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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924926

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to up-to-date Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study collected electronic medical record data from patients with T2DM (≥20 years) managed by endocrinologists from 15 hospitals in Korea (January to December 2019). Patients were categorized according to guidelines to assess LDL-C target achievement. KDA (2019): Very High-I (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) <70 mg/dL; Very High-II (target organ damage [TOD], or cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]) <70 mg/dL; high (others) <100 mg/dL. ESC/EAS (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD): <55 mg/dL; Very High-II (TOD or ≥3-CVRF) <55 mg/dL; high (diabetes ≥10 years without TOD plus any CVRF) <70 mg/dL; moderate (diabetes <10 years without CVRF) <100 mg/dL. ADA (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD); Very High-II (age ≥40+ TOD, or any CVRF), for high intensity statin or statin combined with ezetimibe. @*Results@#Among 2,000 T2DM patients (mean age 62.6 years; male 55.9%; mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.2%) ASCVD prevalence was 24.7%. Of 1,455 (72.8%) patients treated with statins, 73.9% received monotherapy. According to KDA guidelines, LDL-C target achievement rates were 55.2% in Very High-I and 34.9% in Very High-II patients. With ESC/EAS guidelines, target attainment rates were 26.6% in Very High-I, 15.7% in Very High-II, and 25.9% in high risk patients. Based on ADA guidelines, most patients (78.9%) were very-high risk; however, only 15.5% received high-intensity statin or combination therapy. @*Conclusion@#According to current dyslipidemia management guidelines, LDL-C goal achievement remains suboptimal in Korean patients with T2DM.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924923

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924918

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and management of diabetes mellitus, risk-factor control, and comorbidities among Korean adults. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the prevalence, treatment, risk factors, comorbidities, and self-management behaviors of diabetes mellitus from 2019 to 2020. We also analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to evaluate the use of antidiabetic medications in people with diabetes mellitus from 2002 through 2018. @*Results@#Among Korean adults aged 30 years or older, the estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.7% in 2020. From 2019 through 2020, 65.8% of adults with diabetes mellitus were aware of the disease and treated with antidiabetic medications. The percentage of adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.5% was 24.5% despite the increased use of new antidiabetic medications. We found that adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved all three goals of HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure (BP) <140/85 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL were 9.7%. The percentage of self-management behaviors was lower in men than women. Excess energy intake was observed in 16.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Korean adults remained high. Only 9.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus achieved all glycemic, BP, and lipid controls from 2019 to 2020. Continuous evaluation of national diabetes statistics and a national effort to increase awareness of diabetes mellitus and improve comprehensive diabetes care are needed.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875485

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We examined the concordance rate among fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hr PG), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes in a population with a high-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea. @*Methods@#Among the participants from the Korean Diabetes Prevention Study, individuals with FPG ≥ 100 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23.0 kg/m2, and no previous history of T2DM were consecutively enrolled after a 75 g glucose tolerance test. We analyzed the differences in the clinical characteristics in subjects with stage 1 (FPG, 100 to 109 mg/dL) and stage 2 (FPG, 110 to 125 mg/dL) impaired fasting glucose (IFG). @*Results@#Of 1,637 participants, 27.2% had T2DM and 59.3% had IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The mean age was 55.0 ± 8.1 years and the mean BMI was 26.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. Based on FPG criteria, 515 (31.4%) and 352 (21.5%) subjects were classified as having stage 1 and stage 2 IFG, respectively. The 19.0% of stage 1 and 43.5% of stage 2 subjects showed 2hr PG levels in the diabetic range. Even for those in the normal FPG range, 63 (9.5%) participants showed a 2hr PG level of ≥ 200 mg/dL. Of 446 subjects with newly-diagnosed diabetes, 340 (76.2%) showed FPG levels < 126 mg/dL. @*Conclusions@#The oral glucose tolerance test should be actively considered for Korean adults who are overweight or obese with the IFG range (FPG, 100 to 125 mg/ dL) to allow for early detection of diabetes and prompt intervention.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875465

ABSTRACT

Glucose-lowering medication and lifestyle modification are essential for optimal glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, glucose-lowering agents, particularly insulin and insulin secretagogues, may cause hypoglycemia, which has multiple negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system and may cause death. Previous studies using institutional data from the Korean Nationwide Health Insurance database have consistently found a causal relationship between severe hypoglycemia and CV outcomes and mortality. Screening for high-risk patients, appropriate management, and intensive individualized education are the most effective measures and essential for the prevention of harmful hypoglycemic events. Based on identified risk factors that predict severe hypoglycemia, we developed an 1-year risk prediction model for severe hypoglycemia that can be used in clinical settings. In this review, we describe the current understanding of severe hypoglycemia and the clinical implications in patients with T2DM. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of intensive individualized education for high-risk patients and the risk prediction model to reduce severe hypoglycemia.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874529

ABSTRACT

BackgroundInfluenza is a global public health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection, vaccination coverage is insufficient in people with chronic disease under 65 years, especially diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate influenza vaccination coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccination in Korean diabetic adults under 65 years.MethodsData were obtained from 24,821 subjects in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014 to 2017). Socioeconomic, health-related, and diabetic factors were investigated for their relations with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years using univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsAmong 24,821 subjects, 1,185 were diabetic patients under 65 years and their influenza vaccination rate was 36.5%. Socioeconomic (older age, female gender, non-smoker, light alcohol drinker, lower educational level, and employed status), health-related factors (lower fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, good self-perceived health status, more comorbidities, recent health screening, more outpatient visits, and diet therapy), and diabetic factors (more awareness and getting treated) were associated with influenza vaccination. In multivariate analysis, more awareness and getting treated for diabetes were associated with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years (odds ratio, 1.496 and 1.413; 95% confidence interval, 1.022 to 2.188 and 1.018 to 2.054, respectively).ConclusionInfluenza vaccination rate was low in diabetic patients under 65 years, especially in those with unawareness and not getting treated for diabetes. Active screening and treatment for diabetes may be helpful to improve the influenza vaccination rate in these patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903709

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although people with diabetes have been shown to have higher mortality than people without diabetes, there is a lack of data on the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and cause-specific mortality rates in the general population. @*Methods@#A total of 326,547 Korean adults over 20 years of age, who had received a health checkup between 2006 and 2008 were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort dataset and followed until 2015. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality relative to various range of FPG levels. All causes of death were classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. @*Results@#During follow-up (mean, 8.5 years), a total of 13,536 deaths (mortality rate 4.89/1,000 person-year) occurred; 4,916 deaths from cancer, 2,133 from cardiovascular disease, 762 from infectious disease, 199 from renal disease, and 5,526 from other causes. The overall mortality rate increased with an increase in FPG category (HR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 to 1.92; in the ≥ 160 mg/dL). In addition, a J-shaped associations was found between FPG levels and all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In particular, the risk of cancer-mortality with high FPG levels was increased for men but not women. @*Conclusions@#The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality showed the tendency to increase when the FPG level was outside of the normal range, indicating a J-shaped relationship, in both men and women.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901198

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of alcohol-related non-traffic accident trauma patients. @*Methods@#A total of 2,582 non-traffic accident patients, above 16 years old, who visited the emergency department (ED) from July 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were categorized as alcohol group (A group) and no alcohol group (NA group) after checking their electronic medical records. Their general characteristics, the severity of their injury, and their ED length of stay were compared. @*Results@#The A group included younger patients, a higher percentage of males, and a higher frequency of visits to the ED via the 119 ambulance route than the NA group. The A group had a higher proportion of patients being struck by a person or object in terms of the mechanism of injury, intentional violence, and head injuries, especially in the face as compared to the NA group. In terms of the severity of the injury, the Injury Severity Score was lower in the A group than in the NA group, and the ratio of bone fracture and/or cerebral hemorrhage was also lower. As per the survey, the A group tended to stay in the ED longer than the NA group. @*Conclusion@#The characteristics of alcohol-related non-traffic accident trauma patients show that they have a relatively long stay in the ED, a high ratio of facial injury with low trauma severity, and need professional treatment facilities with specialized personnel and equipment.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898205

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prospective comparative studies on the effects of various antidiabetic agents on bone metabolism are limited. This study aimed to assess changes in bone mass and biochemical bone markers in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#This prospective, multicenter, open-label, comparative trial included 264 patients with T2DM. Patients who had received a metformin, or sulfonylurea/metformin combination (Group 1); a thiazolidinedione combination (Group 2); a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin) combination (Group 3); or an sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) combination (Group 4) were prospectively treated for 12 months; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover marker (BTM) changes were evaluated. @*Results@#The femoral neck BMD percentage changes were −0.79%±2.86% (Group 1), −2.50%±3.08% (Group 2), −1.05%±2.74% (Group 3), and −1.24%±2.91% (Group 4) (P<0.05). The total hip BMD percentage changes were −0.57%±1.79% (Group 1), −1.74%±1.48% (Group 2), −0.75%±1.87% (Group 3), and −1.27%±1.72% (Group 4) (P<0.05). Mean serum BTM (C-terminal type 1 collagen telopeptide and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide) levels measured during the study period did not change over time or differ between groups. @*Conclusion@#Significant bone loss in the femoral neck and total hip was associated with thiazolidinedione combination regimens. However, bone loss was not significantly associated with combination regimens including gemigliptin or empagliflozin. Caution should be exercised during treatment with antidiabetic medications that adversely affect the bone in patients with diabetes at a high risk of bone loss.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896005

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although people with diabetes have been shown to have higher mortality than people without diabetes, there is a lack of data on the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and cause-specific mortality rates in the general population. @*Methods@#A total of 326,547 Korean adults over 20 years of age, who had received a health checkup between 2006 and 2008 were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort dataset and followed until 2015. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality relative to various range of FPG levels. All causes of death were classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. @*Results@#During follow-up (mean, 8.5 years), a total of 13,536 deaths (mortality rate 4.89/1,000 person-year) occurred; 4,916 deaths from cancer, 2,133 from cardiovascular disease, 762 from infectious disease, 199 from renal disease, and 5,526 from other causes. The overall mortality rate increased with an increase in FPG category (HR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 to 1.92; in the ≥ 160 mg/dL). In addition, a J-shaped associations was found between FPG levels and all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In particular, the risk of cancer-mortality with high FPG levels was increased for men but not women. @*Conclusions@#The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality showed the tendency to increase when the FPG level was outside of the normal range, indicating a J-shaped relationship, in both men and women.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893494

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of alcohol-related non-traffic accident trauma patients. @*Methods@#A total of 2,582 non-traffic accident patients, above 16 years old, who visited the emergency department (ED) from July 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were categorized as alcohol group (A group) and no alcohol group (NA group) after checking their electronic medical records. Their general characteristics, the severity of their injury, and their ED length of stay were compared. @*Results@#The A group included younger patients, a higher percentage of males, and a higher frequency of visits to the ED via the 119 ambulance route than the NA group. The A group had a higher proportion of patients being struck by a person or object in terms of the mechanism of injury, intentional violence, and head injuries, especially in the face as compared to the NA group. In terms of the severity of the injury, the Injury Severity Score was lower in the A group than in the NA group, and the ratio of bone fracture and/or cerebral hemorrhage was also lower. As per the survey, the A group tended to stay in the ED longer than the NA group. @*Conclusion@#The characteristics of alcohol-related non-traffic accident trauma patients show that they have a relatively long stay in the ED, a high ratio of facial injury with low trauma severity, and need professional treatment facilities with specialized personnel and equipment.

13.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 244-249, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918903

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence from real-world practice among the Korean population. The guidelines are intended for use at sites across the country by all healthcare providers (including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators) who treat diabetes. The recommendations for screening and antihyperglycemic agents have been revised and updated. Continuous glucose monitoring with insulin pump use and screening and treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were added in the type 2 diabetes sections. The KDA recommends active vaccination for COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic clinic management was published separately.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916551

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Acute cholangitis is a clinical condition caused by infection of an obstructed biliary system, which is normally managed with intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and biliary drainage. Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the preferred method of biliary drainage, guidelines for biliary drainage time remain unclear. @*Methods@#The current research is a retrospective study of patients with acute cholangitis who had undergone ERCP between January 2016 and December 2019. We investigated the effect of the time taken from visit to the emergency department and commencement of the ERCP, on hospital length of stay. @*Results@#A total of 441 patients were included in this study. No association was observed between the severity of acute cholangitis and ERCP time. However, the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter for patients who underwent ERCP less than 12 hours after arrival at the emergency department. @*Conclusion@#Conducting ERCP within 12 hours of arrival is associated with reduced hospital stays, regardless of the severity of acute cholangitis.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914193

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to determine the short-term effectiveness of an internet-based lifestyle modification (LSM) program in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prediabetes patients in community settings. A total of 415 subjects who were diagnosed with prediabetes were randomly assigned to the LSM and standard management (SM) groups. After the 6-month intervention, the LSM group had a statistically significant reduction in body weight, body mass index compared to the SM group participants. In the LSM group, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after intervention and the clinical improvement effect was evident in the group that achieved the target weight loss of 5% or more of the initial weight for 6 months. Internet-based 6-month-intensive LSM programs conducted by public health center personnel are an effective way to provide lifestyle intervention programs and encourage maintenance of healthy behaviors in subjects with a high risk of T2DM in community settings.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890501

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prospective comparative studies on the effects of various antidiabetic agents on bone metabolism are limited. This study aimed to assess changes in bone mass and biochemical bone markers in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#This prospective, multicenter, open-label, comparative trial included 264 patients with T2DM. Patients who had received a metformin, or sulfonylurea/metformin combination (Group 1); a thiazolidinedione combination (Group 2); a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin) combination (Group 3); or an sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) combination (Group 4) were prospectively treated for 12 months; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover marker (BTM) changes were evaluated. @*Results@#The femoral neck BMD percentage changes were −0.79%±2.86% (Group 1), −2.50%±3.08% (Group 2), −1.05%±2.74% (Group 3), and −1.24%±2.91% (Group 4) (P<0.05). The total hip BMD percentage changes were −0.57%±1.79% (Group 1), −1.74%±1.48% (Group 2), −0.75%±1.87% (Group 3), and −1.27%±1.72% (Group 4) (P<0.05). Mean serum BTM (C-terminal type 1 collagen telopeptide and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide) levels measured during the study period did not change over time or differ between groups. @*Conclusion@#Significant bone loss in the femoral neck and total hip was associated with thiazolidinedione combination regimens. However, bone loss was not significantly associated with combination regimens including gemigliptin or empagliflozin. Caution should be exercised during treatment with antidiabetic medications that adversely affect the bone in patients with diabetes at a high risk of bone loss.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

18.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 105-115, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903533

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease commonly develops in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care that includes optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for premature death and complications due to cardiorenal causes. Recent studies using sodiumglucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effects, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and lower cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may also be associated with improved renal outcomes during long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in patients with T2DM using meta-analysis.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898036

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHypoxia can occur in pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are activated during hypoxia. Here we aimed to investigate whether PSCs within the islet are also activated in hypoxia, causing β-cell injury.MethodsIslet and primary PSCs were isolated from Sprague Dawley rats, and cultured in normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (1% O2). The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), as measured by immunostaining and Western blotting, was used as a marker of PSC activation. Conditioned media (hypoxia-CM) were obtained from PSCs cultured in hypoxia.ResultsIslets and PSCs cultured in hypoxia exhibited higher expressions of α-SMA than did those cultured in normoxia. Hypoxia increased the production of reactive oxygen species. The addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated the hypoxia-induced PSC activation in islets and PSCs. Islets cultured in hypoxia-CM showed a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis.ConclusionPSCs within the islet are activated in hypoxia through oxidative stress and promote islet cell death, suggesting that hypoxia-induced PSC activation may contribute to β-cell loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

20.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 105-115, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895829

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease commonly develops in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care that includes optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for premature death and complications due to cardiorenal causes. Recent studies using sodiumglucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effects, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and lower cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may also be associated with improved renal outcomes during long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in patients with T2DM using meta-analysis.

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