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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926502

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) can affect quality of life (QoL) because it requires arduous lifelong management. This study analyzed QoL differences between DN patients and patients with other chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Methods: The analysis included subjects (n = 1,766) from the KNOW-CKD (Korean Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease) cohort who completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form questionnaire. After implementing propensity score matching (PSM) using factors that affect the QoL of DN patients, QoL differences between DN and non-DN participants were examined. Results: Among all DN patients (n = 390), higher QoL scores were found for taller subjects, and lower scores were found for those who were unemployed or unmarried, received Medical Aid, had lower economic status, had higher platelet counts or alkaline phosphatase levels, or used clopidogrel or insulin. After PSM, the 239 matched DN subjects reported significantly lower patient satisfaction (59.9 vs. 64.5, p = 0.02) and general health (35.3 vs. 39.1, p = 0.04) than the 239 non-DN subjects. Scores decreased in both groups during the 5-year follow-up, and the scores in the work status, sexual function, and role-physical domains were lower among DN patients than non-DN patients, though those differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors of DN were strong risk factors for impaired QoL, as were high platelet, alkaline phosphatase, and clopidogrel and insulin use. Clinicians should keep in mind that the QoL of DN patients might decrease in some domains compared with non-DN CKDs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903733

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite controversy regarding the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), clinical outcomes may vary depending on the patient’s responsiveness to this therapy. This study evaluated long-term kidney outcomes according to the extent of proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression in IgAN patients. @*Methods@#Among 927 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, 127 patients underwent immunosuppression. Time-averaged urine protein-creatinine ratio before and within 1 year after start of immunosuppression were calculated, and responsiveness to immunosuppression was assessed as the reduction of proteinuria between the two periods. Patients were classified into tertiles according to the extent of proteinuria reduction. We compared the slopes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline using a linear mixed model, and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for disease progression (defined as development of a ≥ 30% decline in eGFR or end-stage renal disease) using a Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Median extent of proteinuria reduction was –2.1, –0.9, and –0.2 g/gCr in the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. There were concomitant changes in the slopes of annual eGFR decline: –2.03, –2.44, and –4.62 mL/min/1.73 m2 among the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. In multivariable Cox analysis, the HRs (95% confidence intervals) for disease progression were 0.30 (0.12 to 0.74) in the first tertile and 0.70 (0.34 to 1.45) in the second tertile compared with the thirdtertile. @*Conclusions@#This study showed that greater proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression was associated with a lower risk of disease progression in patients with IgAN, suggesting that responsiveness to immunosuppression may be an important determinant of kidney outcomes.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903703

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to investigate whether urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) excretion was associated with elevated blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to evaluate the relationship among blood pressure, intra-renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity, and dietary sodium in patients with CKD. @*Methods@#Participants from the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) were included. Of the total cohort of 2,238 individuals with CKD, we included 1,955 participants who underwent complete 24-hour urinary sodium (24-hour UNa) analysis. They were categorized into three groups according to three tertiles of their 24-hour UNa, reflecting daily salt intake. To measure intra-renal RAS activity, the UAGT excretion was assayed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Elevated 24-hour UNa levels, logarithm of UAGT-to-creatinine ratio (UAGT/Cr), increased waist-to-hip ratio, and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate were the risk factors for increased systolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure showed a positive correlation with 24-hour UNa levels and logarithm of UAGT/Cr. @*Conclusions@#UAGT and urinary sodium excretion are independent determinants of systolic blood pressure in patients with CKD. These findings suggest that increased systolic blood pressure in CKD patients is associated with both increased dietary sodium levels and intra-renal RAS activity. The risk of elevated systolic blood pressure in the 3rd tertile of both the UAGT/Cr and 24-hour UNa groups was about 2.3 times higher than that in the reference group.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903663

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can lead to serious adverse outcomes. To prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular events (CVEs), and end-stage kidney disease, achieving an optimal BP level is important. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the management of BP largely as a result of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), which showed a reduction in CVEs by lowering systolic BP to 120 mmHg. A lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) target has been accepted by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2021 guidelines. However, whether intensive control of SBP targeting < 120 mmHg is also effective in patients with CKD is controversial. Notably, this lower target SBP is associated with a higher risk of adverse kidney outcomes. Unfortunately, there have been no randomized controlled trials on this issue involving only patients with CKD, particularly those with advanced CKD. In this review, we discuss the optimal control of BP in patients with CKD in terms of reduction in death and CVEs as well as attenuation of CKD progression based on the evidence-based literature.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896029

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite controversy regarding the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), clinical outcomes may vary depending on the patient’s responsiveness to this therapy. This study evaluated long-term kidney outcomes according to the extent of proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression in IgAN patients. @*Methods@#Among 927 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, 127 patients underwent immunosuppression. Time-averaged urine protein-creatinine ratio before and within 1 year after start of immunosuppression were calculated, and responsiveness to immunosuppression was assessed as the reduction of proteinuria between the two periods. Patients were classified into tertiles according to the extent of proteinuria reduction. We compared the slopes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline using a linear mixed model, and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for disease progression (defined as development of a ≥ 30% decline in eGFR or end-stage renal disease) using a Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Median extent of proteinuria reduction was –2.1, –0.9, and –0.2 g/gCr in the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. There were concomitant changes in the slopes of annual eGFR decline: –2.03, –2.44, and –4.62 mL/min/1.73 m2 among the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. In multivariable Cox analysis, the HRs (95% confidence intervals) for disease progression were 0.30 (0.12 to 0.74) in the first tertile and 0.70 (0.34 to 1.45) in the second tertile compared with the thirdtertile. @*Conclusions@#This study showed that greater proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression was associated with a lower risk of disease progression in patients with IgAN, suggesting that responsiveness to immunosuppression may be an important determinant of kidney outcomes.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895999

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to investigate whether urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) excretion was associated with elevated blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to evaluate the relationship among blood pressure, intra-renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity, and dietary sodium in patients with CKD. @*Methods@#Participants from the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) were included. Of the total cohort of 2,238 individuals with CKD, we included 1,955 participants who underwent complete 24-hour urinary sodium (24-hour UNa) analysis. They were categorized into three groups according to three tertiles of their 24-hour UNa, reflecting daily salt intake. To measure intra-renal RAS activity, the UAGT excretion was assayed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Elevated 24-hour UNa levels, logarithm of UAGT-to-creatinine ratio (UAGT/Cr), increased waist-to-hip ratio, and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate were the risk factors for increased systolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure showed a positive correlation with 24-hour UNa levels and logarithm of UAGT/Cr. @*Conclusions@#UAGT and urinary sodium excretion are independent determinants of systolic blood pressure in patients with CKD. These findings suggest that increased systolic blood pressure in CKD patients is associated with both increased dietary sodium levels and intra-renal RAS activity. The risk of elevated systolic blood pressure in the 3rd tertile of both the UAGT/Cr and 24-hour UNa groups was about 2.3 times higher than that in the reference group.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895959

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can lead to serious adverse outcomes. To prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular events (CVEs), and end-stage kidney disease, achieving an optimal BP level is important. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the management of BP largely as a result of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), which showed a reduction in CVEs by lowering systolic BP to 120 mmHg. A lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) target has been accepted by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2021 guidelines. However, whether intensive control of SBP targeting < 120 mmHg is also effective in patients with CKD is controversial. Notably, this lower target SBP is associated with a higher risk of adverse kidney outcomes. Unfortunately, there have been no randomized controlled trials on this issue involving only patients with CKD, particularly those with advanced CKD. In this review, we discuss the optimal control of BP in patients with CKD in terms of reduction in death and CVEs as well as attenuation of CKD progression based on the evidence-based literature.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917057

ABSTRACT

Background@#The use of newly developed mixed-dilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) can supplement the weaknesses of pre- and postdilution HDF. However, it is unclear whether mixed-HDF performs well compared to predilution HDF. @*Methods@#We conducted a prospective, open-labeled, randomized controlled trial from two hemodialysis centers in Korea. Between January 2017 and September 2019, 60 patients who underwent chronic hemodialysis were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either predilution HDF (n = 30) or mixed-HDF (n = 30) for 6 months. We compared convection volume, changes in small- and medium-sized molecule clearance, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and dialysis-related parameters between the two dialysis modalities. @*Results@#A mean effective convection volume of 41.0 ± 10.3 L/session in the predilution HDF group and 51.5 ± 9.0 L/session in the mixed-HDF group was obtained by averaging values of three time-points. The difference in effective convection volume between the groups was 10.5 ± 1.3 L/session. This met the preset noninferiority criteria, suggesting that mixed-HDF was noninferior to predilution HDF. Moreover, the β2-microglobulin reduction rate was greater in the mixed-HDF group than in the predilution HDF group, while mixed-HDF provided greater transmembrane pressure. There were no significant between-group differences in Kt/V urea levels, changes in predialysis hs-CRP levels, proportions of overhydration, or blood pressure values. Symptomatic intradialytic hypotension episodes and other adverse events occurred similarly in the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Use of mixed-HDF was comparable to predilution HDF in terms of delivered convection volume and clinical parameters. Moreover, mixed-HDF provided better β2-microglobulin clearance than predilution HDF.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893796

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of fluid balance on outcomes in elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal-replacement therapy (CRRT) is not explained well. We investigated outcomes according to cumulative fluid balance (CFB) in elderly patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. @*Methods@#A total of 607 patients aged 65 years or older who started CRRT due to AKI were enrolled and stratified into two groups (fluid overload [FO] vs. no fluid overload [NFO]) based on the median CFB value for 72 hours before CRRT initiation. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed. @*Results@#The median age of included patients was 73.0 years and 60.0% of the population was male. The median 72-hour CFB value was 2,839.0 mL. The overall cumulative survival and 28-day survival rates were lower in the FO group than in the NFO group (P < 0.001 for both) and remained so after propensity score-matching. Furthermore, patients in the FO group demonstrated a higher overall mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Charlson comorbidity index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, serum albumin, creatinine, diuretic use, and mechanical ventilation status (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.89; P < 0.001). Among survivors, both the duration of CRRT and the total duration of hospitalization from CRRT initiation showed no difference between the FO and NFO groups. @*Conclusion@#A higher CFB value is associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients with AKI requiring CRRT.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834946

ABSTRACT

Background@#Higher statin intensity is associated with a lower risk of mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the relationship between statin intensity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. @*Methods@#We studied whether statin intensity affects kidney function decline in 1,073 patients from the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. The participants were classified based on statin intensity as low, moderate, and high. The study endpoint was CKD progression (composite of doubling of serum creatinine, ≥ 50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] from baseline, or end-stage renal disease). @*Results@#The mean age was 56.0 ± 11.4 years, and 665 (62.0%) participants were male. The mean eGFR was 51.7 ± 26.7 mL/min/1.73 m2; there were no differences in baseline eGFR among statin intensity groups. During the median follow-up of 39.9 (25.4-61.6) months, 255 (23.8%) patients reached the study endpoint. In multivariable Cox model after adjustment of confounders, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for adverse kidney outcome were 0.97 (0.72-1.30) and 1.15 (0.60-2.20) in moderate and high statin intensity groups, respectively, compared with the low intensity group. In addition, no significant association was observed in subgroups stratified by age, sex, eGFR, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores. @*Conclusion@#We did not observe any significant association between intensity of statin therapy and progression of CKD. Long-term kidney outcomes may not be affected by statin intensity.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834941

ABSTRACT

As the nation’s largest chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohort, the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) was established to investigate the clinical course, risk factors for progression, and adverse outcomes of CKD. From 2011 to 2016, the KNOW-CKD recruited 2,238 adult patients with CKD from stage G1 to G5 who were not receiving renal replacement therapy from nine tertiary care hospitals throughout Korea. As of 2019, the KNOW-CKD has published more than 50 articles in the areas of socio-economics, nutrition, quality of life, health-related habits, CKD progression, cardiovascular comorbidity and outcome, anemia, mineral bone disease, biomarker discovery, and international and inter-ethnic comparisons. The KNOW-CKD will eventually offer a prediction model for long-term consequences of CKD, such as the occurrences of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and death, thereby enabling the identification and treatment of at-risk populations that require extra medical attention.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833910

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of diseases and death in older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the intention to quit smoking in elderly Korean men. @*Methods@#We investigated 813 male smokers aged 65 years or more from the 5th and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2015. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related with smoking cessation intention. @*Results@#Of the respondents, 26.3% had the intention to quit smoking. After adjustment for confounding factors, the intention to quit smoking was significantly associated with a history of ischemic heart disease (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–3.48). @*Conclusion@#Identifying the factors related to the intention to quit smoking among older adults can help in developing effective smoking cessation strategies for this section of the population.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901500

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of fluid balance on outcomes in elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal-replacement therapy (CRRT) is not explained well. We investigated outcomes according to cumulative fluid balance (CFB) in elderly patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. @*Methods@#A total of 607 patients aged 65 years or older who started CRRT due to AKI were enrolled and stratified into two groups (fluid overload [FO] vs. no fluid overload [NFO]) based on the median CFB value for 72 hours before CRRT initiation. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed. @*Results@#The median age of included patients was 73.0 years and 60.0% of the population was male. The median 72-hour CFB value was 2,839.0 mL. The overall cumulative survival and 28-day survival rates were lower in the FO group than in the NFO group (P < 0.001 for both) and remained so after propensity score-matching. Furthermore, patients in the FO group demonstrated a higher overall mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Charlson comorbidity index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, serum albumin, creatinine, diuretic use, and mechanical ventilation status (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.89; P < 0.001). Among survivors, both the duration of CRRT and the total duration of hospitalization from CRRT initiation showed no difference between the FO and NFO groups. @*Conclusion@#A higher CFB value is associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients with AKI requiring CRRT.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758979

ABSTRACT

In 2016 and 2017, there were earthquakes greater than 5.0 in magnitude on the Korean Peninsula, which has previously been considered an earthquake-free zone. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, as the term “renal disaster” suggests. In the event of a major earthquake, patients on hemodialysis face the risk of losing maintenance dialysis due to infrastructure disruption. In this review, we share the experience of an earthquake in Pohang that posed a serious risk to patients on hemodialysis. We review the disaster response system in Japan and propose a disaster preparedness plan with respect to hemodialysis. Korean nephrologists and staff in dialysis facilities should be trained in emergency response to mitigate risk from natural disasters. Dialysis staff should be familiar with the action plan for natural disaster events that disrupt hemodialysis, such as outages and water treatment system failures caused by earthquakes. Patients on hemodialysis also need to be educated about disaster preparedness. In the event of a disaster situation that results in dialysis failure, patients need to know what to do. At the local and national government level, long-term preparations should be made to handle renal disaster and patient safety logistics. Moreover, Korean nephrologists should also be prepared to manage cardiovascular disease and diabetes in disaster situations. Further evaluation and management of social and national disaster preparedness of hemodialysis units to earthquakes in Korea are needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Dialysis , Disasters , Earthquakes , Emergencies , Federal Government , Humans , Japan , Korea , Organization and Administration , Patient Safety , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Water Purification
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease share several common risk factors. The Framingham risk score is hypothesized to predict chronic kidney disease development. We determined if the Framingham risk scoring system can correctly predict incident chronic kidney disease in the general population. METHODS: This study included 9,080 subjects who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2001 and 2014 and had normal renal function. The subjects were classified into low- ( 20%) risk groups based on baseline Framingham risk scores. The primary endpoint was de novo chronic kidney disease development (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], < 60 mL/min/1.73 m²). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up duration of 8.9 ± 4.3 years, 312 (5.3%), 217 (10.8%), and 205 (16.9%) subjects developed chronic kidney disease in the low, intermediate, and high risk groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis after adjustment for confounding factors showed the hazard ratios for the high- and intermediate risk groups were 2.674 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.197–3.255) and 1.734 (95% CI, 1.447–2.078), respectively. This association was consistently observed irrespective of proteinuria, age, sex, obesity, or hypertension. The predictive power of this scoring system was lower than that of renal parameters, such as eGFR and proteinuria, but increased when both were included in the prediction model. CONCLUSION: The Framingham risk score predicted incident chronic kidney disease and enhanced risk stratification in conjunction with traditional renal parameters in the general population with normal renal function.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Genome , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension , Obesity , Prospective Studies , Proteinuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Aldosterone-induced glomerular hyperfiltration can lead to masked preoperative renal dysfunction in primary aldosteronism(PA) patients. We evaluated whether PA patients had a higher prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after unilateral adrenalectomy. In addition, we identified risk factors for AKI in these subjects.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study included 107 PA patients, and 186 pheochromocytoma patients as a control group, all of whom underwent adrenalectomy between January 2006 and November 2017 at Yonsei University Severance Hospital. The primary outcome was AKI within 48 hours after adrenalectomy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of AKI after adrenalectomy.@*RESULTS@#Overall incidence of AKI was 49/293 (16.7%). In PA patients, the incidence of AKI was 29/107 (27.1%). In contrast, incidence of AKI was 20/186 (10.7%) in pheochromocytoma patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis both showed a higher risk of postoperative AKI in PA patients compared to pheochromocytoma patients. In addition, old age, diabetes, longer duration of hypertension, lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, high aldosterone-cortisol ratio (ACR) and lateralization index (LI) were identified as independent risk factors for postoperative AKI in PA patients after unilateral adrenalectomy.@*CONCLUSION@#Incidence and risk of postoperative AKI were significantly higher in PA patients after surgical treatment. High ACR on the tumor side and high LI were associated with higher risk of AKI in PA patients compared to pheochromocytoma patients.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze factors related to screening for diabetic retinopathy in elderly diabetic patients.METHODS: This study included 682 elderly diabetic patients aged older than 65 years who answered the question “Have you undergone an eye examination in the last year?” from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2015. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to identify the relationship between screening for diabetic retinopathy in elderly diabetic patients and related factors.RESULTS: Among the study population, 493 patients (73.3%) did not undergo eye examinations in the last year. Age ≥80 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.250; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.014–4.992), current smoking (OR, 2.006; 95% CI, 1.018–3.953), poor subjective health status (OR, 0.457; 95% CI, 0.242–0.863), history of stroke (OR, 0.479; 95% CI, 0.246–0.933), and history of hypertension (OR, 1.674; 95% CI, 1.114–2.516) were significantly associated with not undergoing eye examinations for diabetic retinopathy in elderly diabetic patients aged older than 65 years.CONCLUSION: In elderly diabetic patients aged older than 65 years living in Korea, those aged older than 80 years, who are current smokers, and with a history of hypertension showed low rates of undergoing eye examinations for diabetic retinopathy, while those with poor subjective health status and a history of stroke had high rates of undergoing eye examinations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Logistic Models , Mass Screening , Nutrition Surveys , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115133

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We report the baseline cardiovascular characteristics of 2,238 participants by using the data of the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) study. The cohort comprises 5 subcohorts according to the cause of CKD: glomerulonephritis (GN), diabetic nephropathy (DN), hypertensive nephropathy (HTN), polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and unclassified. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 50.5 ± 30.3 mL/min⁻¹/1.73 m⁻² and lowest in the DN subcohort. The overall prevalence of previous CVD was 14.4% in all patients, and was highest in the DN followed by that in the HTN subcohort. The DN subcohort had more adverse cardiovascular risk profiles (higher systolic blood pressure [SBP], and higher levels of cardiac troponin T, left ventricular mass index [LVMI], coronary calcium score, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV]) than the other subcohorts. The HTN subcohort exhibited less severe cardiovascular risk profiles than the DN subcohort, but had more severe cardiovascular risk features than the GN and PKD subcohorts. All these cardiovascular risk profiles were inversely correlated with eGFR. In conclusion, this study shows that the KNOW-CKD cohort exhibits high cardiovascular burden, as other CKD cohorts in previous studies. Among the subcohorts, the DN subcohort had the highest risk for CVD. The ongoing long-term follow-up study up to 10 years will further delineate cardiovascular characteristics and outcomes of each subcohort exposed to different risk profiles.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure , Calcium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Diabetic Nephropathies , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glomerulonephritis , Humans , Hypertension , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Prevalence , Pulse Wave Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Troponin T
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115132

ABSTRACT

This study examined the characteristics of biochemical parameters, bone diseases, and vascular calcification in Korean patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis. Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D); lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck bone mineral densities; and brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) representing vascular calcification were measured at baseline for 2,238 CKD patients in the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With CKD (KNOW-CKD). Increases in serum FGF23 and iPTH preceded changes in serum calcium and phosphate, similar to Western populations. However, the 25D and 1,25D levels decreased earlier than serum FGF23 or iPTH increased, with a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Korean CKD patients. Vitamin D deficiency occurred in 76.7% of patients with CKD stage 1. Bone mineral densities were lowest in CKD stage 5 (lumbar spine, −0.64 ± 1.67; total hip, −0.49 ± 1.21; femur neck, −1.02 ± 1.25). Osteoporosis was more prevalent in patients with higher CKD stages. The mean baPWV, abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), and coronary calcium score also increased, with declined eGFR. In conclusion, a decline in serum vitamin D levels was observed in early CKD stages before significant increases of FGF23 and iPTH in the Korean CKD population compared with that in Western populations. Increased bone disease and vascular calcification occurred in early-stage CKD.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Bone Diseases , Calcifediol , Calcitriol , Calcium , Cohort Studies , Dialysis , Femur Neck , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hip , Humans , Kidney , Osteoporosis , Parathyroid Hormone , Pulse Wave Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Spine , Vascular Calcification , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115130

ABSTRACT

Adverse changes in nutrition are prevalent and are strong indicators of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) proposed a common nomenclature and diagnostic criteria to identify protein-energy wasting (PEW) in CKD patients. We examined the nutritional status in 1,834 adults with predialysis CKD enrolled in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) study. As there was a need for further understanding of nutritional status and associated factors in CKD, we evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of PEW in adults with predialysis CKD. The prevalence of PEW was about 9.0% according to ISRNM criteria and tended to increase with advanced stage in predialysis CKD. Those who concurrently had PEW, inflammation, and CVD were a small proportion (0.4%). In multivariate logistic regression model, PEW was independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99), total CO2 (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87–0.99), physical activity (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26–0.69), comorbid diabetes (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.09–2.59), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06). Our study suggests that PEW increases with advanced CKD stage. PEW is independently associated with renal function, low total CO2, low physical activity, comorbid diabetes, and increased hs-CRP in adults with predialysis CKD.


Subject(s)
Adult , C-Reactive Protein , Cohort Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Inflammation , Logistic Models , Metabolism , Motor Activity , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
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