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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899934

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective and objective olfactory function in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and the effect of olfactory training. @*Methods@#A prospective cohort study was performed in 53 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and visited our tertiary hospital. Subjective olfactory function was evaluated using the 11-point Likert scale (0–10) and the Korean version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD). Objective olfactory function was evaluated using Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT). Confirmed patients were followed up after 2 months of olfactory training. @*Results@#The median, interquartile range (Q1–Q3) score of subjective olfactory function significantly deteriorated in patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD) than in those without OD, even after 3 months of onset (11-point Likert scale, 8, 6–9 vs. 10, 10–10; short version of QOD-negative statements, 19, 16–21 vs. 21, 21–21; QOD-visual analogue scale, 7, 1–13 vs. 0, 0–0; all P < 0.001). However, the objective olfactory function was not significantly different between the two groups (median, interquartile range; 11, 9–11 vs. 11, 9–11, P = 0.887). The percentage of patients with objective hyposmia (CC-SIT ≤ 10) was also not significantly different (47.4% vs. 40%,P = 0.762). OD in COVID-19 was normalized after 2 months of olfactory training in 70% of patients even after 3 months of olfactory impairment. @*Conclusion@#Although subjective olfactory function is significantly decreased in the OD group, the objective olfactory function was not significantly different. Moreover, olfactory training is effective in COVID-19 patients with OD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897887

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with changes in brain structure and function, especially in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and insula. Survivors of tragic accidents often experience psychological stress and develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), regardless of the diagnosis of PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalographic changes according to PTSS in victims of a single traumatic event. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 60 survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred in 2014 from Danwon High School and collected electroencephalographic data through 19 channels twice for each person in 2014 and 2015 (mean 451.88 [standard deviation 25.77] days of follow-up). PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the participants were divided into two groups according to the differences in PCL-C scores between 2014 and 2015. Electroencephalographic data were converted to three-dimensional data to perform low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis. @*Results@#Significant electroencephalographic changes over time were observed. The group of participants with worsened PCL-C score showed an increased change of delta slow waves in Brodmann areas 13 and 44, with the largest difference in the insula region, compared to those with improved PCL-C scores. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggests that the electrophysiological changes in the insula are associated with PTSS changes.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897322

ABSTRACT

The imprinted tumour suppressor NOEY2 is downregulated in various cancer types, including ovarian cancers. Recent data suggest that NOEY2 plays an essential role in regulating the cell cycle, angiogenesis and autophagy in tumorigenesis. However, its detailed molecular function and mechanisms in ovarian tumours remain unclear. In this report, we initially demonstrated the inhibitory effect of NOEY2 on tumour growth by utilising a xenograft tumour model. NOEY2 attenuated the cell growth approximately fourfold and significantly reduced tumour vascularity. NOEY2 inhibited the phosphorylation of the signalling components downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3’-kinase (PI3K), including phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1), tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC-2) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), during ovarian tumour progression via direct binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Particularly, the N-terminal domain of NOEY2 (NOEY2-N) had a potent anti-angiogenic activity and dramatically downregulated VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), key regulators of angiogenesis. Since no X-ray or nuclear magnetic resonance structures is available for NOEY2, we constructed the threedimensional structure of this protein via molecular modelling methods, such as homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulations. Thereby, Lys15 and Arg16 appeared as key residues in the N-terminal domain. We also found that NOEY2-N acts as a potent inhibitor of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. These findings provide convincing evidence that NOEY2-N regulates endothelial cell function and angiogenesis by interrupting the VEGFR-2/PDK-1/GSK-3β signal transduction and thus strongly suggest that NOEY2-N might serve as a novel anti-tumour and anti-angiogenic agent against many diseases, including ovarian cancer.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892230

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective and objective olfactory function in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and the effect of olfactory training. @*Methods@#A prospective cohort study was performed in 53 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and visited our tertiary hospital. Subjective olfactory function was evaluated using the 11-point Likert scale (0–10) and the Korean version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD). Objective olfactory function was evaluated using Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT). Confirmed patients were followed up after 2 months of olfactory training. @*Results@#The median, interquartile range (Q1–Q3) score of subjective olfactory function significantly deteriorated in patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD) than in those without OD, even after 3 months of onset (11-point Likert scale, 8, 6–9 vs. 10, 10–10; short version of QOD-negative statements, 19, 16–21 vs. 21, 21–21; QOD-visual analogue scale, 7, 1–13 vs. 0, 0–0; all P < 0.001). However, the objective olfactory function was not significantly different between the two groups (median, interquartile range; 11, 9–11 vs. 11, 9–11, P = 0.887). The percentage of patients with objective hyposmia (CC-SIT ≤ 10) was also not significantly different (47.4% vs. 40%,P = 0.762). OD in COVID-19 was normalized after 2 months of olfactory training in 70% of patients even after 3 months of olfactory impairment. @*Conclusion@#Although subjective olfactory function is significantly decreased in the OD group, the objective olfactory function was not significantly different. Moreover, olfactory training is effective in COVID-19 patients with OD.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890183

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with changes in brain structure and function, especially in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and insula. Survivors of tragic accidents often experience psychological stress and develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), regardless of the diagnosis of PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalographic changes according to PTSS in victims of a single traumatic event. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 60 survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred in 2014 from Danwon High School and collected electroencephalographic data through 19 channels twice for each person in 2014 and 2015 (mean 451.88 [standard deviation 25.77] days of follow-up). PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the participants were divided into two groups according to the differences in PCL-C scores between 2014 and 2015. Electroencephalographic data were converted to three-dimensional data to perform low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis. @*Results@#Significant electroencephalographic changes over time were observed. The group of participants with worsened PCL-C score showed an increased change of delta slow waves in Brodmann areas 13 and 44, with the largest difference in the insula region, compared to those with improved PCL-C scores. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggests that the electrophysiological changes in the insula are associated with PTSS changes.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889618

ABSTRACT

The imprinted tumour suppressor NOEY2 is downregulated in various cancer types, including ovarian cancers. Recent data suggest that NOEY2 plays an essential role in regulating the cell cycle, angiogenesis and autophagy in tumorigenesis. However, its detailed molecular function and mechanisms in ovarian tumours remain unclear. In this report, we initially demonstrated the inhibitory effect of NOEY2 on tumour growth by utilising a xenograft tumour model. NOEY2 attenuated the cell growth approximately fourfold and significantly reduced tumour vascularity. NOEY2 inhibited the phosphorylation of the signalling components downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3’-kinase (PI3K), including phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1), tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC-2) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), during ovarian tumour progression via direct binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Particularly, the N-terminal domain of NOEY2 (NOEY2-N) had a potent anti-angiogenic activity and dramatically downregulated VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), key regulators of angiogenesis. Since no X-ray or nuclear magnetic resonance structures is available for NOEY2, we constructed the threedimensional structure of this protein via molecular modelling methods, such as homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulations. Thereby, Lys15 and Arg16 appeared as key residues in the N-terminal domain. We also found that NOEY2-N acts as a potent inhibitor of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. These findings provide convincing evidence that NOEY2-N regulates endothelial cell function and angiogenesis by interrupting the VEGFR-2/PDK-1/GSK-3β signal transduction and thus strongly suggest that NOEY2-N might serve as a novel anti-tumour and anti-angiogenic agent against many diseases, including ovarian cancer.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874490

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) has been used for screening owing to ease of use and brevity.In this study, we developed the Korean version of the PHQ-4 and tested its validity. @*Methods@#One hundred sixteen new adult outpatients at the Department of Psychiatry of the Korea University Ansan Hospital participated in the study. We simultaneously administered other depression/anxiety scales: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. @*Results@#The mean PHQ-4 score was 6.52 (standard deviation = 3.45). Cronbach’s α was 0.792, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of test and 2-week interval retest was 0.827 (p < 0.01). The Pearson correlation coefficients between the PHQ-4 total score and other depression/anxiety scales were all over 0.6. Confirmatory factorial analysis showed acceptable convergent validity and reliability but questionable discriminant validity for some model fit values. @*Conclusion@#The Korean version of the PHQ-4 has sufficient internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity, but its two-factor structure showed incompleteness. However, we suggest that it should be used as a brief screening measure for common psychiatric distress that warrants further detailed assessment, but not to separately assess the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901570

ABSTRACT

Materials and methods@#A rigorous and systematic approach was used and each of the selected studies was evaluated for methodological quality. Data about study design, total number of cases enrolled, iron administration method, timing, and dose were extracted. Change in hemoglobin and transfusion rates were extracted to evaluate the effectiveness of iron supplementation. @*Results@#Eleven studies were included in the final analysis. Most of studies reported that hemoglobin change between iron and control group did not show any difference. Only one study reported that iron supplementation could reduce the decrease in hemoglobin. However, transfusion rate showed a decrease in the iron supplementation group compared with the control group. There was no clear consensus on the optimum timing and dose of iron supplementation and intravenously administered iron was more effective than orally administered iron, especially in anemic patients. @*Conclusion@#Iron supplementation is not clear as a way to raise hemoglobin levels after TKA, but an effective treatment for lowering transfusion rate, especially in patients with anemia. We could not determine the optimal timing and dose of the iron. Intravenously administered iron was similar to, or better than, orally administered iron for improving hemoglobin levels and transfusion rate.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901553

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this systematic review was to elucidate the optimal age for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), to optimize the balance between the benefits and risks by analyzing patient-reported outcome measurements (PROM), revision rate, and mortality according to age. @*Materials and methods@#A rigorous and systematic approach was used and each of the selected studies was evaluated for methodological quality. Data were extracted according to the following: study design, patients enrolled, patient age at the time of surgery, follow-up period, PROM, revision rate, and mortality. @*Results@#Thirty-nine articles were included in the final analysis. The results were inconsistent in the PROM analysis, but there was consensus that PROM were good in patients in their 70s . In the revision rate analysis, there was consensus that the revision rate tends to increase in TKA in younger patients, but no significant difference was observed in patients > 70 years of age. In the mortality analysis, there was consensus that the mortality was not significantly different in patients < 80 years of age, but tended to increase with age. @*Conclusion@#This systematic review shows that the PROM were good when TKA was performed in patients between 70 and 80 years of age; the best PROM could be achieved around 70 years of age, and no significant difference in the revision or mortality rates was observed between 70 and 80 years of age; however, mortality tended to increase with age. Therefore, the early 70s could be recommended as an optimal age to undergo TKA.

11.
Immune Network ; : e40-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898569

ABSTRACT

The protein encoded by the Gene Associated with Retinoid-Interferon-Induced Mortality-19 (GRIM-19) is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and is homologous to the NADH dehydrogenase 1-alpha subcomplex subunit 13 of the electron transport chain.Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that damages the brain and spinal cord.Although both the cause and mechanism of MS progression remain unclear, it is accepted that an immune disorder is involved. We explored whether GRIM-19 ameliorated MS by increasing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and immune cells; we used a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to this end. Six-to-eight-week-old male C57BL/6, IFNγ-knockout (KO), and GRIM-19 transgenic mice were used; EAE was induced in all strains. A GRIM-19 overexpression vector (GRIM19 OVN) was electrophoretically injected intravenously. The levels of Th1 and Th17 cells were measured via flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical analysis. IL-17A and IFNγ expression levels were assessed via ELISA and quantitative PCR. IL-17A expression decreased and IFNγ expression increased in EAE mice that received injections of the GRIM19 OVN. GRIM-19 transgenic mice expressed more IFNγ than did wild-type mice; this inhibited EAE development. However, the effect of GRIM-19 overexpression on the EAE of IFNγ-KO mice did not differ from that of the empty vector. GRIM-19 expression was therapeutic for EAE mice, elevating the IFNγ level. GRIM-19 regulated the Th17/Treg cell balance.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893866

ABSTRACT

Materials and methods@#A rigorous and systematic approach was used and each of the selected studies was evaluated for methodological quality. Data about study design, total number of cases enrolled, iron administration method, timing, and dose were extracted. Change in hemoglobin and transfusion rates were extracted to evaluate the effectiveness of iron supplementation. @*Results@#Eleven studies were included in the final analysis. Most of studies reported that hemoglobin change between iron and control group did not show any difference. Only one study reported that iron supplementation could reduce the decrease in hemoglobin. However, transfusion rate showed a decrease in the iron supplementation group compared with the control group. There was no clear consensus on the optimum timing and dose of iron supplementation and intravenously administered iron was more effective than orally administered iron, especially in anemic patients. @*Conclusion@#Iron supplementation is not clear as a way to raise hemoglobin levels after TKA, but an effective treatment for lowering transfusion rate, especially in patients with anemia. We could not determine the optimal timing and dose of the iron. Intravenously administered iron was similar to, or better than, orally administered iron for improving hemoglobin levels and transfusion rate.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893849

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this systematic review was to elucidate the optimal age for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), to optimize the balance between the benefits and risks by analyzing patient-reported outcome measurements (PROM), revision rate, and mortality according to age. @*Materials and methods@#A rigorous and systematic approach was used and each of the selected studies was evaluated for methodological quality. Data were extracted according to the following: study design, patients enrolled, patient age at the time of surgery, follow-up period, PROM, revision rate, and mortality. @*Results@#Thirty-nine articles were included in the final analysis. The results were inconsistent in the PROM analysis, but there was consensus that PROM were good in patients in their 70s . In the revision rate analysis, there was consensus that the revision rate tends to increase in TKA in younger patients, but no significant difference was observed in patients > 70 years of age. In the mortality analysis, there was consensus that the mortality was not significantly different in patients < 80 years of age, but tended to increase with age. @*Conclusion@#This systematic review shows that the PROM were good when TKA was performed in patients between 70 and 80 years of age; the best PROM could be achieved around 70 years of age, and no significant difference in the revision or mortality rates was observed between 70 and 80 years of age; however, mortality tended to increase with age. Therefore, the early 70s could be recommended as an optimal age to undergo TKA.

14.
Immune Network ; : e40-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890865

ABSTRACT

The protein encoded by the Gene Associated with Retinoid-Interferon-Induced Mortality-19 (GRIM-19) is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and is homologous to the NADH dehydrogenase 1-alpha subcomplex subunit 13 of the electron transport chain.Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that damages the brain and spinal cord.Although both the cause and mechanism of MS progression remain unclear, it is accepted that an immune disorder is involved. We explored whether GRIM-19 ameliorated MS by increasing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and immune cells; we used a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to this end. Six-to-eight-week-old male C57BL/6, IFNγ-knockout (KO), and GRIM-19 transgenic mice were used; EAE was induced in all strains. A GRIM-19 overexpression vector (GRIM19 OVN) was electrophoretically injected intravenously. The levels of Th1 and Th17 cells were measured via flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical analysis. IL-17A and IFNγ expression levels were assessed via ELISA and quantitative PCR. IL-17A expression decreased and IFNγ expression increased in EAE mice that received injections of the GRIM19 OVN. GRIM-19 transgenic mice expressed more IFNγ than did wild-type mice; this inhibited EAE development. However, the effect of GRIM-19 overexpression on the EAE of IFNγ-KO mice did not differ from that of the empty vector. GRIM-19 expression was therapeutic for EAE mice, elevating the IFNγ level. GRIM-19 regulated the Th17/Treg cell balance.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836420

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old female patient complaining of hemiparesis was diagnosed with right middle cerebral artery infarction. No risk factor was found, despite an extensive young-age stroke work-up, except her history of marijuana use. The patient had smoked marijuana for treating depression for more than five years. Magnetic resonance angiography showed multifocal intra- and extracranial stenoses, suggesting cannabinoid-induced vasculopathy. Since the use of illicit drugs has increased nationwide, physicians should consider it as a possible cause of a stroke due to an unknown etiology.

16.
Immune Network ; : e16-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835444

ABSTRACT

Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (RIPK) 3 is a member of the TNF receptor-I signaling complex and mediates necroptosis, an inflammatory cell death. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an excessive inflammatory disease caused by uncontrolled T cell activation. The current study is aimed to determine whether RIPK3 inhibitor attenuates UC development inhibiting inflammation and necroptosis using experimental colitis mice model. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice were administered RIPK3 inhibitor (3 mg/ml) 3 times and their tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RIPK3, mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), phosphorylated MLKL, IL-17, and CD4 in colitis patient colon tissues were detected using confocal microscopy. Protein levels were measured using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The differentiation of Th17 cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines and necroptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from UC patients was decreased markedly by RIPK3 inhibitor treatment. We also observed that the injection of RIPK3 inhibitor improves colitis severity and protects intestinal destruction. RIPK3 inhibitor reduced necroptosis factors and proinflammatory cytokines in the colon and consequently protected colon devastation. The expression of inflammatory mediators in experimental colitis mice splenocytes was decreased significantly by RIPK3 inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that RIPK3 inhibitor ameliorates severity of experimental colitis and reduces inflammation through the inhibition of inflammatory response and necroptosis and support RIPK3-targeting substances for treatment of UC.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833669

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults is increasing, and the associated large socioeconomic impact makes understanding IS in young adults important. We investigated the causes of and risk factors for IS in young adults, and their impact on outcomes. @*Methods@#The Stroke in Korean Young Adults (SKY) study is a standardized multicenter prospective study involving eight medical centers of the Republic of Korea. First-ever IS patients aged 18 years to 44 years were prospectively included in this study within 7 days of stroke onset.Their outcomes at 3 months were analyzed. @*Results@#This study enrolled 270 patients from April 2014 to December 2018, most (67.8%) of whom were male. About 41.5% of the patients had one or more vascular risk factors from among hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, only half of them had received regular treatment. Arterial dissection was more common in males, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Moyamoya disease were more common in females. The outcome was favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) in 81.9% of the patients at 3 months after stroke onset. More severe initial symptoms, higher initial glucose level, and SLE as a comorbidity were associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Conclusions@#Young adult IS patients in Korea exhibit low awareness and poor management of their risk factors. Although the short-term outcome was relatively favorable in those patients, having SLE was associated with unfavorable outcomes. More attention needs to be paid for improving awareness and controlling risk factors in this population.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833236

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological findings of Meibomian glands in rats. Based onthese results, the histological findings of the structures seen using OCT were clarified. @*Methods@#En bloc excision was performed on the upper and lower eyelids in two rats. The axis of the Meibomian gland was verticallyscanned with three-dimensional (3D) OCT and reconstructed into 3D images. The samples were fixed in 10% formalinagain and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The findings of the OCT and histological examinations were then compared to determinethe histological characteristics of the structures observed in the OCT. @*Results@#The surface of the acinus was well-delineated in the Meibomian glands of rats using OCT. However, no deep acini wereobserved in the central ducts. @*Conclusions@#The structure of Meibomian glands imaged by OCT in rats was limited to the surface of the acinus. The structureof the reconstructed Meibomian gland ex vivo was similar to that of the human Meibomian gland. The possibility of developing anin vivo meibography system was therefore confirmed in animals.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833220

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report a case of spontaneous resolution of vitreomacular traction (VMT) syndrome after cataract surgery.Case summary: A 70-year-old woman underwent lens emulsification and intraocular lens implantation for a right-eye cataract.Preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed vitreomacular adhesion (VMA). At that time, the decimal visual acuityof the right eye was 0.63 and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.8. At one day after cataract surgery, OCT showedVMT, with disruption of the ellipsoid zone and outer limiting membrane. The BCVA of the right eye was 0.32, which was worsethan before surgery. At two weeks after cataract surgery, OCT revealed spontaneous resolution of the VMT, whereas the VMApersisted. At four months after cataract surgery, the BCVA of the right eye was 0.8. @*Conclusions@#In cases of VMT after cataract surgery, there is a possibility of spontaneous resolution without VMA separation.Therefore, careful observation in the early stages should be considered before surgical treatment.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832363

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study sought to investigate the associations between metabolic health status, obesity, and incidence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). @*Methods@#In this nationwide, population-based, longitudinal prospective cohort study conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance System, we categorized all subjects based on presence and severity of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Insurance claims data were used to identify POAG development. Then, Cox regression was applied to calculate the hazard of developing POAG in people with various components of metabolic syndrome, obesity, or their combination. @*Results@#Of the total 287,553 subjects, 4,970 (1.3%) developed POAG. High fasting glucose, blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels were all associated with increased risk of developing POAG. Regarding obesity level, people with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m 2 were more likely to develop POAG than those with normal BMI. Also, people with greater number of metabolic syndrome components showed a greater POAG incidence. People who are metabolically unhealthy and obese (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.574; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.449 to 1.711) and those who are metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO: adjusted HR, 1.521; 95% CI, 1.405 to 1.645) but not those who are metabolically healthy obese (MHO: adjusted HR, 1.019; 95% CI, 0.907 to 1.144) had an increased hazard of developing POAG compared with metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO) subjects. @*Conclusion@#Metabolic health status and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of POAG incidence. MUNO subjects but not MHO subjects showed a higher risk of POAG development than did MHNO subjects, suggesting that metabolic status is more important than obesity in POAG.

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