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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 683-691, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003067

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The Genoss DES™ is a novel, biodegradable, polymer-coated, sirolimus-eluting stent with a cobalt- chromium stent platform and thin strut. Although the safety and effectiveness of this stent have been previously investigated, real-world clinical outcomes data are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this prospective, multicenter trial was to evaluate the clinical safety and effectiveness of the Genoss DES™ in all-comer patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. @*Methods@#The Genoss DES registry is a prospective, single-arm, observational trial for evaluation of clinical outcomes after Genoss DES™ implantation in all-comer patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention from 17 sites in South Korea. The primary endpoint was a device-oriented composite outcome of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction (MI), and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 12 months. @*Results@#A total of 1,999 patients (66.4 ± 11.1 years of age; 72.8% male) were analyzed. At baseline, 62.8% and 36.7% of patients had hypertension and diabetes, respectively. The implanted stent number, diameter, and length per patient were 1.5 ± 0.8, 3.1 ± 0.5 mm, and 37.0 ± 25.0 mm, respectively. The primary endpoint occurred in 1.8% patients, with a cardiac death rate of 1.1%, target vessel-related MI rate of 0.2%, and clinically driven TLR rate of 0.8%. @*Conclusions@#In this real-world registry, the Genoss DES™ demonstrated excellent safety and effectiveness at 12 months among all-comer patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. These findings suggest that the Genoss DES™ may be a viable treatment option for patients with coronary artery disease.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 797-809, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003043

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia is a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and statins are the primary therapeutic options for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, it can be challenging to achieve optimal LDL-C goals with statin monotherapy. Ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, offers a potential non-statin therapy to optimize LDL-C management. Key clinical trials, such as IMPROVE-IT and RACING, have demonstrated that the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy leads to further decreases in LDL-C or significant decreases in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), particularly in patients with high ASCVD risk. Subsequent meta-analyses and clinical trials have further supported the beneficial effect of ezetimibe, suggesting additive decreases in LDL-C and MACEs, as well as pleiotropic effects. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the clinical implications of ezetimibe for managing dyslipidemia; it also evaluates the available evidence that supports the role of ezetimibe as an adjunct non-statin therapy for long-term use. However, the long-term pleiotropic effects of ezetimibe remain controversial because of limited clinical data. Therefore, additional research is needed to clarify its potential benefits beyond LDL-C reduction. Nonetheless, an understanding of the role of ezetimibe in dyslipidemia management will help clinicians to develop effective treatment strategies.

3.
Journal of Audiology & Otology ; : 240-245, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000735

ABSTRACT

Most cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) occur without a specific identifiable cause, although vascular factors may serve as potential etiological contributors. Silent infarction refers to ischemic changes observed on imaging studies without accompanying clinical symptoms; however, this condition is clinically significant owing to the increased risk of future stroke. We report a case of left-sided SSNHL accompanied by dizziness in a 62-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with left pontine infarction without any other neurological symptoms. The cochlea and pons receive blood supply from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery; the cochlea lacks collateral vessels and is therefore susceptible to fluctuations in blood flow. This case report provides evidence to support the vascular hypothesis as the etiology underlying SSNHL

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 525-537, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000330

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the risk of cause-specific mortality according to glucose tolerance status in elderly South Koreans. @*Methods@#A total of 1,292,264 individuals aged ≥65 years who received health examinations in 2009 were identified from the National Health Information Database. Participants were classified as normal glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, newly-diagnosed diabetes, early diabetes (oral hypoglycemic agents ≤2), or advanced diabetes (oral hypoglycemic agents ≥3 or insulin). The risk of system-specific and disease-specific deaths was estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 8.41 years, 257,356 deaths were recorded. Diabetes was associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57 to 1.60); death due to circulatory (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.52), respiratory (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.47 to 1.55), and genitourinary systems (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.10 to 2.35); and neoplasms (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.32). Diabetes was also associated with a significantly higher risk of death due to ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.63 to 1.76), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.50), pneumonia (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.63 to 1.76), and acute or chronic kidney disease (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 2.09 to 2.38). There was a stepwise increase in the risk of death across the glucose spectrum (P for trend <0.0001). Stroke, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease increased the risk of all-cause mortality at every stage of glucose intolerance. @*Conclusion@#A dose-dependent association between the risk of mortality from various causes and severity of glucose tolerance was noted in the elderly population.

5.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 271-278, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000127

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although the effects and safety of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) treatment in depressive patients are largely investigated, whether the self-administration of tDCS treatment at patient’s home is comparable to clinic-based treatment is still unknown. @*Methods@#In this single-arm, multi-center clinical trial, 61 patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder were enrolled. tDCS treatment was delivered at the patient’s home once a day, 5 to 7 times a week for 6 weeks, and each session lasted for 30 minutes. The primary outcome was a total Beck-Depression Inventory-II score, and no concurrent antidepressants were used. @*Results@#The remission rates in both Full-Analysis (FA) (n = 61) and Per-Protocol (PP) (n = 43) groups were statistically significant (FA: 57.4% [0.44−0.70], PP: 62.8% [0.47−0.77]; percent [95% confidence interval]). The degree of depression-related symptoms was also significantly improved in 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the treatment when compared with baseline. There was no significant association between treatment compliance and remission rate in both FA and PP groups. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that acute treatment of patient-administered tDCS might be effective in improving the subjective feeling of depressive symptoms in mild to moderate major depressive disorder patients.

6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 359-369, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000118

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by increased inflammatory processing and altered brain volume. In this study, we investigated the relationship between inflammatory markers and brain volume in patients with PTSD. @*Methods@#Forty-five patients with PTSD, and 70 healthy controls (HC) completed clinical assessments and self-reported psychopathology scales. Factors associated with inflammatory responses including brain-derived neurotrophic factor and four inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, cortisol, Interleukin-6, and homocysteine) and T1-magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were measured. @*Results@#In the PTSD group, cortisol level was significantly lower (t = 2.438, p = 0.046) than that of the HC. Cortisol level was significantly negatively correlated with the left thalamus proper (r = −0.369, p = 0.035), right thalamus proper (r = −0.394, p = 0.014), right frontal pole (r = −0.348, p = 0.039), left occipital pole (r = −0.338, p = 0.044), and right superior occipital gyrus (r = −0.397, p = 0.008) in patients with PTSD. However, these significant correlations were not observed in HC. @*Conclusion@#Our results indicate that increased cortisol level, even though its average level was lower than that of HC, is associated with smaller volumes of the thalamus, right frontal pole, left occipital pole, and right superior occipital gyrus in patients with PTSD. Cortisol, a major stress hormone, might be a reliable biomarker to brain volumes and pathophysiological pathways in patients with PTSD.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 429-446, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000109

ABSTRACT

The monoamine hypothesis has significantly improved our understanding of mood disorders and their treatment by linking monoaminergic abnormalities to the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Even 50 years after the monoamine hypothesis was established, some patients do not respond to treatments for depression, including selective serotonin reuptake drugs. Accumulating evidence shows that patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have severe abnormalities in the neuroplasticity and neurotrophic factor pathways, indicating that different treatment approaches may be necessary. Therefore, the glutamate hypothesis is gaining attention as a novel hypothesis that can overcome monoamine restrictions. Glutamate has been linked to structural and maladaptive morphological alterations in several brain areas associated with mood disorders. Recently, ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, has shown efficacy in TRD treatment and has received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval, revitalizing psychiatry research. However, the mechanism by which ketamine improves TRD remains unclear. In this review, we re-examined the glutamate hypothesis, bringing the glutamate system onboard to join the modulation of the monoamine systems, emphasizing the most prominent ketamine antidepressant mechanisms, such as NMDAR inhibition and NMDAR disinhibition in GABAergic interneurons. Furthermore, we discuss the animal models used in preclinical studies and the sex differences in the effects of ketamine.

8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 583-593, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000096

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Maumgyeol Basic service is a mental health evaluation and grade scoring software using the 2 channels EEG and photoplethysmogram (PPG). This service is supposed to assess potential at-risk groups with mental illness more easily, rapidly, and reliably. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical implication of the Maumgyeol Basic service. @*Methods@#One hundred one healthy controls and 103 patients with a psychiatric disorder were recruited. Psychological evaluation (Mental Health Screening for Depressive Disorders [MHS-D], Mental Health Screening for Anxiety Disorders [MHS-A], cognitive stress response scale [CSRS], 12-item General Health Questionnaire [GHQ-12], Clinical Global Impression [CGI]) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST) were applied to all participants. Maumgyeol brain health score and Maumgyeol mind health score were calculated from 2 channel frontal EEG and PPG, respectively. @*Results@#Participants were divided into three groups: Maumgyeol Risky, Maumgyeol Good, and Maumgyeol Usual. The Maumgyeol mind health scores, but not brain health scores, were significantly lower in the patients group compared to healthy controls. Maumgyeol Risky group showed significantly lower psychological and cognitive ability evaluation scores than Maumgyeol Usual and Good groups. Maumgyel brain health score showed significant correlations with CSRS and DSST. Maumgyeol mind health score showed significant correlations with CGI and DSST. About 20.6% of individuals were classified as the No Insight group, who had mental health problems but were unaware of their illnesses. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the Maumgyeol Basic service can provide important clinical information about mental health and be used as a meaningful digital mental healthcare monitoring solution to prevent symptom aggravation.

9.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 85-91, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969063

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Dizziness has diverse underlying causes, so the diagnosis is challenging especially in the emergency room. The aim of this study is to identify clinical characteristics of patients’ complaints of dizziness in the emergency room.Subjects and Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 10367 patients who visited the emergency room with the chief complaint of dizziness from January 2016 to December 2020. Patients’ clinical information including age, sex, final diagnoses, consulting departments, treatment results and seasonal incidences were thoroughly assessed. @*Results@#Of the total patients who visited the emergency room, 4.64% complained of dizziness. The mean age of patients was 57.6 years old. The most common age group was over 70’s (28.1%). There were 6322 (61.1%) female patients, while 4035 (38.9%) were male patients. Nearly half 4932 (47.6%) of the patients were managed by the emergency department, followed by 3204, who were managed by the department of otolaryngorhinology (30.9%), and 1166 (11.2%) managed by the neurology department. The dizziness was classified as peripheral vertigo (33.8%), nonspecific dizziness (27.4%), medical conditions (13.9%), central dizziness (11.0%), cardiac dizziness (6.2%), and other miscellaneous causes of trauma, neoplasm and psychogenic causes (7.7%). In peripheral vertigo, the incidence of BPPV, vestibular neuritis and Meniere’s disease were 23.5%, 8.8% and 0.6%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Peripheral vertigo accounted for the majority for the patients with chief complaints of dizziness in the emergency room. As diverse medical conditions may cause dizziness, specialized departments have to be involved in the diagnostic process of dizziness.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e29-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967456

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aims of this study are to review data on 4-months age National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children (NHSPIC) using a National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database, and to analyze the newborn hearing screening (NHS) results and related characteristics of the 4-months NHSPIC for 7 years in South Korea. @*Methods@#We analyzed a NHIS database of infants who had participated in the 4-month age NHSPIC from 2010 to 2016. According to the results of hearing questionnaires and physical examination, we analyzed the outcomes of NHS and related infantile and socioeconomic factors. @*Results@#Among 3,128,924 of total eligible infants in Korea between the year 2010 and 2016, 69.2% (2,164,621 infants) conducted 4-months age NHSPIC, and 94.4% (2,042,577 infants) of which performed hearing questionnaires regarding NHS. Among the total hearing examinees, premature infants accounted for 3.6%, infants who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for more than 5 days accounted for 5.6%, and infants with head and neck abnormalities were 0.6%. The NHS performing rate was 79.1% for total hearing examinees in 2010, but gradually increased to 88.9% in 2016. The NHS performing rate in 2016 was 93.4% for premature infants, 91.7% for NICU hospitalized babies. The mean referral rate was 0.6% for total hearing examinees, 1.4% for premature infants, and 2.3% for NICU hospitalized babies. When we analyzed the NHS performing rate and the referral rate according to the household income level, the NHS performing rate of infants in Medical Aid programs was the lowest as 65.6%, and the NHS performing rates in other five levels of NHIS was higher ranging between 85.1% to 86.0%. The referral rate of infants in the Medical Aid program (3.8%) was significantly higher than those of infants in other classes (1.10–1.25%). @*Conclusion@#The estimated overall NHS performing rate in Korea gradually increased and was 88.9% in 2016. The overall referral rate was low as 0.6%, and it was significantly different depending on the infant’s health condition and household income levels. We assume that our finding would help to establish policies managing hearing impaired children, and to develop the customized hearing care service programs considering the household economic levels.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e24-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967451

ABSTRACT

Background@#It remains unclear whether a combination of glycemic variability and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) status leads to a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD).Therefore, to investigate CVD risk according to the glucose control status during early diabetes, we examined visit-to-visit HbA1c variability among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). @*Methods@#In this 9-year retrospective study, we measured HbA1c levels at each visit and tracked the change in HbA1c levels for 3 years after the first presentation (observation window) in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. We later assessed the occurrence of CVD in the last 3 years (target outcome window) of the study period after allowing a 3-year buffering window. The HbA1c variability score (HVS; divided into quartiles, HVS_Q1–4) was used to determine visit-to-visit HbA1c variability. @*Results@#Among 4,817 enrolled T2DM patients, the mean HbA1c level was < 7% for the first 3 years. The group with the lowest HVS had the lowest rate of CVD (9.4%; 104/1,109 patients).The highest incidence of CVD of 26.7% (8/30 patients) was found in HVS [≥ 9.0%]_Q3, which was significantly higher than that in HVS [6.0–6.9%]_Q1 (P = 0.006), HVS [6.0–6.9%]_Q2 (P = 0.013), HVS [6.0–6.9%]_Q3 (P = 0.018), and HVS [7.0–7.9%]_Q3 (P = 0.040). @*Conclusion@#To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study to analyze the importance of both HbA1c change and visit-to-visit HbA1c variability during outpatient visits within the first 3 years. Lowering glucose levels during early diabetes may be more critical than reducing visit-to-visit HbA1c variability.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 129-138, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966835

ABSTRACT

Background@#The severity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to generate a risk model for predicting insulin-requiring GDM before pregnancy in Korean women. @*Methods@#A total of 417,210 women who received a health examination within 52 weeks before pregnancy and delivered between 2011 and 2015 were recruited from the Korean National Health Insurance database. The risk prediction model was created using a sample of 70% of the participants, while the remaining 30% were used for internal validation. Risk scores were assigned based on the hazard ratios for each risk factor in the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. Six risk variables were selected, and a risk nomogram was created to estimate the risk of insulin-requiring GDM. @*Results@#A total of 2,891 (0.69%) women developed insulin-requiring GDM. Age, body mass index (BMI), current smoking, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, and γ-glutamyl transferase were significant risk factors for insulin-requiring GDM and were incorporated into the risk model. Among the variables, old age, high BMI, and high FBG level were the main contributors to an increased risk of insulin-requiring GDM. The concordance index of the risk model for predicting insulin-requiring GDM was 0.783 (95% confidence interval, 0.766 to 0.799). The validation cohort’s incidence rates for insulin-requiring GDM were consistent with the risk model’s predictions. @*Conclusion@#A novel risk engine was generated to predict insulin-requiring GDM among Korean women. This model may provide helpful information for identifying high-risk women and enhancing prepregnancy care.

13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 19-31, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966699

ABSTRACT

Given the long history, the field of electroceutical and bioelectric therapy has grown impressively, recognized as the main modality of mental health treatments along with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Electroceutical and bioelectric therapy comprises electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), and other brain stimulation techniques. Much empirical research has been published regarding the application guidelines, mechanism of action, and efficacy of respective brain stimulation techniques, but no comparative study that delineates the advantages and limitations of each therapy exists for a comprehensive understanding of each technique. This review provides a comparison of existing electroceutical and bioelectric techniques, primarily focusing on the therapeutic advantages and limitations of each therapy in the current electroceutical and bioelectric field.

14.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 27-33, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966302

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Limited data are available on the nationwide trend of treatments for chronic venous disease (CVD). The aim of the present study was to identify the nationwide trends of CVD treatments in Korea. @*Methods@#A serial, cross-sectional study was conducted with the use of time trends to analyze patients with CVD between 2010 and 2020. The trends in the number of patients and procedures were analyzed including sclerotherapy, open surgery, and endovenous thermal ablation (ETA). Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data were used to analyze the trends. For the statistical analysis, MedCalc Statistical software was used. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. @*Results@#A total of 1,867,307 patients with CVD were managed in Korea between 2010 and 2020. The annual number of patients with CVD increased from 143,108 in 2010 to 219,319 in 2020 (risk ratio [RR], 1.53; P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with CVD who had venous ulcer gradually decreased from 3.1% in 2010 to 1.7% in 2020 (RR, 0.86; P < 0.001). The number of conventional surgeries including stripping and local resection of varicose veins decreased from 32,384 in 2010 to 21,792 in 2020 (RR, 0.67; P < 0.001). The number of ETAs performed increased, from 290 in 2011 to 12,126 procedures in 2020 (RR, 41.81; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The total number of patients with CVD increased during the last 11 years. The number of conventional open surgery and sclerotherapy procedures decreased. On the contrary, the number of ETAs significantly increased in Korea.

15.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 251-258, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999856

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to determine the most effective treatment approach by comparing the impacts of various otolith reduction techniques in patients with apogeotropic lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (LC-BPPV). @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter randomized prospective study from January to December 2015, involving 72 consecutive patients with apogeotropic LC-BPPV. The patients were divided into three treatment groups: therapeutic head-shaking (group A), the Gufoni-Appiani maneuver (group B), and the cupulolith repositioning maneuver (CuRM; group C). Each group underwent evaluation and treatment up to the fourth week. Treatment success was defined as the disappearance of positional vertigo and nystagmus. @*Results@#This study included 72 patients (49 male and 23 female), with a mean (±standard deviation) age of 55.4±13.5 years. The mean duration of vertigo experienced prior to treatment was 3.9±4.4 days. The mean latency and duration of nystagmus were 2.7±3.0 seconds and 47.9±15.8 seconds, respectively. The overall treatment frequency was 2.0±0.9. The number of treatments differed significantly among the three groups (P0.05). However, CuRM was the only method with a 100% treatment success rate. @*Conclusion@#While no clear difference was observed among the three treatments for LC-BPPV, CuRM was found to be superior to the other approaches in the long term.

16.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 288-295, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999440

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Venoactive drugs are widely used to improve the symptoms and signs of chronic venous disease. This study aimed to analyze the rate of adverse events after venoactive drug prescription and subsequent compliance and switching rates. @*Methods@#Using the National Health Insurance Service database, individuals with at least one chronic venous disease code between January 2009 and December 2019 were identified, and 30% (2,216,780 individuals) of these were sampled. Finally, 1,551,212 patients were included, and we analyzed adverse events, compliance, and switching rates with 8 venoactive drugs, including Vitis vinifera extract, naftazone, micronized purified flavonoid fraction, Vitis vinifera leaf extract, diosmin, diobsilate calcium, bilberry fruit dried extract, and sulodexide. @*Results@#The most commonly prescribed venoactive drug was Vitis vinifera extract (72.2%), followed by sulodexide (9.3%), and Vitis vinifera leaf dry extract (8.2%). Adverse event rates were significantly lower in the naftazone and diosmin groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and significantly higher in the Vitis vinifera leaf dry extract group (P = 0.009). Drug adherence to sulodexide was the highest throughout the study period, followed by billberry extract and dobesilate (all P < 0.001). For most drugs, the drug switching rate was low (<5.0%). @*Conclusion@#Vitis vinifera extract was the most commonly prescribed venoactive drug in Korea, and drug adherence to sulodexide was the highest among all venoactive drugs. The adverse event rates were significantly lower in the naftazone and diosmin groups.

17.
Vascular Specialist International ; : 34-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968858

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Arterial stiffness and steno-occlusion of the lower-extremity can result from many vascular lesions, including acute thromboembolisms, soft plaques, calcified plaques, or inflammatory disease. Ultrasound (US) elastography measures the tissue deformation response to compression and displays tissue stiffness. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of arterial lesions in the lower extremities using US elastography. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of 20 patients who visited our institute for arterial disease treatment between May 2016 and November 2017. An US examination with B-mode and strain elastography (SE) was performed of four different lesion types at 45 sites: acute and subacute thromboembolisms, soft plaques, calcified plaques, and thromboangiitis obliterans lesions (TAOs). During SE, stress was externally applied by the operator using the transducer. Strain ratio (SR) was calculated as the fraction of the average strain in the reference area divided by the average strain in the lesion. The SR was compared among different lesion types, with the accompanying vein as the reference region of interest. @*Results@#The strain was highest in the soft plaques (0.63%±0.23%), followed by the TAOs (0.45%±0.11%), calcified plaques (0.44%±0.13%), and acute thromboembolisms (0.34%±0.23%), which were statistically significant (P=0.026). However, the mean SR was highest for the calcified plaques (2.33%±0.80%), followed by the TAOs (1.63%±0.40%), acute thromboembolisms (1.60%±0.48%), and soft plaques (1.51±0.39), and which were statistically significant (P=0.013). @*Conclusion@#Despite several limitations, vascular elastography may be useful for differentiating between lesion types in peripheral arterial disease.

18.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 552-563, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937409

ABSTRACT

Recently, medical research using big data has become very popular, and its value has become increasingly recognized. The Korean National Health Information Database (NHID) is representative of big data that combines information obtained from the National Health Insurance Service collected for claims and reimbursement of health care services and results obtained from general health examinations provided to all Korean adults. This database has several strengths and limitations. Given the large size, various laboratory data, and questionnaires obtained from medical check-ups, their longitudinal nature, and long-term accumulation of data since 2002, carefully designed studies may provide valuable information that is difficult to obtain from other forms of research. However, consideration of possible bias and careful interpretation when defining causal relationships is also important because the data were not collected for research purposes. After the NHID became publicly available, research and publications based on this database have increased explosively, especially in the field of diabetes and metabolism. This article reviews the history, structure, and characteristics of the Korean NHID. Recent trends in big data research using this database, commonly used operational diagnosis, and representative studies have been introduced. We expect further progress and expansion of big data research using the Korean NHID.

19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 197-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926916

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Comprehensive understanding of polyenvironmental risk factors for the development of psychosis is important. Based on a review of related evidence, we developed the Korea Polyenvironmental Risk Score (K-PERS) for psychosis. We investigated whether the K-PERS can differentiate patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) from healthy controls (HCs). @*Methods@#We reviewed existing tools for measuring polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis, including the Maudsley Environmental Risk Score (ERS), polyenviromic risk score (PERS), and Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS). Using odds ratios and relative risks for Western studies and the “population proportion” (PP) of risk factors for Korean data, we developed the K-PERS, and compared the scores thereon between patients with SSDs and HCs. In addition, correlation was performed between the K-PERS and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). @*Results@#We first constructed the “K-PERS-I,” comprising five factors based on the PPS, and then the “K-PERS-II” comprising six factors based on the ERS. The instruments accurately predicted participants’ status (case vs. control). In addition, the K-PERS-I and -II scores exhibited significant negative correlations with the negative symptom factor score of the PANSS. @*Conclusion@#The K-PERS is the first comprehensive tool developed based on PP data obtained from Korean studies that measures polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis. Using pilot data, the K-PERS predicted patient status (SSD vs. HC). Further research is warranted to examine the relationship of K-PERS scores with clinical outcomes of psychosis and schizophrenia.

20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 444-454, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926522

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of treatment with drug-coated balloon (DCB) in a large real-world population. @*Methods@#Patients treated with DCBs were included in a multicenter observational registry that enrolled patients from 18 hospitals in Korea between January 2009 and December 2017. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF) defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization at 12 months. @*Results@#The study included 2,509 patients with 2,666 DCB-treated coronary artery lesions (1,688 [63.3%] with in-stent restenosis [ISR] lesions vs. 978 [36.7%] with de novo lesions).The mean age with standard deviation was 65.7±11.3 years; 65.7% of the patients were men.At 12 months, the primary outcome, TLF, occurred in 179 (6.7%), 151 (8.9%), 28 (2.9%) patients among the total, ISR, and de novo lesion populations, respectively. A history of hypertension, diabetes, acute coronary syndrome, previous coronary artery bypass graft, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, B2C lesion and ISR lesion were independent predictors of 12 months TLF in the overall study population. @*Conclusions@#This large multicenter DCB registry study revealed the favorable clinical outcome of DCB treatment in real-world practice in patient with ISR lesion as well as small de novo coronary lesion.

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