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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 188-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966683

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is a relatively specific test for bipolar disorders designed to assess the main functioning problems experienced by patients. This brief instrument includes 24 items assessing impairment or disability in 6 domains of functioning: autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time. It has already been translated into standardized versions in several languages. The aim of this study is to measure the validity and reliability of the Korean version of FAST (K-FAST). @*Methods@#A total of 209 bipolar disorder patients were recruited from 14 centers in Korea. K-FAST, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered, and psychometric analysis of the K-FAST was conducted. @*Results@#The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the K-FAST was 0.95. Test-retest reliability analysis showed a strong correlation between the two measures assessed at a 1-week interval (ICC = 0.97; p < 0.001). The K-FAST exhibited significant correlations with GAF (r = −0.771), WHOQOL-BREF (r = −0.326), YMRS (r = 0.509) and BDRS (r = 0.598). A strong negative correlation with GAF pointed to a reasonable degree of concurrent validity. Although the exploratory factor analysis showed four factors, the confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaires had a good fit for a six factors model (CFI = 0.925; TLI = 0.912; RMSEA = 0.078). @*Conclusion@#The K-FAST has good psychometric properties, good internal consistency, and can be applicable and acceptable to the Korean context.

2.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 145-153, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002923

ABSTRACT

Patients frequently report that stress causes or exacerbates gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, indicating a functional relationship between the brain and the GI tract. The brain and GI tract are closely related embryologically and functionally, interacting in various ways. The concept of the brain–gut axis was originally established in the 19th and early 20th centuries based on physiological observations and experiments conducted in animals and humans. In recent years, with the growing recognition that gut microbiota plays a vital role in human health and disease, this concept has been expanded to the brain–gut–microbiota axis. The brain influences the motility, secretion, and immunity of the GI tract, with consequent effects on the composition and function of the gut microbiota. On the other hand, gut microbiota plays an essential role in the development and function of the brain and enteric nervous system. Although knowledge of the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota influences distant brain function is incomplete, studies have demonstrated communication between these organs through the neuronal, immune, and endocrine systems. The brain–gut–microbiota axis is an essential aspect of the pathophysiology of functional GI disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, and is also involved in other GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review summarizes the evolving concept of the brain–gut–microbiota axis and its implications for GI diseases, providing clinicians with new knowledge to apply in clinical practice.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 377-385, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000116

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has acted as a significant stressor among individuals, causing a variety of psychological problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of stress caused by COVID-19 by translating and validating the Pandemic Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in Korean, which measures stressful event caused by COVID-19. @*Methods@#A statistical analysis was performed on 167 participants. The scale’s internal consistency was verified using Cronbach’s α. Furthermore, a correlation analysis was carried out to examine the relationships between Perceived Stress Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form. Lastly, a multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of pandemic-related stressful events on depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. @*Results@#Cronbach’s α for Korean version of PSQ (K-PSQ) Severity was 0.79, and that for K-PSQ Event was 0.78. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that pandemic stress events have an effect on anxiety and somatic symptoms. @*Conclusion@#The K-PSQ is a tool in which individuals can simultaneously measure the occurrence of stressful events caused by COVID-19 and the severity of stress that is often experienced as a result. It is expected that this tool will be useful in the mental health field for measuring COVID-19-related stress.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 447-456, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop an evidence-based guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia by adapting existing high-quality clinical guidelines with a view to improve the clinical symptoms and long-term quality of life of patients by providing appropriate management. @*Methods@#This guideline was developed according to the ADAPTE methodology. The adaptation process included determining key health questions, systematically searching and screening guidelines, evaluating the quality and contents of these guidelines, deriving recommendations for key questions, and performing a peer review. The selection criteria for the guideline search were (1) evidence-based guidelines, (2) published within the last 5 years, and (3) written in English or Korean. @*Results@#After evaluating the quality and content, we finally selected three guidelines for adaptation. The final output of the development process was 25 recommendations for 10 key questions. We adopted the Agency for Health Research Quality methodology and presented the level of evidence from levels I to IV. In addition, we defined the recommendation grades from grade A (strongly recommended) to D (no recommendation) based on the level of evidence and clinical significance of the recommendation. @*Conclusion@#The development and dissemination of the adapted guideline is expected to increase the certainty of medical decision making and improve the quality of medical care. Further studies on the effectiveness and applicability of the developed guideline are necessary.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 85-91, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926907

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to assess the psychosocial characteristics of the employees working at a university hospital and investigated the factors affecting their quality of life (QOL) under COVID-19. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 1,191 healthcare workers from a university hospital, including doctors, nurses, administrative officer and technicians. Besides demographic information, depression, anxiety, somatization, insomnia, resilience, and QOL were assessed. @*Results@#The nurses presented significantly higher scores for anxiety, depression and showed significantly higher insomnia scores and significantly lower resilience scores. The occupations showed significant differences in the QOL and sub-groups, including the overall quality of life and general health (F=4.774, p<0.001), psychological domain (F=6.230, p<0.001), and environment domain (F=5.254, p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the QOL and resilience (r=0.608, p<0.01). However, depression (r=-0.502, p<0.01), anxiety (r=-0.425, p<0.01), somatization (r=-0.364, p<0.01), and insomnia (r=-0.385, p<0.01) showed negative correlations with the QOL. Resilience was the most important factor influencing the QOL. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study showed that low resilience adversely affected the QOL and the mental health of the healthcare workers, which consequently had a direct effect on the quality of medical care given to patients.

6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 37-50, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924836

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) first was published in 2002, and has been revised four times, in 2006, 2012, 2017, and 2021. In this review, we compared recommendations from the recently revised KMAP-DD 2021 to four global clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression published after 2010. The recommendations from the KMAP-DD 2021 were similar to those from other CPGs, although there were some differences. The KMAP-DD 2021 reflected social culture and the healthcare system in Korea and recent evidence about pharmacotherapy for depression, as did other recently published evidence-based guidelines. Despite some intrinsic limitations as an expert consensus-based guideline, the KMAP-DD 2021 can be helpful for Korean psychiatrists making decisions in clinical settings by complementing previously published evidence-based guidelines, especially for some clinical situations lacking evidence from rigorously designed clinical trials.

7.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 65-67, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968344

ABSTRACT

Blood valproic acid levels were decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury who had been using valproic acid to control irritability and aggression, and the symptoms worsened coincident with the administration of meropenem, a carbapenem-based antibiotic. Two weeks after the discontinuation of meropenem, valproic acid levels were restored to an effective therapeutic concentration. Therefore, when valproic acid and carbapenem-based antibiotics are used together, blood valproic acid levels may decrease due to drug interaction, and irritability symptoms may worsen. Thus, close monitoring of serum valproic acid levels is required.

8.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 15-22, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968343

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of dry mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in antidepressant patients. @*Methods@#The study included 103 antidepressant-taking patients. Antidepressants were classified according to their mode of action. The GI disorders were investigated using the medical records of the patients. The Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and a questionnaire for assessing dry mouth symptoms were used in this study. @*Results@#The score for “overall discomfort due to dry mouth in daily life” (31.72±33.82), “dry mouth at night or in the morning” (47.86±35.87), and “dry mouth during the day” (39.83±31.67) were slightly higher than “discomfort in chewing or swallowing foods”. According to somatization severity, the mean values were 116.36±113.34 in the mild, 213.18±136.98 in the moderate, and 277.59±201.44 in the severe, the between-group difference was significant (F=10.294, p<0.001). According to the class of antidepressants, the mean score was 180.00±147.5 for vortioxetine, 194.25±169.33 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 223.61±156.70 for serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), 75.00±57.00 for norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), 201.67±174.66 for Nassau, and 116.67±132.03 for agomelatine. A total of 67 (65.0%) patients had at least one GI disorder. @*Conclusion@#The study findings are expected to help increase medication compliance in antidepressant patients by better controlling the side effects experienced by the patients.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1137-1143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918719

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are growing interests on suicide risk screening in clinical settings and classifying high-risk groups of suicide with suicidal ideation is crucial for a more effective suicide preventive intervention. Previous statistical techniques were limited because they tried to predict suicide risk using a simple algorithm. Machine learning differs from the traditional statistical techniques in that it generates the most optimal algorithm from various predictors. @*Methods@#We aim to analyze the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles of child and adolescent patients who received outpatient psychiatric care using machine learning techniques, such as logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB), to develop and validate a classification model for individuals with high suicide risk. @*Results@#We developed prediction models using seven relevant features calculated by Boruta algorithm and subsequently tested all models using the testing dataset. The area under the ROC curve of these models were above 0.9 and the RF model exhibited the best performance. @*Conclusion@#Suicide must be assessed based on multiple aspects, and although Personality Assessment Inventory for Adolescent assess an array of domains, further research is needed for predicting high suicide risk groups.

10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1164-1170, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918715

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to understand borderline personality disorder (BPD) features by employing the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). @*Methods@#A total of 156 psychiatric patients completed PSY-5 scales of MMPI-2 and Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Subscale (PAI-BOR). Pearson’s partial correlation analysis was conducted to control the impact of age and gender and to determine the relationship between PSY-5 scales and BOR. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was implemented to examine whether PSY-5 scales predicted the BOR-total, and a path analysis was performed to determine whether PSY-5 scales predicted each PAI-BOR subscale. @*Results@#The BOR-total score had a significant correlation with all PSY-5 scores, even after controlling for age and gender. However, only aggressiveness (AGGR), disconstraint (DISC), negative emotionalityeuroticism (NEGE), and introversion/low positive emotionality (INTR), excluding psychoticism (PSYC), significantly predicted BOR-total. The path analysis indicates that PSYC did not predict any BOR subscale, while NEGE predicted all BOR subscales. @*Conclusion@#The study findings indicate that NEGE best reflects BPD features, while PSYC is far from the core domain that describes BPD. In addition, the influence of age should be considered when understanding BPD, since age predicted the BOR-total and two BOR subscales.

11.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 58-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918169

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The purpose of this study is to compare the psychosocial characteristics of patients diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) by classifying them into irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), functional constipation (FC), functional heartburn (FH) groups, and overlap group (two or more functional diseases) and to examine the factors associated with the quality of life (QoL) of patients with FGID. @*Methods@#:A total of 144 patients who were diagnosed with FGID were selected as the subjects. The demographical factors were investigated; Korean-Beck Depression Inventory-II (K-BDI-II), Korean-Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), Korean version of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ), Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Korean Version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to evaluate the psychosocial factors. @*Results@#:TThe overlap group had a significantly higher K-BDI-II score (F=11.09, p<0.001) and K-BAI score (F=8.93, p<0.001) compared to other groups. In childhood trauma, the IBS patients had a difference in emotional neglect (F=2.54, p=0.04) than the FD patients. The QoL of FGID patients had a negative correlation with depression (r=-0.196, p<0.01), anxiety (r=-0.235, p<0.01), and childhood trauma (r=-0.222, p<0.01), and a positive correlation with social support (r=0.512, p<0.01) and resilience (r=0.581, p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#:Overlap group had a higher level of depression and anxiety, and the IBS patient group had a higher level of emotional neglect than the FD patient group in terms of childhood trauma.

12.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 77-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918159

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most prevalent oncological disease among women. Various psychosocial distress is common at the diagnosis, treatment, and posttreatment phase of breast cancer. For the treatment of breast cancer, not only medical treatment but also psychosomatic integrative care will be needed. Patients with breast cancer may lead to increased vulnerability to stress, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorder, and depressive disorder, and these psychiatric diseases and conditions are associated with recurrence or exacerbation of breast cancer. Psychosocial treatment of anxiety and depression could increase the quality of life of patients and decrease the recurrence and progression of breast cancer. In this article, we reviewed 5 clinical breast cancer survivorship guidelines focused on psychosomatic integrative care including psychosocial treatment and alternative treatment for psychosocial distress. Because 5 treatment guidelines were using various definitions of evidence, we confirmed evidence of various psychosocial treatments for patients with breast cancer based on the definition of evidence by the US Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) guideline. We also reviewed the effect size of psychosocial treatment for anxiety, depression, mood, and quality of life in patients with breast cancer. This article discusses the barrier to the delivery of psychosomatic integrative care and suggests integrative care planning for breast cancer. Multi-disciplinary teams, patient’s needs assessment, information technology support, patient and caregiver engagement, planned periodic monitoring of psychosocial distress by a psychosomatic specialist or consultation-liaison psychiatrist are recommended as key features of a psychosomatic integrated care plan.

13.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 258-266, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915569

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#An expert consensus guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD), was first established in 2002 and updated in 2017. To provide an up-to-date treatment guideline, KMAP-DD 2021 was recently completed. This study was undertaken to provide a guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder in a selected population that included females and elderly. @*Methods@#The survey conducted consisted of 7 questionnaires for each population, females and elderly, with depressive disorder. A total of 65 of 97 experienced psychiatrists answered the survey. @*Results@#For the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine were recommended as first-line therapies. For major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy, antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was recommended as a first-line therapy for mild to moderate and severe depression, and combined electroconvulsive therapy and AD with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression with psychotic features. AD plus AAP was generally recommended for post-partum depression. In elderly with depression, AD monotherapy was recommended as the treatment of choice for mild to moderate episodes, and AD monotherapy and AD plus AAP were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression without psychotic features. Lastly, AD plus AAP was chosen as the treatment of choice for psychotic depression. @*Conclusion@#Present study provides an updated algorithm for the treatment of females and elderly with depressive disorders. This algorithm provides a practical aid to clinicians for the treatment of females and elderly with MDD.

14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 267-274, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915568

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To revise Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2017 (KMAPDD 2017) guidelines by revising antidepressant choices based on their safety, adverse effects, comorbid physical illnesses, and the clinical definition of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). @*Methods@#A 33-item questionnaire comprised of six parts was developed. A 65-expert consensus (65/97, 67.0%) was obtained on pharmacological treatment strategies regarding antidepressant choice with respect to safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses. Multiple response sets were subjected to statistical analysis. @*Results@#The results obtained showed that first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategies based on various clinical considerations were as follows: mirtazapine (for patients with increased suicidality, Gastrointestinal discomfort, and insomnia), bupropion (for patients with orthostatic hypotension, history of a safety accident, serotonin syndrome, sedation, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain), and escitalopram (for patients with anticholinergic side effects). For patients exhibiting comorbid conditions, duloxetine was the first line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for chronic pain, escitalopram was the first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, Parkinson’s disease, renal disease, epilepsy, and thyroid disease, and sertraline was a first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for arrhythmia and cardiovascular disease. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacological treatment strategy of KMAP-DD 2021 is similar to that of KMAPDD 2017. Additional study is required to determine antidepressant choices for TRD and cancer patients with depression.

15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 275-283, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915567

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was made to update new researches and data. This study focused on non-pharmacological biological treatments. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with extensive clinical experience in the non-pharmacological biological treatment of depressive disorder were primary selected and a questionnaire was sent to each of them by mail, 65 of the 97 replied. @*Results@#Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was recommended as an initial strategy for major depressive disorder, severe depressive disorder with/without psychotic features with urgent suicidal risk, or a severe depressive episode with psychotic features in pregnant patients, for non-responders on pharmacotherapy for a moderate depressive episode, and as a second strategy for non-responders on antidepressant monotherapy or combination therapy combined with physical illness. For pregnant women with a severe episode of major depressive disorder, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was preferred as a first-line strategy, and as a second strategy for non-responders on combined antipsychotic and antidepressant therapy and non-responders with comorbidity and physical illness. Complementary or novel treatment was not recommended as the first-line treatment strategy for depressive disorder, but transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy were second-line treatment strategies. @*Conclusion@#ECT and rTMS are initial strategies in specific clinical situations. Preferences for complementary or novel treatments such as tDCS, light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy have increased gradually, but in practice, their usages are still limited.

16.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 751-772, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the 19 years since the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the Korean Society for Affective Disorders developed the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) in 2002, four revisions have been conducted. @*Methods@#To increase survey efficiency in this revision, to cover the general clinical practice, and to compare the results with previous KMAP-DD series, the overall structure of the questionnaire was maintained. The six sections of the questionnaire were as follows: 1) pharmacological treatment strategies for major depressive disorder (MDD) with/without psychotic features; 2) pharmacological treatment strategies for persistent depressive disorder and other depressive disorder subtypes; 3) consensus for treatment-resistant depression; 4) the choice of an antidepressant in the context of safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses; 5) treatment strategies for special populations (children/adolescents, elderly, and women); and 6) non-pharmacological biological therapies. Recommended first-, second-, and third-line strategies were derived statistically. @*Results@#There has been little change in the four years since KMAP-DD 2017 due to the lack of newly introduced drug or treatment strategies. However, shortened waiting time between the initial and subsequent treatments, increased preference for atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), especially aripiprazole, and combination strategies with AAPs yield an active and somewhat aggressive treatment trend in Korea. @*Conclusion@#We expect KMAP-DD to provide clinicians with useful information about the specific strategies and medications appropriate for treating patients with MDD by bridging the gap between clinical real practice and the evidence-based world.

17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 332-339, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903170

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has psychological effects such as anxiety and depression as well as direct infection in people. The Fear of COVID-19 scale is a scale that can measure anxiety related to COVID-19 in a short time. The purpose of this study was to verify the reliability and validity the Korean version of Fear of COVID-19 scale (KF-COVID-19S). @*Methods@#The data of total 186 normal adults and 17 patients were finally used for the statistical analysis. For internal consistency, Cronbach’s α was calculated. For concurrent and discriminant validity, the correlations with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOLBREF) were analyzed. For construct validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. @*Results@#Cronbach alpha was 0.88. The two-factor model (factor 1: Physical fear, factor 2: Emotional fear) showed significantly positive correlations and appeared to be “good” fitness (CFI=0.906, IFI=0.907, NFI=0.902). @*Conclusion@#The KF-COVID-19S can be a useful scale that can measure the physical and emotional fears associated with COVID-19 in a short time. Because the psychiatric patients are a more vulnerable group to the fear, it is thought that the KF-COVID-19S will help to determine the patient’s level of anxiety and make a therapeutic plan for the underlying mental disorder.

18.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 174-185, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900084

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

19.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 186-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900083

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

20.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 193-203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900082

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was a revision of previous works. The main purpose of the current study was to amend guidelines for the treatment of a major depressive disorder (MDD) for children and adolescents. @*Methods@#The survey consisted of 21 questionnaires for children and adolescents. A total of 33 of the 46 experts in child and adolescent psychiatry answered the survey. @*Results@#Antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was selected as the 1st line option for MDD with mild to moderate severity. As the 1st line of treatment for MDD severe without psychotic features in children and adolescents, AD monotherapy and AD augmented with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended. For MDD with psychotic features, AD augmented with AAP was preferred as the 1st line of treatment. @*Conclusion@#We developed an algorithm for child and adolescent populations with depressive disorders, more specifically than the KMAP-DD 2017. We expect this algorithm will provide clinicians useful information and help in the treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders.

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