs from NPC patient-derived fibroblasts in an NPC model in vivo can give insight into the clinical usefulness of iNSC treatment. The iNSCs, generated from NPC patientderived fibroblasts using the SOX2 and HMGA2 reprogramming factors, were transplanted by intracerebral injection into NPC mice. @*Results@#Transplantation of iNSCs showed positive results in survival and body weight change in vivo. Additionally, iNSC-treated mice showed improved learning and memory in behavior test results. Furthermore, through magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological assessments, we observed delayed neurodegeneration in NPC mouse brains. @*Conclusions@#iNSCs converted from patient-derived fibroblasts can become another choice of treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as NPC.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875123

ABSTRACT

Ewing sarcomas constitute a group of small, round, blue cell tumors of the bone and soft tissue. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from soft tissues, and it usually affects children and young adults. EES of the thoracopulmonary region commonly presents with a palpable mass or pain. Although rarely reported, EES affecting the anterior chest wall may present as a breast mass. We report a case of EES arising from the chest wall and manifesting as a palpable breast mass in a 22-year-old woman. The large mass was initially misdiagnosed as a breast origin mass on ultrasonography, but subsequent CT and MRI showed that the mass originated from the chest wall. Radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings of EES, and they should understand that chest wall lesions may be clinically confused as breast lesions.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874902

ABSTRACT

Salivary gland tumors are histologically diverse, and each entity has distinctive histopathological and molecular features. We report two cases of salivary gland tumors with unique histological and molecular findings, which have not been documented previously. The tumors were located in the base of the tongue in both patients. Most tumor cells were arranged in cords and nests, giving a trabecularlike appearance. Focally, glandular structures with intraluminal mucin and perivascular pseudorosette-like configurations were identified. Tumor cells had eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm, and showed mild nuclear atypia. They were positive for pancytokeratin and negative for S-100, p63, c-KIT, androgen receptor, and neuroendocrine markers. Multiple foci of capsular or lymphovascular invasion were identified, but the Ki-67 labeling index was low (< 5%). Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed concurrent alterations of MAML2 and EWSR1 gene. Further investigations with a larger number of cases with similar histological and molecular features will accurately classify this tumor.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874328

ABSTRACT

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and ubiquitous environmental toxin with known harmful effects to human health. Abnormal phenotypes of keratinocytes are closely associated with their exposure to B[a]P. Resorcinol is a component of argan oil with reported anticancer activities, but its mechanism of action and potential effect on B[a]P damage to the skin is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of resorcinol on B[a]P-induced abnormal keratinocyte biology and its mechanisms of action in human epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Resorcinol suppressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity as evidenced by the inhibition of B[a]P-induced xenobiotic response element (XRE)-reporter activation and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression. In addition, resorcinol attenuated B[a]P-induced nuclear translocation of AhR, and production of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We also found that resorcinol increased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activity. Antioxidant response element (ARE)-reporter activity and expression of ARE-dependent genes NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were increased by resorcinol. Consistently, resorcinol treatment induced nuclear localization of Nrf2 as seen by Western analysis. Knockdown of Nrf2 attenuated the resorcinol effects on ARE signaling, but knockdown of AhR did not affect resorcinol activation of Nrf2. This suggests that activation of antioxidant activity by resorcinol is not mediated by AhR. These results indicate that resorcinol is protective against effects of B[a]P exposure. The mechanism of action of resorcinol is inhibition of AhR and activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant signaling. Our findings suggest that resorcinol may have potential as a protective agent against B[a]P-containing pollutants.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901398

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic collision tumors are rare neoplasm, and cases consisting of ductal adenocarcinoma with a neuroendocrine tumor, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with a neuroendocrine tumor, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm with a neuroendocrine tumor have been reported. We report a case of a rapidly growing pancreatic collision tumor consisting of desmoidtype fibromatosis and mucinous cystic neoplasm in a 30-year-old pregnant female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a pancreatic collision tumor consisting of desmoid-type fibromatosis and mucinous cystic neoplasm.

15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021043-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to identify relapse patterns in smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment program and to investigate factors related to relapse. @*METHODS@#The participants comprised 463 smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment operated by the Daejeon Tobacco Control Center from 2015 to 2018. Participants received high-intensity smoking cessation intervention for 5 consecutive days, including pharmacotherapy and behavioral support, and continued with follow-up for 1 year to determine whether they maintained smoking cessation after discharge from inpatient treatment. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. @*RESULTS@#Participants’ relapse rate within 1 year was 72.8%, and 59.8% of participants smoked again within 6 months after participation. A higher number of counseling sessions was significantly associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.32 for ≥9 vs. ≤5 counseling sessions). Conversely, higher relapse rates were significantly associated with the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.55 for use vs. no use), and higher levels of baseline expired carbon monoxide (CO) (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.06 for expired CO concentrations of 10-19 ppm vs. expired CO concentrations <10 ppm). @*CONCLUSIONS@#High-intensity smoking cessation interventions in hospital settings can be effective for smoking cessation in smokers with high nicotine dependence. In addition, the results suggest that for quitters to maintain long-term abstinence, they should receive regular follow-up counseling for 1 year after completing a high-intensity smoking cessation intervention.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898080

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAlthough studies have shown that obesity is associated with aeroallergen sensitization (atopy), controversy still exists. We aimed to investigate the association between metabolic status, obesity, and atopy stratified by sex and menopausal status.MethodsA total of 1,700 adults from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were classified into metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) by body mass index and insulin resistance. Atopy was defined as a positive response to at least one aeroallergen. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of immunoglobulin E (IgE) elevation or atopy in relation to the degree of metabolic abnormality and obesity.ResultsIn premenopausal women, total IgE was positively correlated with obesity and insulin resistance. MUNO participants had a higher risk of having elevated total IgE compared to MHNO participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.271; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.201 to 4.294), while MHO participants did not show a significant difference (OR, 1.435; 95% CI, 0.656 to 3.137) in premenopausal women. MUNO, but not MHO was also associated with atopy (OR, 2.157; 95% CI, 1.284 to 3.625). In men and postmenopausal women, there was no significant difference between metabolic status, obesity, and atopy among groups.ConclusionIncreased insulin resistance is associated with total IgE and atopy in premenopausal women but not in postmenopausal women or men.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893694

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic collision tumors are rare neoplasm, and cases consisting of ductal adenocarcinoma with a neuroendocrine tumor, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with a neuroendocrine tumor, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm with a neuroendocrine tumor have been reported. We report a case of a rapidly growing pancreatic collision tumor consisting of desmoidtype fibromatosis and mucinous cystic neoplasm in a 30-year-old pregnant female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a pancreatic collision tumor consisting of desmoid-type fibromatosis and mucinous cystic neoplasm.

18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920206

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The purpose of this study is to investigate the replacement of external sound processors and to help understand the economic burden experienced from cochlear implant users.Subjects and Method Among the 500 cases of cochlear implant surgery from 1992 to 2019, 336 cases from 311 patients who had used a cochlear implant for more than 1 year were enrolled. The period of cochlear implant use, replacement of the sound processor, the number, method, and reason of replacements were examined. @*Results@#One hundred sixty cases (47.62%) replaced the sound processor at least once. There were a total of 213 replacements made in 160 cases. The most common reason for replacing the sound processors was because it could not be repaired (71 replacements, 33.33%), with their period of use being an average of 12 years. The most common replacement method of the sound processors was by purchasing with medical insurance benefits (100 replacements, 46.95%), with the usage period being an average of 11 years and 4 months. @*Conclusion@#Cochlear implant users replaced the sound processor for various reasons and the period of using one sound processor was relatively short. About half of all replacement cases were made by applying for medical insurance benefits. Others purchased directly through a sales company and paid a relatively high cost. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the medical insurance for external sound processor of cochlear implants to include exchange times considering the economic burden of cochlear implant users.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915430

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies that have focused on the challenges faced by female surgeons, such as the gender pay gap, gender biases, lower likelihood of promotion, and gender differences in the perception of discrimination against women, are reviewed. A more comprehensive understanding of explicit and implicit gender discrimination and experiences and perceptions of discrimination is needed. This study aims to determine the current prevalence and degree of gender discrimination in the Korean Surgical Society and to compare the experiences and perceptions of gender discrimination between male and female surgeons. @*Methods@#We analyzed 400 responses from a survey sent to all members of the Korean Surgical Society. This electronic survey included 16 items on experiences of gender discrimination and 17 items on perceptions of gender discrimination. We conducted χ2 tests and binary logistic regression on the data regarding these experiences and perceptions of gender discrimination. @*Results@#Adjusted analyses found that female surgeons were more likely to experience gender discrimination than their male counterparts across all categories of discrimination. Further, adjusted analyses showed that female surgeons were more likely to confirm the presence of gender discrimination than male surgeons. @*Conclusion@#Female surgeons were more likely to experience implicit and explicit gender biases and discrimination throughout all stages of their career progression. We also discovered significant gender differences in the perception of gender discrimination, as well as the experience of it. Changing the male-dominated culture and raising awareness of gender biases and discrimination among male surgeons are crucial steps toward addressing gender discrimination in surgery.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915168

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with smoking relapse within six months after quit attempts among workers in small and medium-sized enterprises in South Korea. @*Methods@#The analysis was conducted for a total of 194 people who attempted to quit smoking by applying for a smoking cessation support service at the Regional Tobacco Control Center. The data used in the study were extracted from the Smoking Cessation Service Integrated Information System. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to identify variables associated with smoking relapse within six months’ time period. @*Results@#Smoking relapse rate within six months was 66.0%, and variables associated with relapse included the cases such as carbon monoxide (CO) at the time of registration (HR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.10~4.22 for CO ≥20 ppm or more vs.CO <10 ppm), the average number of cigarettes smoked per day (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00~1.07), and the number of counseling(HR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.54~0.67). @*Conclusion@#Smoking characteristics and counseling showed one of the strongest correlations with relapse within six months. This implies that it is necessary to understand the smoking characteristics and patterns of workers and to provide continuous smoking cessation counseling tailored to individual characteristics for effective smoking relapse prevention.

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