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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836656

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage is an effective treatment for acute cholecystitis in poor surgical candidates. Endoscopic gallbladder drainage procedures, such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage, endoscopic gallbladder stenting, and endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage, have been used as alternative treatments for acute cholecystitis. These procedures are associated with increased patient comfort and physiologic drainage. We report a case of endoscopic gallbladder stenting for acute cholecystitis in a 62-year-old male undergoing chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer. After endoscopic gallbladder stenting, the patient’s acute cholecystitis resolved and he was able to undergo scheduled chemotherapy. The inserted double-pigtail plastic stent will be left in situ permanently. The choice of drainage modality for acute cholecystitis will generally be based on resources, patient preferences, local expertise, and clinical context.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836655

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. The risk of developing pancreatic cancer increases with age. Pancreatic cancer is seen mostly in the elderly; patients under the age of 30 years are rare. Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include genetic mutations, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, and diabetes mellitus. We report a case of pancreatic cancer in a 27-year-old man without the PRSS1 mutation. Chronic pancreatitis and smoking may have contributed to the development of pancreatic cancer in this patient. We also conducted a literature review on early onset pancreatic cancer.

3.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 114-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836635

ABSTRACT

There are two forms of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Type 1 is associated with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related systemic fibro- inflammatory disease, whereas type 2 AIP is localized to the pancreas and not associated with IgG4. The number of children presenting with type 2 AIP has recently increased. Here, we report a case of type 2 AIP in a 16-year-old adolescent who presented with clinical acute pancreatitis and associated pancreatic masses. He was diagnosed with type 2 AIP based on pancreatic biopsy results showing granulocytic epithelial lesions and supportive radiological imaging and steroid responsiveness.

4.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 376-388, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832464

ABSTRACT

ymptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons are accompanied by movement disorders, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and akinesia. Non-human primate (NHP) models with PD play an essential role in the analysis of PD pathophysiology and behavior symptoms. As impairments of hand dexterity function can affect activities of daily living in patients with PD, research on hand dexterity function in NHP models with chronic PD is essential. Traditional rating scales previously used in the evaluation of animal spontaneous behavior were insufficient due to factors related to subjectivity and passivity. Thus, experimentally designed applications for an appropriate apparatus are necessary. In this study, we aimed to longitudinally assess hand dexterity function using hand dexterity task (HDT) in NHP-PD models. To validate this assessment, we analyzed the alteration in Parkinsonian tremor signs and the functionality of presynaptic dopaminergic neuron using positron emission tomography imaging of dopamine transporters in these models. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between HDT and DAT level was identified, but no local bias was found. The correlation with intention tremor signs was lower than the resting tremor. In conclusion, the evaluation of HDT may reflect behavioral symptoms of NHP-PD models. Furthermore, HDT was effectively used to experimentally distinguish intention tremors from other tremors.

5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 519-525, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938594

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to the difficulty of early diagnosis. Observation is recommended for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in elderly patients with risk factors such as newly diagnosed diabetes and chronic pancreatitis. A 66-year-old male suffered from acute pancreatitis of uncertain etiology. Initial pancreatic imaging showed a main pancreatic duct stricture at the pancreas body/tail junction and minimal duct dilatation without a visible mass. Eight months later, however, pancreatic imaging revealed a pancreatic mass at the previous stricture site with progression of the upstream duct dilation. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy, and a pathologic examination showed stage 1A pancreatic cancer with a predominantly intraductal spreading pattern. We report a case of stage 1A pancreatic cancer that initially manifested as acute obstructive pancreatitis, which enabled early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 109-119, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) has been debated because it may be a causative factor in adjuvant treatment delay and may subsequently increase the probability of recurrence. We investigated whether IBR was related to adjuvant treatment delay and survival outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the duration from operation to adjuvant treatment administration and survival outcomes according to IBR status among patients with breast cancer who underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy from January 2005 to December 2014. Propensity score matching was performed to balance the clinicopathologic baseline characteristics between patients who did and did not undergo IBR. RESULTS: Of 646 patients, 107 (16.6%) underwent IBR, and the median follow-up was 72 months. The median duration from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly longer in patients who underwent IBR than in those who did not (14 vs. 12 days, respectively, p = 0.008). Based on propensity score matching, patients who underwent IBR received adjuvant therapy 3 days later than those who did not (14 vs. 11 days, respectively, p = 0.044). The duration from surgery to post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, systemic recurrence-free survival, and overall survival were also not significantly different between the 2 groups (p = 0.427, p = 0.445, p = 0.269, and p = 0.250, respectively). In the case-matched cohort, survival outcomes did not change. CONCLUSION: IBR was associated with a modest increase in the duration from surgery to chemotherapy that was statistically but not clinically significant. Moreover, IBR had no influence on PMRT delay or survival outcomes, suggesting that it is an acceptable option for patients with non-metastatic breast cancer undergoing mastectomy.


Subject(s)
Breast Implants , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mammaplasty , Mastectomy , Propensity Score , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
7.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 458-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763781

ABSTRACT

The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206⁺ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68⁺ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Brain , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microglia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Primates , Stroke , Transforming Growth Factor beta
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
9.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 377-381, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763448

ABSTRACT

Colon interposition is a surgical procedure used for maintenance of luminal conduit after esophagectomy. Although epithelial neoplasia, such as adenoma and adenocarcinoma, may develop in the interposed colon, there are only few case reports on the condition. Due to the rarity of this condition, there is no definite consensus on recommending screening endoscopy for the early detection of neoplasia in the interposed colons. Here, we report a case of intramucosal adenocarcinoma in an interposed colon. Initial endoscopic resection for this tumor failed to accomplish complete resection. A subsequent endoscopic resection was performed 1 month later and complete resection was achieved. Based on our experience and recommendation on screening endoscopy for gastric cancer in Korea, we suggest that regular screening esophagogastroduodenoscopies should be performed following esophagectomy to detect early neoplasia in the stomach and interposed colon and avoid adverse results induced by delayed detection.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Colon , Consensus , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagectomy , Korea , Mass Screening , Phenobarbital , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 519-525, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786304

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to the difficulty of early diagnosis. Observation is recommended for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in elderly patients with risk factors such as newly diagnosed diabetes and chronic pancreatitis. A 66-year-old male suffered from acute pancreatitis of uncertain etiology. Initial pancreatic imaging showed a main pancreatic duct stricture at the pancreas body/tail junction and minimal duct dilatation without a visible mass. Eight months later, however, pancreatic imaging revealed a pancreatic mass at the previous stricture site with progression of the upstream duct dilation. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy, and a pathologic examination showed stage 1A pancreatic cancer with a predominantly intraductal spreading pattern. We report a case of stage 1A pancreatic cancer that initially manifested as acute obstructive pancreatitis, which enabled early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal , Constriction, Pathologic , Dilatation , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Male , Pancreas , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Prognosis , Risk Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this ex vivo study was to compare the antifungal activity of a synthetic peptide consisting of 15 amino acids at the C-terminus of human β-defensin 3 (HBD3-C15) with calcium hydroxide (CH) and Nystatin (Nys) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) biofilm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C. albicans were grown on cover glass bottom dishes or human dentin disks for 48 hr, and then treated with HBD3-C15 (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 µg/mL), CH (100 µg/mL), and Nys (20 µg/mL) for 7 days at 37℃. On cover glass, live and dead cells in the biomass were measured by the FilmTracer Biofilm viability assay, and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). On dentin, normal, diminished and ruptured cells were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results were subjected to a two-tailed t-test, a one way analysis variance and a post hoc test at a significance level of p = 0.05. RESULTS: C. albicans survival on dentin was inhibited by HBD3-C15 in a dose-dependent manner. There were fewer aggregations of C. albicans in the groups of Nys and HBD3-C15 (≥ 100 µg/mL). CLSM showed C. albicans survival was reduced by HBD3-C15 in a dose dependent manner. Nys and HBD3-C15 (≥ 100 µg/mL) showed significant fungicidal activity compared to CH group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Synthetic HBD3-C15 peptide (≥ 100 µg/mL) and Nys exhibited significantly higher antifungal activity than CH against C. albicans by inhibiting cell survival and biofilm.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Biofilms , Biomass , Calcium Hydroxide , Candida albicans , Cell Survival , Dentin , Glass , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nystatin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130032

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three acids on the microhardness of set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and root dentin, and cytotoxicity on murine macrophage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OrthoMTA (BioMTA) was mixed and packed into the human root dentin blocks of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm height. Four groups, each of ten roots, were exposed to 10% citric acid (CA), 5% glycolic acid (GA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and saline for five minutes after setting of the OrthoMTA. Vickers surface microhardness of set MTA and dentin was measured before and after exposure to solutions, and compared between groups using one-way ANOVA with Tukey test. The microhardness value of each group was analyzed using student t test. Acid-treated OrthoMTA and dentin was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell viability of tested solutions was assessed using WST-8 assay and murine macrophage. RESULTS: Three test solutions reduced microhardness of dentin. 17% EDTA demonstrated severe dentinal erosion, significantly reduced the dentinal microhardness compared to 10% CA (p = 0.034) or 5% GA (p = 0.006). 10% CA or 5% GA significantly reduced the surface microhardness of set MTA compared to 17% EDTA and saline (p < 0.001). Acid-treated OrthoMTA demonstrated microporous structure with destruction of globular crystal. EDTA exhibited significantly more cellular toxicity than the other acidic solutions at diluted concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Tested acidic solutions reduced microhardness of root dentin. Five minute's application of 10% CA and 5% GA significantly reduced the microhardness of set OrthoMTA with lower cellular cytotoxicity compared to 17% EDTA.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Citric Acid , Dentin , Edetic Acid , Humans , Macrophages , Pemetrexed
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU) and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB) under the same milling parameters. To assess the marginal and internal fit, the restorations were cemented to replicas and were embedded in an acrylic mold for sectioning at 0.5 mm intervals. The measured gap data were pooled according to the block types and measuring points for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Both the block type and measuring point significantly affected gap values, and their interaction was significant (p = 0.000). In crowns and inlays made from the two blocks, gap values were significantly larger in the occlusal area than in the axial area, while gap values in the marginal area were smallest (p < 0.001). Among the blocks, the restorations milled from EB had a significantly larger gap at all measuring points than those milled from LU (p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The marginal and internal gaps of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks differed according to the measuring points. Among the internal area of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations, occlusal gap data were significantly larger than axial gap data. The EB crowns and inlays had significantly larger gaps than LU restorations.


Subject(s)
Computer-Aided Design , Crowns , Fungi , Humans , Inlays , Molar , Tooth
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three acids on the microhardness of set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and root dentin, and cytotoxicity on murine macrophage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OrthoMTA (BioMTA) was mixed and packed into the human root dentin blocks of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm height. Four groups, each of ten roots, were exposed to 10% citric acid (CA), 5% glycolic acid (GA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and saline for five minutes after setting of the OrthoMTA. Vickers surface microhardness of set MTA and dentin was measured before and after exposure to solutions, and compared between groups using one-way ANOVA with Tukey test. The microhardness value of each group was analyzed using student t test. Acid-treated OrthoMTA and dentin was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell viability of tested solutions was assessed using WST-8 assay and murine macrophage. RESULTS: Three test solutions reduced microhardness of dentin. 17% EDTA demonstrated severe dentinal erosion, significantly reduced the dentinal microhardness compared to 10% CA (p = 0.034) or 5% GA (p = 0.006). 10% CA or 5% GA significantly reduced the surface microhardness of set MTA compared to 17% EDTA and saline (p < 0.001). Acid-treated OrthoMTA demonstrated microporous structure with destruction of globular crystal. EDTA exhibited significantly more cellular toxicity than the other acidic solutions at diluted concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Tested acidic solutions reduced microhardness of root dentin. Five minute's application of 10% CA and 5% GA significantly reduced the microhardness of set OrthoMTA with lower cellular cytotoxicity compared to 17% EDTA.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Citric Acid , Dentin , Edetic Acid , Humans , Macrophages , Pemetrexed
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU) and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB) under the same milling parameters. To assess the marginal and internal fit, the restorations were cemented to replicas and were embedded in an acrylic mold for sectioning at 0.5 mm intervals. The measured gap data were pooled according to the block types and measuring points for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Both the block type and measuring point significantly affected gap values, and their interaction was significant (p = 0.000). In crowns and inlays made from the two blocks, gap values were significantly larger in the occlusal area than in the axial area, while gap values in the marginal area were smallest (p < 0.001). Among the blocks, the restorations milled from EB had a significantly larger gap at all measuring points than those milled from LU (p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The marginal and internal gaps of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks differed according to the measuring points. Among the internal area of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations, occlusal gap data were significantly larger than axial gap data. The EB crowns and inlays had significantly larger gaps than LU restorations.


Subject(s)
Computer-Aided Design , Crowns , Fungi , Humans , Inlays , Molar , Tooth
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358131

ABSTRACT

The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n=5) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n=5). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman's correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (ρ=-0.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order: AH Plus<Sealapex<Capseal (P<0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time- and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.


Subject(s)
Materials Testing , Rheology , Root Canal Filling Materials , Temperature , Viscosity
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan) or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.). The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1), J1 (JT-5B / Power-1), K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4), and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4). The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05). The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.


Subject(s)
Dentin , Diamond , Microscopy, Confocal , Tooth , Ultrasonics
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358202

ABSTRACT

A previous study demonstrated that alexidine has greater affinity for the major virulence factors of bacteria than chlorhexidine. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of 1% alexidine with that of 2% chlorhexidine using Enterococcus faecalis-infected dentin blocks. Sixty bovine dentin blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups of 10 each. E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 dentin blocks using the Luppens apparatus for 24 h and then the dentin blocks were soaked in 2% chlorhexidine or 1% alexidine solutions for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Sterile saline was used as a control. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed by counting the number of bacteria adhering to the dentin surface and observing the degradation of bacterial shape or membrane rupture under a scanning electron microscope. Significantly fewer bacteria were observed in the 2% chlorhexidine- or 1% alexidine-soaked groups than in the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria adhering to the dentinal surface between the two experimental groups or between the two soaking time groups (P>0.05). Ruptured or antiseptic-attached bacteria were more frequently observed in the 10-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups than in the 5-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups. In conclusion, 10-min soaking with 1% alexidine or 2% chlorhexidine can be effective against E. faecalis infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacterial Adhesion , Bacterial Load , Biguanides , Pharmacology , Cattle , Cell Membrane , Chlorhexidine , Pharmacology , Dentin , Microbiology , Enterococcus faecalis , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Random Allocation , Time Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy of different final irrigation regimens in canal and isthmus of mandibular molars, and to evaluate the influence of related variables on cleaning efficacy of the irrigation systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mesial root canals from 60 mandibular molars were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups according to the final irrigation technique: Group C, syringe irrigation; Group U, ultrasonics activation; Group SC, VPro StreamClean irrigation; Group EV, EndoVac irrigation. Cross-sections at 1, 3 and 5 mm levels from the apex were examined to calculate remaining debris area in the canal and isthmus spaces. Statistical analysis was completed by using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test for comparison among groups, and multivariate linear analysis to identify the significant variables (regular replenishment of irrigant, vapor lock management, and ultrasonic activation of irrigant) affecting the cleaning efficacy of the experimental groups. RESULTS: Group SC and EV showed significantly higher canal cleanliness values than group C and U at 1 mm level (p < 0.05), and higher isthmus cleanliness values than group U at 3 mm and all levels of group C (p < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that all variables had independent positive correlation at 1 mm level of canal and at all levels of isthmus with statistical significances. CONCLUSIONS: Both VPro StreamClean and EndoVac system showed favorable result as final irrigation regimens for cleaning debris in the complicated root canal system having curved canal and/or isthmus. The debridement of the isthmi significantly depends on the variables rather than the canals.


Subject(s)
Debridement , Dental Pulp Cavity , Linear Models , Molar , Multivariate Analysis , Syringes , Tooth , Ultrasonics
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