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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925379

ABSTRACT

Subglottic cysts are rare but can cause significant airway obstruction that potentially threatens infants’ lives. It is critically important to suspect subglottic cysts in infants with upper-airway obstructive symptoms because it can be treated effectively with only marsupialization without tracheostomy or complicated surgery. Here, we report an infant case of subglottic cyst, who showed prominent stridor and respiratory distress that abruptly progressed 2 months after extubation. The patient was born prematurely and had a history of endotracheal intubation in for a total of 16 days. He was stable with minimal stridor without respiratory distress until he was successfully discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. However, he showed abrupt progress in stridor and respiratory difficulty about 2 weeks after discharge. Laryngoscopic exam revealed multiple subglottic cysts obstructing the trachea, and all of them were successfully removed by marsupialization. No recurrence of subglottic cysts was observed for 12 months thereafter. Subglottic cysts should be primarily suspected in infants with stridor, especially with a history of prematurity and intubation. Increased awareness of this fatal but curable condition is needed for timely and proper management.

2.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 83-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902831

ABSTRACT

Treatment guidelines for postnatal cytomegalovirus (pCMV) infection in preterm have not been established yet. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, colitis, and sepsis-like disease are among the clinical manifestations, which range from moderate to serious. We present a case of autopsy diagnosed as pCMV infection in a premature infant delivered at gestational age of 24 weeks and 5 days. On the 7th and 14th days of birth, urinary CMV polymerase chain reaction samples were negative, ruling out congenital CMV infection. However, autopsy examination revealed that the patient had disseminated pCMV infection. CMV inclusion bodies were found in the majority of tissues, including the lung, liver, pancreas, breast, kidney, and adrenal gland, but not the placenta. The thymus exhibited significant cortical atrophy and T-cell immunodeficiency, possibly induced by dexamethasone treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia or by pCMV infection itself. If dexamethasone treatment is extended or high doses are considered, it may be beneficial to test the CMV infection status to prevent aggravation of infection. This case demonstrates that, despite the low prevalence, pCMV infection should be considered a differential diagnosis in preterm if other conditions or etiology cannot justify clinical deterioration.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900040

ABSTRACT

Background@#School-aged children born very preterm have been suggested to have worse cognitive and behavioral outcomes than children born full-term. Executive function (EF) is a higher level of cognitive function related to academic achievement. The present study aimed to evaluate the cognitive (including EF) and behavioral outcomes of Korean children born extremely preterm (EP) and to analyze any biological or socioeconomic risk factors for poor cognitive outcomes in this population. @*Methods@#A total of 71 infants weighing < 1,000 g at birth or born before 30 weeks of gestation (EP group) who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from 2008 to 2009 were included in this study and compared with 40 term-birth controls. The Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Advanced Test of Attention (ATA), Stroop test, Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used.Additionally, the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) were completed. Perinatal and demographic data were collected and analyzed. @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) score in the EP group was significantly lower than that of the term control group (89.1 ± 18.3 vs. 107.1 ± 12.7; P < 0.001).In the EP group, 26 (37%) children had an FSIQ score below 85, compared to only one child (3%) in the control group. Furthermore, the EP group showed significantly worse EF test results (ATA, Stroop test, CCTT, WCST). Except for the higher social immaturity subscore in the EP group, the K-CBCL and K-ARS scores were not different between the two groups. EP children who received laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) had an 8.8-fold increased risk of a low FSIQ score, and a 1-point increase in the discharge weight Z-score decreased the risk of a low FSIQ score by approximately half in this EP cohort. @*Conclusion@#This is the first Korean study to investigate the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children born EP. In the study cohort, EP children exhibited significantly lower FSIQ scores and EF than their full-term peers, and 37% of them had cognitive problems. Nonetheless, except for social immaturity, the behavioral problems werenot different in EP children. Severe ROP and low discharge weight Z-score were identified as independent risk factors for low FSIQ score after adjusting for birth weight.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Decellularized nerve allografting is one of promising treatment options for nerve defect. As an effort to develop more efficient nerve graft, recently we have developed a new decellularization method for nerve allograft. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of nerve graft decellularized by our newly developed method. @*METHODS@#Forty-eight inbred male Lewis rats were divided into two groups, Group I (autograft group, n = 25), Group II (decellularized isograft group, n = 23). Decellularized nerve grafts were prepared with our newly developed methods using amphoteric detergent and nuclease treatment. Serum cytokine level measurements at 0, 2, and 4 weeks and histologic evaluation for inflammatory cell infiltration at 6 and 16 weeks after nerve graft. @*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in mean maximum isometric tetanic force and weight of tibialis anterior muscle or ankle angle at toe-off phase between two groups at 6 and 16 weeks survival time points (p > 0.05). There was no inflammatory cell infiltration in either group and histomorphometric assessments of 6- and 16-week specimens of the isograft group did not differ from those in the autograft group with regard to number of fascicle, cross sectional area, fascicle area ratio, and number of regenerated nerve cells. @*CONCLUSION@#Based on inflammatory reaction, axonal regeneration, and functional outcomes, our newly developed decellularized nerve grafts were fairly biocompatible and had comparable effectiveness to autografts for nerve regeneration, which suggested it would be suitable for nerve reconstruction as an alternative to autograft.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Decellularized nerve allografting is one of promising treatment options for nerve defect. As an effort to develop more efficient nerve graft, recently we have developed a new decellularization method for nerve allograft. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of nerve graft decellularized by our newly developed method. @*METHODS@#Forty-eight inbred male Lewis rats were divided into two groups, Group I (autograft group, n = 25), Group II (decellularized isograft group, n = 23). Decellularized nerve grafts were prepared with our newly developed methods using amphoteric detergent and nuclease treatment. Serum cytokine level measurements at 0, 2, and 4 weeks and histologic evaluation for inflammatory cell infiltration at 6 and 16 weeks after nerve graft. @*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in mean maximum isometric tetanic force and weight of tibialis anterior muscle or ankle angle at toe-off phase between two groups at 6 and 16 weeks survival time points (p > 0.05). There was no inflammatory cell infiltration in either group and histomorphometric assessments of 6- and 16-week specimens of the isograft group did not differ from those in the autograft group with regard to number of fascicle, cross sectional area, fascicle area ratio, and number of regenerated nerve cells. @*CONCLUSION@#Based on inflammatory reaction, axonal regeneration, and functional outcomes, our newly developed decellularized nerve grafts were fairly biocompatible and had comparable effectiveness to autografts for nerve regeneration, which suggested it would be suitable for nerve reconstruction as an alternative to autograft.

6.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 83-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895127

ABSTRACT

Treatment guidelines for postnatal cytomegalovirus (pCMV) infection in preterm have not been established yet. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, colitis, and sepsis-like disease are among the clinical manifestations, which range from moderate to serious. We present a case of autopsy diagnosed as pCMV infection in a premature infant delivered at gestational age of 24 weeks and 5 days. On the 7th and 14th days of birth, urinary CMV polymerase chain reaction samples were negative, ruling out congenital CMV infection. However, autopsy examination revealed that the patient had disseminated pCMV infection. CMV inclusion bodies were found in the majority of tissues, including the lung, liver, pancreas, breast, kidney, and adrenal gland, but not the placenta. The thymus exhibited significant cortical atrophy and T-cell immunodeficiency, possibly induced by dexamethasone treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia or by pCMV infection itself. If dexamethasone treatment is extended or high doses are considered, it may be beneficial to test the CMV infection status to prevent aggravation of infection. This case demonstrates that, despite the low prevalence, pCMV infection should be considered a differential diagnosis in preterm if other conditions or etiology cannot justify clinical deterioration.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892336

ABSTRACT

Background@#School-aged children born very preterm have been suggested to have worse cognitive and behavioral outcomes than children born full-term. Executive function (EF) is a higher level of cognitive function related to academic achievement. The present study aimed to evaluate the cognitive (including EF) and behavioral outcomes of Korean children born extremely preterm (EP) and to analyze any biological or socioeconomic risk factors for poor cognitive outcomes in this population. @*Methods@#A total of 71 infants weighing < 1,000 g at birth or born before 30 weeks of gestation (EP group) who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from 2008 to 2009 were included in this study and compared with 40 term-birth controls. The Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Advanced Test of Attention (ATA), Stroop test, Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used.Additionally, the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) were completed. Perinatal and demographic data were collected and analyzed. @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) score in the EP group was significantly lower than that of the term control group (89.1 ± 18.3 vs. 107.1 ± 12.7; P < 0.001).In the EP group, 26 (37%) children had an FSIQ score below 85, compared to only one child (3%) in the control group. Furthermore, the EP group showed significantly worse EF test results (ATA, Stroop test, CCTT, WCST). Except for the higher social immaturity subscore in the EP group, the K-CBCL and K-ARS scores were not different between the two groups. EP children who received laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) had an 8.8-fold increased risk of a low FSIQ score, and a 1-point increase in the discharge weight Z-score decreased the risk of a low FSIQ score by approximately half in this EP cohort. @*Conclusion@#This is the first Korean study to investigate the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children born EP. In the study cohort, EP children exhibited significantly lower FSIQ scores and EF than their full-term peers, and 37% of them had cognitive problems. Nonetheless, except for social immaturity, the behavioral problems werenot different in EP children. Severe ROP and low discharge weight Z-score were identified as independent risk factors for low FSIQ score after adjusting for birth weight.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831540

ABSTRACT

Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a rare fatal disorder in which there is poor development of proximal tubules, leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequences. RTD occurs secondary to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade during the early stages of fetal development or due to autosomal recessive mutation of genes in the RAS pathway. A boy born at 33+1 weeks due to cord prolapse was found to be anuric and hypotensive. Pregnancy was complicated by severe oligohydramnios from gestational age 28+4 weeks. Abdominal sonography revealed diffuse globular enlargement of both kidneys with increased cortical parenchymal echogenicity. Infantogram showed a narrow thoracic cage and skull X-ray showed large fontanelles and wide sutures suggestive of ossification delay. Basal plasma renin activity was markedly elevated and angiotensin-converting enzyme was undetectable. Despite adequate use of medications, peritoneal dialysis, and respiratory support, he did not recover and expired on the 23rd day of life. At first, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was suspected, but severe oligohydramnios along with refractory hypotension, anuria, skull ossification delay and high renin levels made RTD suspicious. ACE gene analysis revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic variations of c.1454.dupC in exon 9 and c.2141dupA in exon 14, confirming RTD. Based on our findings, we propose that, although rare, RTD should be suspected in patients with severe oligohydramnios and refractory hypotension.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835779

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Duodenal atresia (DA) and atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) are well known ultrasonographic findings associated with Down syndrome. The risk of Down syndrome in fetuses with these anomalies has been reported as 30% to 40%. However, on the basis of our clinical experience, the risk of Down syndrome of DA may be lower in Korean population. To clarify this issue, we compared the risk of Down syndrome between cases with DA and AVSD. @*Materials and Methods@#The study population consisted of neonates who were confirmed as DA or AVSD by postnatal diagnosis. Postnatal diagnosis was made by surgery, postnatal echocardiography, or autopsy. Medical record was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#A total of 213 neonates with DA or AVSD were included: 67 cases with DA and 146 cases with AVSD. The risk of Down syndrome was 4.5% (3/67) in DA vs. 29.5% (43/146) in AVSD. When confining analysis to those whose karyotyping were not performed during antenatal period, the risk of Down syndrome were 7.9% (3/38) in DA and 35.4% (35/99) in AVSD. @*Conclusion@#The risk of Down syndrome in cases with DA was much lower in Korean population than previously reported risk in the literature. The significance of some antenatal sonographic markers for Down syndrome may be different according to ethnicity.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915017

ABSTRACT

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI, OMIM #242500) is one of the most severe skin diseases among the autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in newborns. Clinically, it is characterized by a typical appearance of generalized, thick, yellowish, hyperkeratotic plates with deep erythematous fissures on the skin. Herein, we present the case of a newborn girl with HI that was genetically confirmed by targeted gene panel analysis. The premature baby was encased in an opaque white membrane with erosion covering the skin of the entire body except the lips, with her hands and feet restricted by the membrane. Humidification, emollient, and retinoic acid treatment were started; the thick ichthyosis gradually peeled off and the underlying skin was only covered with thin scales. Targeted gene panel analysis using next-generation sequencing and validation with Sanger sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed compound heterozygous mutations of the ABCA12 gene (p.N1380S and a partial gene deletion encompassing exon 9). The parents were carriers for each of the identified mutations. Early recognition of the genetic etiology of congenital ichthyosis can, thus, facilitate genetic counseling for patients and their families.

11.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 155-161, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760586

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of early phosphorus intake on respiratory distress in extremely low-birth-weight infants (ELBWIs) with a high incidence of hypophosphatemia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to target 164 ELBWIs admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Birth characteristics, nutritional intake, and electrolyte levels during the first week were investigated as predictors that would affect the clinical outcomes. The correlations among invasive ventilation at postnatal age of 2 weeks, moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and phosphorous intake were analyzed. RESULTS: Hypophosphatemia (phosphorus level <4 mg/dL) was observed in 72.0% of the subjects. The rates of invasive ventilation (P=0.001) and moderate-to-severe BPD (P=0.005) were significantly lower in the high phosphorus intake group (≥0.7 mM/kg/day) than in the low phosphorus intake group (<0.7 mM/kg/day). Phosphorus intake during the first week was a significant factor affecting invasive ventilation at 2 weeks of age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.212; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.256 to 28.896; P=0.001) and moderate-to-severe BPD (adjusted OR, 3.402; 95% CI, 1.274 to 9.084; P=0.015). CONCLUSION: Early insufficient phosphorus intake confers a significantly higher risk with invasive ventilation at 2 weeks of age and moderate-to-severe BPD. Therefore, early sufficient phosphorus supply may improve respiratory outcomes in ELBWIs.


Subject(s)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Humans , Hypophosphatemia , Incidence , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Phosphorus , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Ventilation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improvements in perinatal intensive care have improved survival of extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) neonates, although the risk of acute abdomen has increased. The differential diagnosis resulting in abdominal surgery can be categorized into necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP), meconium-related ileus (MRI), and meconium non-related ileus (MNRI). The purpose of this study was to review our experience with abdominal surgery for ELBW neonates, and to evaluate characteristics and prognosis according to the differential diagnosis. METHODS: Medical records of ELBW neonates treated between 2003 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of 805 ELBW neonates, 65 (8.1%) received abdominal surgery. The numbers of cases by disease category were 29 for NEC, 18 for SIP, 13 for MRI, and 5 for MNRI. Ostoma formation was performed in 61 (93.8%) patients; primary anastomosis without ostoma was performed in 4 (6.2%). All patients without ostoma formation experienced re-perforation of the anastomosis site. Seven patients had 30-day postoperative mortality (6 had NEC). Long-term survival of the surgical and non-surgical groups was not statistically different. NEC was a poor prognostic factor for survival outcome (P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: Abdominal surgery for ELBW neonates is feasible. Ostoma formation can lead to reduced complications compared to primary anastomosis.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , Critical Care , Diagnosis, Differential , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Humans , Ileus , Infant, Newborn , Intestinal Perforation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meconium , Medical Records , Mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
13.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 161-169, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718343

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) on the inhospital outcomes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) infants. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with singletons born at 23⁺⁰ to 33⁺⁶ weeks of gestation at Seoul National University Hospital from 2007 to 2014. We compared clinical outcomes between infants who received ACS 2 to 7 days before birth (complete ACS), at 7 days (incomplete ACS), and those who did not receive ACS in IUGR and AGA infants. Multivariate logistic regression using Firth's penalized likelihood was performed. RESULTS: 304 neonates with 91 IUGR neonates were eligible. Among AGA neonates, mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 0.78), hypotension within 7 postnatal days (aOR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.64), and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.77) were lower in complete ACS group after adjusting for pregnancy induced hypertension and uncontrolled preterm labor. Mortality (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.78), hypotension (aOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.70), and severe BPD or death (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.92) were also lower in the incomplete ACS group. Among IUGR infants, after adjusting for birth weight and 5-minute Apgar score, inhaled nitric oxide use within 14 postnatal days was lower in both complete ACS (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.67) and incomplete ACS (aOR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.37) groups. CONCLUSION: ACS was not effective in reducing morbidities in IUGR preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Apgar Score , Birth Weight , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Hypotension , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Logistic Models , Mortality , Nitric Oxide , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Odds Ratio , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Steroids
14.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 178-185, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718045

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aim to assess the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III), Adaptive Behavior (AB) and Social-Emotional (SE) scales at 18 to 24 months of corrected age (CA) to examine their associations with school-age cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children born preterm. METHODS: Eighty-eight infants born with a very low birth weight ( < 1,500 g) or a gestational age of less than 32 weeks who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from 2008 to 2009 were included. Of the 88 children who completed school-age tests at 6 to 8 years of age, 37 were assessed using the Bayley-III, including the AB and SE scales, at 18 to 24 months of CA. Correlation, cross-tabulation, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to assess the longitudinal associations. RESULTS: A significant association was observed between communication scores on the Bayley-III AB scale at 18 to 24 months of CA and the Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (K-WISC) full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) at school age (r=0.531). The total behavior problem scores of the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) at school age were significantly negatively related to the Bayley-III SE and AB scales but not to the cognitive, language, or motor scales. CONCLUSION: Our findings encourage AB and SE assessments during the toddler stage and have important implications for the early identification of children in need of intervention and the establishment of guidelines for follow-up with high-risk infants.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Checklist , Child Behavior , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intelligence , Intensive Care, Neonatal , ROC Curve , Weights and Measures
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the number of high-risk neonates has increased in Korea, hospitals were reluctant to open or maintain neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) due to the low medical cost. Consequently, there were regional disparities in facilities, equipment, and neonatal health outcomes. For these reasons, the Korean government began to invest in neonatal care during the last decade. We identified the status of NICUs in Korea and assessed changes after the government-driven policies. METHODS: We surveyed 87 of 89 hospitals that operated NICUs in 2015. The questionnaire assessed the number of NICU beds, admission and mortality rates of very low birthweight infants (VLBWIs), personnel status, equipment and facilities, and available multidisciplinary approach. Current data was compared with the previous studies and changes in the status and function of the nationwide NICU from 2009 and 2011. RESULTS: During the last 7 years, there was an increase of 462 NICU beds, which met the required number estimated by the number of births and covered about 90% of regional VLBWI births. Status of facilities and equipment improved in all regions in Korea but there were still regional differences in multidisciplinary approach and human resources. The difference in odds ratios for mortality of VLBWI between regions decreased compared to 2009. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in regional disparities of neonatal care and mortality of premature babies with the government investment in Korea. Further supports are required for human resources and referral system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant Health , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Investments , Korea , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Referral and Consultation
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The location of the ulnar styloid process can be confusing because the radius and the hand rotate around the ulna. The purpose of this study was to identify the absolute location of the ulnar styloid process, which is independent of forearm pronation or supination, to use it as a reference for neutral forearm rotation on lateral radiographs of the wrist. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) images of 23 forearms taken with elbow flexion of 70° to 90° were analyzed. The axial CT images were reconstructed to be perpendicular to the distal ulnar shaft. The absolute location of the ulnar styloid process in this study was defined as the position of the ulnar styloid process on the axial plane of the ulnar head relative to the long axis of the humeral shaft with the elbow set in the position for standard lateral radiographs of the wrist. To identify in which direction the ulnar styloid is located on the axial plane of the ulnar head, the angle between “the line of humeral long axis projected on the axial plane of the ulna” and “the line passing the center of the ulnar head and the center of the ulnar styloid” was measured (ulnar styloid direction angle). To identify how volarly or dorsally the ulnar styloid should appear on the true lateral view of the wrist, the ratio of “the volar-dorsal diameter of the ulnar head” and “the distance between the volar-most aspect of the ulnar head and the center of the ulnar styloid” was calculated (ulnar styloid location ratio). RESULTS: The mean ulnar styloid direction angle was 12° dorsally. The mean ulnar styloid location ratio was 1:0.55. CONCLUSIONS: The ulnar styloid is located at nearly the ulnar-most (the opposite side of the humerus with the elbow flexed) and slightly dorsal aspects of the ulnar head on the axial plane. It should appear almost midway (55% dorsally) from the ulnar head on the standard lateral view of the wrist in neutral forearm rotation. These location references could help clinicians determine whether the forearm is in neutral or rotated position on an axial CT/magnetic resonance imaging scan or a lateral radiograph of the wrist.


Subject(s)
Elbow , Forearm , Hand , Head , Humerus , Pronation , Radius , Supination , Ulna , Wrist
17.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 102-108, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716434

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is rare but potentially fatal. The overall outcome is highly variable. This study aimed to identify a simple and dynamic parameter that helps predict the mortality of CDH patients in real time, without invasive tests. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 59 CDH cases. Maternal and fetal information included the gestational age at diagnosis, site of defect, presence of liver herniation, and lung-to-head ratio (LHR) at 20 to 29 weeks of gestational age. Information regarding postnatal treatment, including the number of days until surgery, the need for inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and survival, was collected. The highest respiratory severity score (RSS) within 24 hours after birth was also calculated. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that a younger gestational age at the initial diagnosis (P < 0.001), a lower LHR (P=0.001), and the presence of liver herniation (P=0.003) were prenatal risk factors for CDH mortality. The RSS and use of iNO and ECMO were significant factors affecting survival. In the multivariate analysis, the only remaining significant risk factor was the highest preoperative RSS within 24 hours after birth (P=0.002). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9375, with a sensitivity of 91.67% and specificity of 83.87% at the RSS cut-off value of 5.2. The positive and negative predictive values were 82.14% and 92.86%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Using the RSS as a prognostic predictor with simple calculations will help clinicians plan CDH management.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Gestational Age , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Liver , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Nitric Oxide , Parturition , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 178-181, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the association between immunoglobulin G (IgG) at birth and late-onset sepsis (LoS) in preterm infants. METHODS: Medical records of very-low-birth-weight infants, born at gestational age <28 weeks, between 2013 and 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of LoS (LoS vs. non-LoS), and IgG levels at 1 day, and at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after birth were investigated. IgG levels, other perinatal factors, and clinical factors were compared in the two groups. The relationship between IgG levels and mortality among infants in the LoS group was also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 105 infants were analyzed after exclusion of cases with early onset sepsis or death at < 72 hours of life. Gestational age in the LoS group was lower than in the non-LoS group (25.0±1.8 vs. 26.3±1.4 weeks, P=0.004). IgG levels at birth were similar between the two groups (236.4±96.4 vs. 282.0±104.7 mg/dL, P=0.078). Multivariate analysis showed that IgG at birth was not an independent risk factor for LoS. In the LoS group, IgG levels at birth were comparable between survivors and cases involving mortality. CONCLUSION: IgG levels at birth were not associated with the occurrence of LoS in extremely preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Gestational Age , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Infant , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Medical Records , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Parturition , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Survivors
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neurologic deficits after enucleation of schwannoma are not rare. To evaluate the neurologic deficits after surgical enucleation of schwannoma in the upper extremity, we performed a retrospective review of patients with surgically treated schwannoma over a 14-year period at a single institution. METHODS: Between March 2001 and September 2014, 103 patients underwent surgical enucleation for schwannomas; 36 patients of them had lesions in the upper extremity, and 2 out of 36 patients had multiple schwannomas. Each operation was performed by a single surgeon under loupe magnification. The postoperative neurological deficits were graded as major and minor in both immediate postoperatively and at last follow-up. The major deficit was defined as anesthesia or marked hypoesthesia, motor weakness of grade 3 or less and neuropathic pain. Minor deficit was defined as mild symptoms of mild hypoesthesia, paresthesia and motor weakness of grade 4 or more. RESULTS: There were 2 major (2 mixed nerve) and 12 minor (4 motor, 7 sensory, 1 mixed nerve) neurologic deficits after surgery. At the last follow-up, one major mixed neurologic deficit remained as major motor and minor sensory, and other major ones changed to mixed minor. And all minor deficits except 1 sensory deficit were recovered spontaneously. CONCLUSION: Even though high incidence rate of neurologic deficit after enucleation of schwannoma in the upper extremity (38.9%), about three fourths of them were recovered spontaneously. There were 3 permanent neurologic deficits, and one of them was major one. In some cases, surgeon cannot avoid to encounter a neurological deficit. So we recommend more delicate microscopic surgical procedure and preoperative planning and counseling. And surgery is indicated for only symptomatic lesions.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Counseling , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypesthesia , Incidence , Neuralgia , Neurilemmoma , Neurologic Manifestations , Paresthesia , Retrospective Studies , Upper Extremity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104372

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the mortality and in-hospital outcomes of preterm infants with < 28 weeks of gestation who received ibuprofen treatment according to the presence of clinical symptoms (any of oliguria, hypotension, or moderate to severe respiratory difficulty) attributable to hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) at the time of first ibuprofen treatment. In total, 91 infants born from April 2010 to March 2015 were included. Fourteen infants (15.4%) received ibuprofen treatment when there were clinical symptoms due to hsPDA (clinical symptoms group). In clinical symptoms group, infants were younger (25 [23–27] vs. 26 [23–27] weeks; P = 0.012) and lighter (655 [500–930] vs. 880 [370–1,780] grams; P < 0.001). Also, the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB)-II scores were higher and more infants received invasive ventilator care ≤ 2 postnatal days. More infants received multiple courses of ibuprofen in clinical symptoms group. Although the frequency of secondary patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was higher in the clinical symptoms group in the univariate analysis, after multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for the CRIB-II score, birthweight, birth year, and the invasive ventilator care ≤ 2 postnatal days, there were no significant differences in mortality, frequency of secondary ligation and in-hospital outcomes including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), BPD or death. Our data suggest that we can hold off on PDA treatment until the clinical symptoms become prominent.


Subject(s)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypotension , Ibuprofen , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Ligation , Logistic Models , Mortality , Oliguria , Parturition , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pregnancy , Ventilators, Mechanical
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