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1.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 355-364, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000760

ABSTRACT

Background@#The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) concentration is a potential biomarker of osteoporotic fracture and is associated with both the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) probability and trabecular bone score (TBS), which are well-known predictors of fracture. We sought to estimate the effect of the S1P concentration on fracture risk using the FRAX probability and TBS as mediators. @*Methods@#Plasma S1P concentrations, FRAX variables, and TBSs were measured in 66 postmenopausal women with fractures and 273 postmenopausal women without fractures. Associations between S1P concentration, FRAX probability, TBS, and fracture risk were analyzed using correlation, logistic regression, and mediation analyses. @*Results@#Subjects in the highest S1P concentration tertile had a higher fracture risk (odds ratio [OR], 5.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.22–11.67) than those in the lowest S1P concentration tertile before adjustment. Subjects in the highest FRAX probability tertile had a higher fracture risk (OR, 14.59; 95% CI, 5.01–42.53) than those in the lowest FRAX probability tertile before adjustment. Subjects in the lowest TBS tertile had a higher fracture risk (OR, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.28–9.93) than those in the highest TBS tertile before adjustment. After adjustment for FRAX probability and TBS, the highest S1P concentration tertile was still associated with a higher fracture risk (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.28–7.66). The FRAX probability and TBS accounted for 32.6% and 21.7%, respectively, of the relationship between the S1P concentration and fracture risk. @*Conclusions@#The relationship between the circulating S1P concentration and fracture risk was partly mediated by the FRAX probability, bone microarchitecture, and other factors.

2.
Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care ; : 60-68, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977220

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#For the dignity of patients nearing the end of their lives, it is essential to provide end-of-life (EoL) care in a separate, dedicated space. This study investigated the utilization of specialized rooms for dying patients within a hospice unit. @*Methods@#This retrospective study examined patients who died in a single hospice unit between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2021. Utilizing medical records, we analyzed the circumstances surrounding death, the employment of specialized rooms for terminally ill patients, and the characteristics of those who received EoL care in a shared room. @*Results@#During the 1,825-day survey period, deaths occurred on 632 days, and 799 patients died. Of these patients, 496 (62.1%) received EoL care in a dedicated room. The average duration of using this dedicated space was 1.08 days. Meanwhile, 188 patients (23.5%) died in a shared room. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a longer stay in the hospice unit was associated with a lower risk of receiving EoL care in a shared room (odds ratio [OR]=0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97~0.99; P=0.002). Furthermore, a higher number of deaths on the day a patient died was associated with a greater risk of receiving EoL care in a shared room (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.33~2.08; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#To ensure that more patients receive EoL care for an adequate duration in a private setting, additional research is necessary to increase the number of dedicated rooms and incorporate them into the hospice unit at an early stage.

3.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 117-123, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968126

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sleep duration is associated with hearing loss, especially presbycusis, which is the most common type of hearing loss; however, there is limited evidence regarding this association among the Korean population. We aimed to determine the relationship between sleep duration and high-frequency hearing loss in Korean adults aged ≥40 years. @*Methods@#We examined 5,547 Korean adults aged ≥40 years who completed audiometric tests and questionnaires regarding sleep duration during the 2010–2012 cycle of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mild presbycusis was defined as >25 decibels (dB) and 40 dB pure tone averages at high frequencies (3,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz) for both ears. Additionally, the sleep duration was divided into quartiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for covariates. @*Results@#The prevalence of presbycusis in South Korean adults was 62.1%, of which 61.4% showed moderate to severe presbycusis. The incidence of moderate-to-severe, but not mild, presbycusis showed a significant positive correlation with sleep duration. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that sleep duration is associated with the prevalence of presbycusis.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e34-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967400

ABSTRACT

Background@#The risk of device thrombosis and device-oriented clinical outcomes with bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) was reported to be significantly higher than with contemporary drug-eluting stents (DESs). However, optimal device implantation may improve clinical outcomes in patients receiving BVS. The current study evaluated mid-term safety and efficacy of Absorb BVS with meticulous device optimization under intravascular imaging guidance. @*Methods@#The SMART-REWARD and PERSPECTIVE-PCI registries in Korea prospectively enrolled 390 patients with BVS and 675 patients with DES, respectively. The primary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF) at 2 years and the secondary major endpoint was patientoriented composite outcome (POCO) at 2 years. @*Results@#Patient-level pooled analysis evaluated 1,003 patients (377 patients with BVS and 626 patients with DES). Mean scaffold diameter per lesion was 3.24 ± 0.30 mm in BVS group.Most BVSs were implanted with pre-dilatation (90.9%), intravascular imaging guidance (74.9%), and post-dilatation (73.1%) at proximal to mid segment (81.9%) in target vessel.Patients treated with BVS showed comparable risks of 2-year TVF (2.9% vs. 3.7%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.283, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.487–3.378, P = 0.615) and 2-year POCO (4.5% vs. 5.9%, adjusted HR, 1.413, 95% CI, 0.663–3.012,P = 0.370) than those with DES. The rate of 2-year definite or probable device thrombosis (0.3% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.424) was also similar. The sensitivity analyses consistently showed comparable risk of TVF and POCO between the 2 groups. @*Conclusion@#With meticulous device optimization under imaging guidance and avoidance of implantation in small vessels, BVS showed comparable risks of 2-year TVF and device thrombosis with DES.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 280-287, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926505

ABSTRACT

Several studies have shown the benefit of complete revascularization (CR) over culprit-only percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD). Nevertheless, optimal strategy to select targets for non-culprit PCI has not been clarified. In this paper, we critically discuss and compare the safety and efficacy of different strategies for CR in patients with STEMI and MVD using a Bayesian network meta-analysis including all previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In Bayesian network meta-analysis of 13 RCTs, culprit-only PCI was associated with higher risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), compared with angiography-guided or fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided CR strategies. However, there was no significant difference between angiography-guided and FFR-guided CR strategies in the risk of MACE and its individual components including all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization. These evidence support that both angiography-guided and FFR-guided complete revascularization strategies would be reasonable treatment option in patients with STEMI and MVD. If the non-culprit lesion is severe on visual assessment, angiography-guided PCI can be considered. If the non-culprit lesion is intermediate in severity or unclear based on visual assessment, FFR-guided strategy can be used as a reliable and objective tool, providing similar benefits with less stents compared with an angiographyguided strategy. Further RCT is needed to evaluate direct comparison between angiographyguided and FFR-guided CR strategies in patients with STEMI and MVD. Ongoing FRAMEAMI trial (NCT02715518) will provide more evidence regarding this issue.

6.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 207-211, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939136

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in domestic pigs in the Republic of Korea. From May 2020 to October 2021, 364 pig fecal samples were collected from 75 farms in 7 Provinces and microscopically examined. A total of 170 (46.7%) pigs were infected with at least one of the following parasites: Balantioides coli, strongyles, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and coccidia. By parasite species, B. coli, strongyles, A. suum, T. suis, and coccidia oocysts or eggs were detected in 144 (39.6%), 24 (6.6%), 14 (3.8%), 4 (1.1%), and 1 (0.3%) samples, respectively. One hundred fifty-four, 15, and 1 cases showed single, double, and triple infections, respectively. Of the swine fecal samples from 75 farms, 69 specimens (92.0%) were infected with 1 or more parasites. All surveyed farms across the country exhibited a positive rate of over 30%, among which the highest positive rate was 65.0% in Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do was followed by 61.9%. Winter showed a statistically lower prevalence than other seasons. This study showed that gastrointestinal parasites are prevalent in pigs in Korea, although the diversity of parasites is low.

7.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 241-245, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938524

ABSTRACT

Background@#Folic acid is involved in inflammatory reactions; however, the association between folic acid and allergic diseases, particularly asthma, remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between serum folic acid levels and asthma in Koreans. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the serum folic acid levels of 6,615 individuals included in the 2016–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of asthma was determined using a questionnaire that identified cases of physician-diagnosed asthma. The relationship between serum folic acid levels and asthma was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a 1 ng/mL increase in serum folic acid level significantly reduced the risk of asthma after adjusting for confounding factors including sex, age, household income, current smoking, current alcohol use, and body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 0.930; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.876– 0.987; P=0.017). The relationship between the adjusted odds of asthma and serum folic acid levels were consistently inverse (OR, 2.266; 95% CI, 1.126–4.420; P for trend=0.038). @*Conclusion@#Serum folic acid levels are inversely associated with physician-diagnosed asthma in the Korean population.

8.
Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association ; : 205-217, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938231

ABSTRACT

School meals are prepared based using the HACCP system, which is designed to ensure the physical and mental health of students. However, operational recommendations in school cafeterias have changed due to COVID-19 and include delays in serving time to restrict the number of meals and the installation of screens to prevent droplet transmission. Unfortunately, these changes may have detrimentally affected hygiene practices and generated new food poisoning sources. This study aimed to determine the hygiene state of school cafeterias in the Gyeongnam area from December 2020 to September 2021 based on the monitoring of total aerobic and coliform bacteria. Kitchen floors were the most contaminated areas with an average number of total aerobic bacteria of 4.3 log CFU/100 cm 2 , whereas counts in dining areas were relatively low at 0.1∼3.5 log CFU/100 cm 2 . Newly installed partitioned areas had the lowest contamination level of 0.1∼2.8 log CFU/100 cm 2 . Escherichia coli was not detected on any surface, while coliform was detected on workbenches and floors. In conclusion, hygienic practices appear to have been adequately managed in school cafeterias despite COVID-19 driven changes. Nonetheless, continuous monitoring is recommended to ensure prompt response to changing environments.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 369-382, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal management of primary aldosteronism (PA) is crucial due to the increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method for determining subtype but is technically challenging and invasive. Some PA patients do not benefit clinically from surgery. We sought to develop an algorithm to improve decision- making before engaging in AVS and surgery in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We conducted the ongoing Korean Primary Aldosteronism Study at two tertiary centers. Study A involved PA patients with successful catheterization and a unilateral nodule on computed tomography and aimed to predict unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=367). Study B involved similar patients who underwent adrenalectomy and aimed to predict postoperative outcome (n=330). In study A, we implemented important feature selection using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#We developed a unilateral PA prediction model using logistic regression analysis: lowest serum potassium level ≤3.4 mEq/L, aldosterone-to-renin ratio ≥150, plasma aldosterone concentration ≥30 ng/mL, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (area under the curve, 0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.865; sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 25.5%). In study B, we identified female, hypertension duration <5 years, anti-hypertension medication <2.5 daily defined dose, and the absence of coronary artery disease as predictors of clinical success, using stepwise logistic regression models (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 49.3%). We validated our algorithm in the independent validation dataset (n=53). @*Conclusion@#We propose this new outcome-driven diagnostic algorithm, simultaneously considering unilateral aldosterone excess and clinical surgical benefits in PA patients.

10.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 390-394, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894383

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between near work time and depression. @*Methods@#Data of 1,551 workers aged 19–49 years from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The Patient Health Questionaire-9 scores were used to screen for depression. Participants who scored a total of 10 or above, which is suggestive of the presence of depression, were classified as the depression group; the rest were classified as normal. The correlation between daily near work time and depression was analyzed using multivariate logistic analysis after adjusting for other sociodemographic and health behavior-related variables. @*Results@#Multivariate logistic analysis found that workers with 3 or more hours of near work were more likely to report depression compared to the reference group who had 2 or fewer hours per day of near work (adjusted odds ratio, 2.471; 95% confidence interval, 1.062–5.747). @*Conclusion@#Longer near work time was associated with depression among South Korea’s workers. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce near work time to prevent depression.

11.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 225-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894376

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although many studies have demonstrated that the first cigarette in the morning increases the prevalence of smoking-related morbidity, limited studies have examined the impact of time to first cigarette (TTFC) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Thus, we assessed this relationship using nationally-representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VII-1 (2016). @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 577 current male smokers aged 30–59 years, after excluding those with a certain disease. Participants were divided into four categories according to TTFC (≤5 min, 6–30 min, 31–60 min, >60 min). HRQoL was measured using self-reported EuroQol-5 (EQ-5D). The relationship between TTFC and EQ-5D index was analyzed using a multivariate-adjusted generalized linear model to assess how HRQoL varies according to TTFC. After adjusting for confounders, a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to identify which of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D affected the HRQoL according to TTFC. @*Results@#The generalized linear analysis indicated that as TTFC decreased (6–30 min, 31–60 min vs. >60 min), the EQ-5D index score decreased significantly (P=0.037). Shorter TTFC (≤5 min vs. >60 min) was associated with higher pain/discomfort (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–10.48) and anxiety/depression (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 1.75–32.88). @*Conclusion@#Higher nicotine dependence was associated with impaired HRQoL. These results may be used to improve smoking cessation treatment outcomes.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 875-884, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890494

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 401-412, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Guidelines by the Endocrine Society Guideline on bypassing adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in patients 15.9 ng/dL) and unilateral lesion, accuracy of CT was 84.6% (11/13) in patients aged 29.6 ng/dL, respectively. The significant difference in accuracy of CT in 198 patients with marked PA and a unilateral lesion between the 30.0 ng/dL (91.9% vs. 87.7%, P=0.590). @*Conclusion@#Patients with hypokalemia, PAC >30.0 ng/dL, and unilateral lesion were at high risk of unilateral PA regardless of age.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 322-338, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 639-643, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919297

ABSTRACT

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a microsporidian pathogen. Recently, the equestrian population is increasing in Korea. The horse-related zoonotic pathogens, including E. bieneusi, are concerns of public health. A total of 1,200 horse fecal samples were collected from riding centers and breeding farms in Jeju Island and inland areas. Of the fecal samples 15 (1.3%) were PCR positive for E. bieneusi. Interestingly, all positive samples came from Jeju Island. Diarrhea and infection in foals were related. Two genotypes (horse1, horse2) were identified as possible zoonotic groups requiring continuous monitoring.

16.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918473

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with osteonecrosis of the jaw who were receiving oral versus intravenous (IV) bisphosphonate (BP). @*Materials and methods@#This retrospective study enrolled subjects who had been diagnosed with medicationrelated osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) during the period from July 2010 to June 2014. Information regarding the following demographic and clinical characteristics was collected: demographic data, administration route and type of BP, duration of BP medication, primary disease, number of involved sites, location of the lesion, number of surgeries, outcome of treatments, and laboratory test. All the patients were divided into oral and IV BP groups; and the between-group differences were compared. @*Results@#Total 278 patients were divided into two groups as per the route of BP administration. The proportion of oral BP-related MRONJ group were more dominant over IV BP group (oral BP, n = 251; IV BP, n = 27). In the IV BP group, the average dosing duration (31.4 months) was significantly shorter than that in the oral BP group (53.1 months) (P < 0.001). The average number of involved sites in the oral BP group (1.21 ± 0.48) was smaller than that in the IV BP group (1.63 ± 0.84) (P < 0.001). The average number of surgeries was higher in the IV BP group (1.65 ± 0.95) as compared to that in the oral BP group (0.98 ± 0.73) (P < 0.001). Outcome after the surgery for MRONJ after IV BP was poor than oral BP group. @*Conclusion@#IV administration of BP causes greater inhibition of bone remodeling and could lead more severe inflammation. Therefore, even if the duration of IV administration of BP is shorter than that of oral BP, the extent of the lesion could be more extensive. Therefore, the result suggests that the MRONJ after IV BP for cancer patients needs to be considered as different characteristics to oral BP group for osteoporosis patents.

17.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 153-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896153

ABSTRACT

This study reports the first two clinical cases of spirometrosis caused by Spirometra sp. in cats in Korea. In these two cases, the cats vomited, and long proglottids of tapeworm were recovered. The sick cats presented with anorexia and lethargy. However, they unexpectedly showed no diarrhea, which is the main symptom of spirometrosis. Based on a fecal floatation test as well as morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was diagnosed as Spirometra sp. The 2 cases were treated with praziquantel. This study suggests regular monitoring of health and deworming in companion animals, even when animals are well cared for, with regular preventive medication. Additionally, spirometrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of gastrointestinal symptoms in Spirometra endemic areas.

18.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 208-214, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001341

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of intracorporeal anastomosis in laparoscopic colectomy for benign and malignant tumor diseases in actual clinical settings. @*Methods@#From January 2016 to June 2021, a total of 114 cases were selected for laparoscopic colectomy for benign or malignant tumor diseases. Seventeen cases that underwent simultaneous combined laparoscopic procedures were excluded from the study. The remaining patients were separated into 48 cases in the intracorporeal group and 49 cases in the extracorporeal group. Medical records were reviewed retrospec tively. @*Results@#Patients in the intracorporeal group were older than those in the extracorporeal group (62.6 years vs. 54.9 years, p = 0.001). Body mass index, American Society of Anestheologists physical status classifica tion, comorbidity, smoking, and laparotomy history did not differ significantly between groups. Surgeries for malignancy were performed in 35 (72.9%) and 32 cases (65.3%) in the respective intracorporeal and extracorporeal groups. Right hemicolectomy was performed in 39 (81.3%) and 45 cases (91.8%) in the intracorporeal and extracorporeal groups, respectively, and postoperative hospital stays were 9.8 and 8.9 days (p = 0.081). Operation time (216.9 minutes vs. 203.5 minutes, p = 0.212) and intraoperative blood loss (72.7 mL vs. 75.7 mL, p = 0.700) were not significantly different. Anastomotic leakage was observed in one case in each group. @*Conclusion@#In laparoscopic colectomy, intracorporeal anastomosis could be considered as a safe and feasible technique for benign and malignant tumor diseases.

19.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 153-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903857

ABSTRACT

This study reports the first two clinical cases of spirometrosis caused by Spirometra sp. in cats in Korea. In these two cases, the cats vomited, and long proglottids of tapeworm were recovered. The sick cats presented with anorexia and lethargy. However, they unexpectedly showed no diarrhea, which is the main symptom of spirometrosis. Based on a fecal floatation test as well as morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was diagnosed as Spirometra sp. The 2 cases were treated with praziquantel. This study suggests regular monitoring of health and deworming in companion animals, even when animals are well cared for, with regular preventive medication. Additionally, spirometrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of gastrointestinal symptoms in Spirometra endemic areas.

20.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 390-394, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902087

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between near work time and depression. @*Methods@#Data of 1,551 workers aged 19–49 years from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The Patient Health Questionaire-9 scores were used to screen for depression. Participants who scored a total of 10 or above, which is suggestive of the presence of depression, were classified as the depression group; the rest were classified as normal. The correlation between daily near work time and depression was analyzed using multivariate logistic analysis after adjusting for other sociodemographic and health behavior-related variables. @*Results@#Multivariate logistic analysis found that workers with 3 or more hours of near work were more likely to report depression compared to the reference group who had 2 or fewer hours per day of near work (adjusted odds ratio, 2.471; 95% confidence interval, 1.062–5.747). @*Conclusion@#Longer near work time was associated with depression among South Korea’s workers. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce near work time to prevent depression.

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