Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 528
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924964

ABSTRACT

Guidelines for the management of patients with diabetes have become an important part of clinical practice that improve the quality of care and help establish evidence-based medicine in this field. With rapidly accumulating evidence on various aspects of diabetes care, including landmark clinical trials of treatment agents and newer technologies, timely updates of the guidelines capture the most current state of the field and present a consensus. As a leading academic society, the Korean Diabetes Association publishes practice guidelines biennially and the American Diabetes Association does so annually. In this review, we summarize the key changes suggested in the most recent guidelines. Some of the important updates include treatment algorithms emphasizing comorbid conditions such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease in the selection of anti-diabetic agents; wider application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pump technologies and indices derived from CGM such as time in range; more active screening of subjects at high-risk of diabetes; and more detailed individualization in diabetes care. Although there are both similarities and differences among guidelines and some uncertainty remains, these updates provide a good approach for many clinical practitioners who are battling with diabetes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924943

ABSTRACT

Background@#Elevated γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GTP) level is associated with metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance, which are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association of cumulative exposure to high γ-GTP level with risk of diabetes. @*Methods@#Using nationally representative data from the Korean National Health Insurance system, 346,206 people who were free of diabetes and who underwent 5 consecutive health examinations from 2005 to 2009 were followed to the end of 2018. High γ-GTP level was defined as those in the highest quartile, and the number of exposures to high γ-GTP level ranged from 0 to 5. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for diabetes were analyzed using the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model. @*Results@#The mean follow-up duration was 9.2±1.0 years, during which 15,183 (4.4%) patients developed diabetes. There was a linear increase in the incidence rate and the risk of diabetes with cumulative exposure to high γ-GTP level. After adjusting for possible confounders, the HR of diabetes in subjects with five consecutive high γ-GTP levels were 2.60 (95% CI, 2.47 to 2.73) in men and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.73 to 3.41) in women compared with those who never had a high γ-GTP level. Similar results were observed in various subgroup and sensitivity analyses. @*Conclusion@#There was a linear relationship between cumulative exposure to high γ-GTP level and risk of diabetes. Monitoring and lowering γ-GTP level should be considered for prevention of diabetes in the general population.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924852

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showed inconsistencies in their cortisol level, an index of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. This study examined the relationship between dissociation, childhood trauma, and morning cortisol levels in PTSD patients. @*Methods@#This study included 69 (23 males and 46 females) patients and 82 (22 males and 60 females) healthy controls (HCs). Clinical assessments, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Peri-traumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores, and morning cortisol levels were evaluated. The morning cortisol levels were compared between PTSD with high dissociation and low dissociation (PTSD-LD) groups. The effect of CTQ subtype on morning cortisol levels was analyzed. @*Results@#The PTSD with high dissociation group showed significantly lower cortisol levels than that of the PTSD-LD and HC groups. A significant inverse correlation was found between cortisol levels and dissociation. A significant positive correlation was found between dissociation and physical abuse and sexual abuse scores. Morning cortisol levels showed a significant positive correlation with emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect, respectively. There was no moderating or mediating effect of CTQ on the relationship between cortisol level and dissociation. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that dissociation is a significant factor related to hypocortisolism in PTSD patients.Additionally, basal morning cortisol levels and dissociation scores were closely associated with childhood trauma.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 197-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926916

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Comprehensive understanding of polyenvironmental risk factors for the development of psychosis is important. Based on a review of related evidence, we developed the Korea Polyenvironmental Risk Score (K-PERS) for psychosis. We investigated whether the K-PERS can differentiate patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) from healthy controls (HCs). @*Methods@#We reviewed existing tools for measuring polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis, including the Maudsley Environmental Risk Score (ERS), polyenviromic risk score (PERS), and Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS). Using odds ratios and relative risks for Western studies and the “population proportion” (PP) of risk factors for Korean data, we developed the K-PERS, and compared the scores thereon between patients with SSDs and HCs. In addition, correlation was performed between the K-PERS and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). @*Results@#We first constructed the “K-PERS-I,” comprising five factors based on the PPS, and then the “K-PERS-II” comprising six factors based on the ERS. The instruments accurately predicted participants’ status (case vs. control). In addition, the K-PERS-I and -II scores exhibited significant negative correlations with the negative symptom factor score of the PANSS. @*Conclusion@#The K-PERS is the first comprehensive tool developed based on PP data obtained from Korean studies that measures polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis. Using pilot data, the K-PERS predicted patient status (SSD vs. HC). Further research is warranted to examine the relationship of K-PERS scores with clinical outcomes of psychosis and schizophrenia.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 444-454, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926522

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of treatment with drug-coated balloon (DCB) in a large real-world population. @*Methods@#Patients treated with DCBs were included in a multicenter observational registry that enrolled patients from 18 hospitals in Korea between January 2009 and December 2017. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF) defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization at 12 months. @*Results@#The study included 2,509 patients with 2,666 DCB-treated coronary artery lesions (1,688 [63.3%] with in-stent restenosis [ISR] lesions vs. 978 [36.7%] with de novo lesions).The mean age with standard deviation was 65.7±11.3 years; 65.7% of the patients were men.At 12 months, the primary outcome, TLF, occurred in 179 (6.7%), 151 (8.9%), 28 (2.9%) patients among the total, ISR, and de novo lesion populations, respectively. A history of hypertension, diabetes, acute coronary syndrome, previous coronary artery bypass graft, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, B2C lesion and ISR lesion were independent predictors of 12 months TLF in the overall study population. @*Conclusions@#This large multicenter DCB registry study revealed the favorable clinical outcome of DCB treatment in real-world practice in patient with ISR lesion as well as small de novo coronary lesion.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919188

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#While distal radial artery (DRA) access is increasingly being used for diagnostic coronary angiography, limited information is available regarding DRA size. We aimed to determine the DRA reference diameters of Korean patients and identify the predictors of DRA diameter < 2.3 mm. @*Methods@#The outer bilateral DRA diameters were assessed using a linear ultrasound probe in 1,162 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The DRA diameter was measured by the perpendicular angle in the dorsum of the hand, and the average values were compared by sex. DRA diameter < 2.3 mm was defined as unsuitable for routine diagnostic coronary angiography using a 5 Fr introducer sheath. @*Results@#The mean DRA diameters were 2.31 ± 0.43 mm (right) and 2.35 ± 0.45 mm (left). The DRA was smaller in women than men (right: 2.15 ± 0.38 mm vs. 2.43 ± 0.44 mm, p < 0.001; left: 2.18 ± 0.39 mm vs. 2.47 ± 0.45 mm, p < 0.001). The DRA diameter was approximately 20% smaller than the radial artery diameter. A total of 630 (54.2%) and 574 (49.4%) patients had DRA diameter < 2.3 mm in the right and left hands, respectively. Female sex, low body mass index (BMI), and low body surface area (BSA) were significant predictors of DRA diameter < 2.3 mm. @*Conclusions@#We provided reference DRA diameters for Korean patients. Approximately 50% of the studied patients had DRA diameter < 2.3 mm. Female sex, low BMI, and low BSA remained significant predictors of DRA diameter < 2.3 mm.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900146

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has been regarded as one of the standard treatments for acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. Despite the wide use of stent retrievers for MT, arterial intimal damage caused when deployed stent is pulled has been a certain disadvantage. We hypothesized that statin could protect and stabilize vessel damage after endovascular MT using a stent retriever. In this animal study, we observed the protective effects of the statins towards MT-induced vessel wall injury. @*Methods@#: Twenty-eight carotid arteries of fourteen rabbits were used in the experiments with MT using stent retriever. We divided the rabbits into four groups as follows : group 1, negative control; group 2, positive control; group 3, statin before MT; and group 4, statin after MT. After MT procedures, we harvested the carotid arteries and performed histomorphological and immunohistochemical analyses. @*Results@#: In histomorphological analysis with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome stain, significant intimal thickening (p<0.05) was observed in the positive control (group 2), compared to in the negative control (group 1). Intimal thickening was improved in the statin-administered groups (groups 3 and 4 vs. group 2, p<0.05). We also observed that statin administration after MT (group 4) resulted in a more effective decrease in intimal thickness than statin administration before MT (group 3) (p<0.05). We performed immunohistochemical analysis with the antibodies for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cluster of differentiation (CD)11b, and CD163. In contrast to the negative control (group 1), the stained percentage areas of all immunological markers were markedly increased in the positive control (group 2) (p<0.05). Based on statin administration, the percentage area of TNF-α staining was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in group 3, compared to the positive control group (group 2). However, significant differences were not observed for CD11b and CD163 staining. In group 4, no significant differences were observed for TNF-α, CD11b, and CD163 staining (p≥0.05). The differences in the percentage areas of the different markers between the statin-administered groups (groups 3 and 4) were also not revealed. @*Conclusion@#: We presented that statin administration before and after MT exerted protective effects towards vessel wall injury. The efficacy of statins was greater post-administration than pre-administration. Thus, statin administration in routine prescriptions in the peri-procedural period is strongly advised.

8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1007-1015, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914264

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic abnormalities, such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG), are dynamic phenomena; however, it is unclear whether the timing of IFG exposure and cumulative exposure to IFG are related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risk. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from a nationwide population-based cohort in South Korea for adults (n=2,206,679) who were free of diabetes and had 4 years of consecutive health examination data. Fasting blood glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dL were defined as IFG, and the number of IFG diagnoses for each adult in the 4-year period was tabulated as the IFG exposure score (range, 0 to 4). Adults with persistent IFG for the 4-year period received a score of 4. @*Results@#The median follow-up was 8.2 years. There were 24,820 deaths, 13,502 cases of stroke, and 13,057 cases of myocardial infarction (MI). IFG exposure scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4 were associated with all-cause mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.15; aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.20; aHR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.25; aHR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.25, respectively) compared with an IFG exposure score of 0. Adjusting for hypertension and dyslipidemia attenuated the slightly increased risk of MI or stroke associated with high IFG exposure scores, but significant associations for allcause mortality remained. @*Conclusion@#The intensity of IFG exposure was associated with an elevated risk of all-cause mortality, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. The association between IFG exposure and CVD risk was largely mediated by the coexistence of dyslipidemia and hypertension.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1254-1267, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914241

ABSTRACT

Background@#We analyzed hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and various lung function test results in healthy individuals after a 6-year follow-up period to explore the influence of lung function changes on glycemic control. @*Methods@#Subjects whose HbA1c levels did not qualify as diabetes mellitus (DM) and who had at least two consecutive lung function tests were selected among the people who visited a health promotion center. Lung function parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow 25% to 75% (FEF25%−75%), were divided into four groups based on their baseline quantiles. To evaluate future DM onset risk in relation to lung function changes, the correlation between baseline HbA1c levels and changes in lung function parameters after a 6-year follow-up period was analyzed. @*Results@#Overall, 17,568 individuals were included; 0.9% of the subjects were diagnosed with DM. The individuals included in the quartile with FEV1/FVC ratio values of 78% to 82% had lower risk of DM than those in the quartile with FEV1/FVC ratio values of ≥86% after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (P=0.04). Baseline percent predicted FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and FEF25%−75%, and differences in the FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%−75%, showed negative linear correlations with baseline HbA1c levels. @*Conclusion@#Healthy subjects with FEV1/FVC ratio values between 78% and 82% had 40% lower risk for future DM. Smaller differences and lower baseline FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%−75% values were associated with higher baseline HbA1c levels. These findings suggest that airflow limitation affects systemic glucose control and that the FEV1/FVC ratio could be one of the factors predicting future DM risk in healthy individuals.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875518

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recently, distal radial approach (DRA), called as snuffbox approach, has gained the interest of interventional cardiologists, but there is a lack of data about the feasibility of DRA as an alternative route for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#A total of 138 patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in whom primary PCI via the DRA was attempted at three hospitals from October 2017 to September 2019 were analyzed. @*Results@#The success rate of snuffbox puncture in the setting of STEMI was 92.8% (128/138). Successful primary PCI via the DRA was achieved in all 128 patients. The snuffbox puncture time, defined as the time interval from local anesthesia induction to successful sheath cannulation, was 2.7 ± 1.6 minutes, and snuffbox puncture was performed within 5 minutes in 95.3% of patients. Moreover, the percentage of the puncture time in the door-to-balloon time was 3.3%. The left DRA was selected in 103 patients (80.5%), and primary PCI via the DRA was performed using a 6-Fr guiding catheter in 125 patients (97.7%). There was no major bleeding; however, there were four cases (3.1%) of access-site complications, including three cases of local hematoma (≤ 5 cm diameter) and one case of local numbness, which improved 3 months later. @*Conclusions@#In the setting of STEMI, the DRA could be a feasible alternative access route for primary PCI.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874827

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate the relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and causespecific mortality. @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, we identified 343,687 subjects (men, 176,243; women, 167,444) aged ≥20 years who underwent health examinations between 2009 and 2012. HDL-C levels were categorized based on the concentration with 10 mg/dL intervals, starting from levels <30 mg/dL, with levels ≥90 mg/ dL considered the highest. The endpoints of the study were newly-diagnosed MI, stroke, or mortality. We used the Cox proportional hazards model with restricted cubic splines. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 6.0 years, the number of cases of death, MI, and stroke were 6,617, 4,064, and 3,435 in men and 3,677, 2,804, and 2,891 in women, respectively. The risk of all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, other mortality, and stroke was the lowest at HDL-C concentrations of 57–76 mg/dL in the spline curves; inverse associations with increased risk were observed at the lower HDL-C levels. In contrast, the lowest risk of cardiovascular mortality and MI was observed at the extreme high end. In men, there was a significant inverse and graded increase in hazard ratios of all outcomes in the lower HDL-C categories compared to the reference group (50–59 mg/dL). In the higher HDL-C categories, no significant increase in outcomes was observed. Women showed similar trends. @*Conclusion@#The risk of mortality, MI, and stroke was high at low HDL-C levels in the Korean general population. However, extremely high HDL-C levels were not associated with an increased risk of mortality, MI, and stroke.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874797

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Preoperative prediction of the arachnoid membrane descent in pituitary surgery is useful for achieving gross total removal and avoiding cerebrospinal fluid leakage resulting from tearing of the arachnoid membrane in the chiasmatic cistern. In this study, we analyzed the patterns of arachnoid membrane descent during or after pituitary tumor surgery and identified the factors related to this descent. @*Methods@#: Analysis was restricted to pituitary macroadenomas not extending into the third ventricle or over the internal carotid artery. To minimize confounding factors, patients who underwent revision surgery, those who had a torn arachnoid during operation or small medial diaphragma sellae (DS) opening, and subtotal resections were excluded. We enrolled 41 consecutive patients in this retrospective analysis. The degree of arachnoid descent was categorized using intraoperative videos. Preoperative magnetic resonance findings, including tumor height, suprasellar extension, and variables including DS area and medial opening size, tumor composition, and displacement of the pituitary stalk and gland were evaluated to determine their correlations with arachnoid membrane descent. @*Results@#: Arachnoid membrane descent was significantly correlated with DS area and medial opening size. Based on T2-weighted images (T2WI) magnetic resonance (MR) images, tumor composition was significantly associated with arachnoid membrane descent. Other factors were not significantly correlated with arachnoid membrane descent. @*Conclusion@#: T2WI of tumor composition and preoperative MR imaging of DS area and medial opening provided valuable information regarding arachnoid membrane descent. These parameters may serve as fundamental measures to facilitate complete resection of pituitary macroadenomas.

13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 721-727, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913653

ABSTRACT

Methods@#Consecutive patients whose BMD had been checked using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at Gwangmyung Sungae Hospital were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of type 2 DM. Risk factors of OVCF including age, BMI, current smoking status, current alcohol consumption, and presence of osteoporosis were analyzed separately in the type 2 DM group and control group. @*Results@#A total of 1,130 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 63.2 years. BMI was positively correlated with lumbar BMD in the control group (r =0.284) and in the diabetic group (r =0.302). In subgroup analysis, BMI and age were significant risk factors of OVCF in the type 2 DM group. In multiple linear regression analysis, type 2 DM (β =0.035; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.005–0.065; p =0.024) and BMI (β =0.015; 95% CI, 0.012–0.018; p <0.001) were positively correlated with lumbar BMD, and age was negatively correlated with BMD (β =−0.006; 95% CI, −0.007 to −0.004; p <0.001). @*Conclusions@#BMI was positively correlated with lumbar BMD and was higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Age was negatively correlated with lumbar BMD.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899101

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Dementia is rapidly becoming more common in the elderly population of South Korea, and there are regional difference in its demographics. This study investigated the trajectories in the prevalence and incidence of dementia based on the Seoul metropolitan area and other areas in South Korea using big data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). @*Methods@#We examined a population-based elderly cohort obtained from the NHIS Senior Cohort (NHIS-SC) data set that comprises approximately half a million recipients of medical insurance in South Korea during 2003–2015. The age-standardized prevalence and incidence of dementia as well as their trajectories from 2003 were estimated. Regional differences in these rates between Seoul metropolitan area and other areas were also analyzed. @*Results@#The standardized prevalence of dementia per 100,000 increased significantly from 178.11 in 2003 to 5,319.01 in 2015 (p<0.001). The standardized prevalence of dementia was higher in other areas than in Seoul metropolitan area. The standardized incidence of dementia per 100,000 person-years also increased significantly, from 126.41 in 2003 to 2,218.25 in 2015 (p<0.001). The standardized incidence of dementia was similarly higher in other areas than in Seoul metropolitan area (p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#This study has shown that the standardized prevalence and incidence of dementia increased steadily from 2003 to 2015 in South Korea based on the NHIS-SC data set, and differed between Seoul metropolitan area and other areas.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898221

ABSTRACT

Background@#Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Hypopituitarism in nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is often linked to increased cardiovascular mortality. We therefore hypothesized that postoperative NFPA patients with hormone deficiency have an elevated risk of HRV alterations indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction. @*Methods@#A total of 22 patients with NFPA were enrolled in the study. Between 3 and 6 months after surgery, a combined pituitary function test (CPFT) was performed, and HRV was measured. The period of sleep before the CPFT was deemed the most stable period, and the hypoglycemic period that occurred during the CPFT was defined as the most unstable period. Changes in HRV parameters in stable and unstable periods were observed and compared depending on the status of hormone deficiencies. @*Results@#In patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, the low frequency to high frequency ratio, which represents overall autonomic function and is increased in the disease state, was higher (P=0.005). Additionally, the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval, which decreases in the autonomic dysfunction state, was lower (P=0.030) during the hypoglycemic period. In panhypopituitarism, the low frequency to high frequency ratio during the hypoglycemic period was increased (P=0.007). @*Conclusion@#HRV analysis during CPFT enables estimation of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with NFPA who develop ACTH deficiency with other pituitary hormone deficiencies or panhypopituitarism after surgery. These patients may require a preemptive assessment of cardiovascular risk.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898169

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic disturbances are modifiable risk factors for dementia. Because the status of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components changes over time, we aimed to investigate the association of the cumulative exposure to MetS and its components with the risk of dementia. @*Methods@#Adults (n=1,492,776; ≥45-years-old) who received health examinations for 4 consecutive years were identified from a nationwide population-based cohort in Korea. Two exposure-weighted scores were calculated: cumulative number of MetS diagnoses (MetS exposure score, range of 0 to 4) and the composite of its five components (MetS component exposure score, range of 0 to 20). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) values for dementia were analyzed using the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model. @*Results@#Overall, 47.1% of subjects were diagnosed with MetS at least once, and 11.5% had persistent MetS. During the mean 5.2 years of follow-up, there were 7,341 cases (0.5%) of incident dementia. There was a stepwise increase in the risk of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia with increasing MetS exposure score and MetS component exposure score (each P for trend <0.0001). The HR of all-cause dementia was 2.62 (95% CI, 1.87 to 3.68) in subjects with a MetS component exposure score of 20 compared with those with a score of 0. People fulfilling only one MetS component out of 20 already had an approximately 40% increased risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. @*Conclusion@#More cumulative exposure to metabolic disturbances was associated with a higher risk of dementia. Of note, even minimal exposure to MetS components had a significant effect on the risk of dementia.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898108

ABSTRACT

The year 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin, which has greatly changed the lives of people with diabetes and become a cornerstone of advances in medical science. A rapid bench-to-bedside application of the lifesaving pancreatic extract and its immediate commercialization was the result of a promising idea, positive drive, perseverance, and collaboration of Banting and colleagues. As one of the very few proteins isolated in a pure form at that time, insulin also played a key role in the development of important methodologies and in the beginning of various fields of modern science. Since its discovery, insulin has evolved continuously to optimize the care of people with diabetes. Since the 1980s, recombinant DNA technology has been employed to engineer insulin analogs by modifying their amino acid sequence, which has resulted in the production of insulins with various profiles that are currently used. However, unmet needs in insulin treatment still exist, and several forms of future insulins are under development. In this review, we discuss the past, present, and future of insulin, including a history of ceaseless innovations and collective intelligence. We believe that this story will be a solid foundation and an unerring guide for the future.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898097

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).ResultsAt week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, PPPConclusionDapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897916

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Loudness of dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) is an electroencephalogram-based measure that represents amplitude changes of auditory evoked potentials in primary auditory cortex. Several narrative reviews argued that pre-treatment LDAEP values predict responses to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This study aims to quantify the overall relationship between baseline LDAEP values and treatment response to SSRIs in patients with depression and generalized anxiety disorders, evidenced by clinical symptoms reductions, across multiple studies. @*Methods@#In our meta-analysis, seven articles with a total sample of 241 patients were included. @*Results@#Our results showed that stronger baseline LDAEP values predicted favorable response to SSRIs for depression and anxiety, with a moderate effect size. @*Conclusion@#The current results support the idea that LDAEP is a promising biomarker for SSRIs treatment prediction in patients with depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL