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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 758-765, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999794

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to determine the trends in the use of radiotherapy (RT) and the expenses associated with it in South Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#The statistical data of the claims and reimbursement records provided on the Health and Insurance Review and Assessment Service website were utilized. This included information such as the number of patients, fractions, medical expenses according to treatment codes, in/outpatient, sex, age, and regions of hospitals. We analyzed data from 2016 to 2020. @*Results@#With a growing RT infrastructure and an increase in the number of radiation oncologists, the expenses for RT were 605.5 million USD in 2020, which had increased 1.5 times from 394.7 million USD in 2016. This growth was mainly because of the increased usage of advanced RT techniques. Furthermore, the proportion of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) expenses in the total expenses increased by 1.6 times from 48.8% in 2016 to 76.9% in 2020. Advanced techniques were used more commonly in older individuals or children. However, the proportion of IMRT expenses increased mostly in young women. Additionally, geographical differences in RT use and expense were observed, although the gap in the IMRT fractions decreased among the regions. @*Conclusion@#Recent medical expenses associated with RT in Korea have increased in tandem with technological advances and changes in demographics.

2.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 170-175, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837109

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare the current status of the national health insurance system (HIS) for advanced radiation technologies in Korea and Japan. @*Materials and methods@#The data of the two nations were compared according to the 2019 guidelines on the application and methods of medical care benefit from the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea and the 2020 medical fee points list set by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. @*Results@#Both countries have adopted the social insurance system and the general payment system which is fee-for-service for radiotherapy. However, for proton and carbon ion therapy, the Japanese system has adopted a bundled payment system. Copayment for radiotherapy is 5% in Korea and 30% (7–69 years old) in Japan, with a ceiling system. A noticeable difference is that additional charges for hypofractionation, tele-radiotherapy planning for an emergency, tumor motion-tracking, purchase price of an isotope purchase price, and image-guided radiotherapy are allowed for reimbursement in the Japanese system. There are some differences regarding the indication, qualification standards, and facility standards for intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, and proton therapy. @*Conclusion@#Patterns of cancer incidence, use of radiotherapy and infrastructure, and national HIS are very similar between Korea and Japan. However, there are some differences in health insurance management systems for advanced radiation technologies.

3.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 249-253, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786566

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the trend in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) use in Korea from 2011 to 2018.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data from the Health and Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) big data based on the National Health Insurance Service claims and reimbursements records using primary treatment planning codes (HD 041) for IMRT from 2011 to 2018. We analyzed the changing patterns in clinical application to specific tumor sites and regional differences in IMRT utilization.RESULTS: The use of IMRT has exhibited an 18-fold steep rise from 1,921 patients in 2011 to 34,759 in 2018. With regard to IMRT in 2018, 70% of patients (24,248/34,759) were treated in metropolitan areas (Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi Province). IMRT was most commonly used to treat breast, lung, and prostate cancers in 2018. Among these, the use of IMRT for breast cancer shows the most remarkable increase from 2016 when the National Health Insurance began to cover IMRT for all solid tumors.CONCLUSION: The use of IMRT is steadily increasing to treat cancer and is concentrated in metropolitan areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Insurance , Korea , Lung , National Health Programs , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 927-936, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in pT1-2N1 patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical data of pathological N1 patients who were treated with modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy in 12 hospitals between January 2006 and December 2010. RESULTS: We identified 714 consecutive patients. The median follow-up duration was 69 months (range, 1 to 114 months) and the 5-year LRRFS, DFS, and OS rates were 97%, 94%, and 98%, respectively, in patients who received PMRT (PMRT [+]). The corresponding figures were 96%, 90%, and 96%, respectively, in patients who did not receive PMRT (PMRT [–]). PMRT had no significant impact on survival. Upon multivariable analysis, only the histological grade (HG) was statistically significant as a prognostic factor for LRRFS and DFS. In a subgroup analysis of HG 3 patients, PMRT (+) showed better DFS (p=0.081). CONCLUSION: PMRT had no significant impact on LRRFS, DFS, or OS in pT1-2N1 patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. PMRT showed a marginal benefit for DFS in HG 3 patients. Randomized studies are needed to confirm the benefit of PMRT in high risk patients, such as those with HG 3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 970-980, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160275

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of supraclavicular lymph node radiotherapy (SCNRT) on N1 breast cancer patients receiving post-lumpectomy whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and anthracycline plus taxane-based (AT) chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control analysis to compare the outcomes of WBI and WBI plus SCNRT (WBI+SCNRT). Among 1,147 patients with N1 breast cancer who received post-lumpectomy radiotherapy and AT-based chemotherapy in 12 hospitals, 542 were selected after propensity score matching. Patterns of failure, disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and treatment-related toxicity were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 41 patients (7.6%) were found to have recurrence. Supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) failure was detected in three patients, two in WBI and one in WBI+SCNRT. All SCN failures were found simultaneously with distant metastasis. There was no significant difference in patterns of failure or survival between groups. The 5-year DFS and DMFS for patients with WBI and WBI+SCNRT were 94.4% versus 92.6% (p=0.50) and 95.1% versus 94.5% (p=0.99), respectively. The rates of lymphedema and radiation pneumonitis were significantly higher in the WBI+SCNRT than in the WBI. CONCLUSION: We did not find a benefit of SCNRT for N1 breast cancer patients receiving AT-based chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Case-Control Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Irradiation , Lymphedema , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoplasm Metastasis , Propensity Score , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence
6.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 39-47, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156652

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical outcomes from cervical cancer and stratify patients into risk groups for prognostic factors for early-stage disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with stage IB or IIA cervical cancer treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) following primary surgery at Samsung Medical Center from 2001 to 2011. Adjuvant RT was added for patients with intermediate-risk factors, and adjuvant CCRT was performed on high-risk patients after surgery. RESULTS: We reviewed 247 patients—149 in the high-risk group and 98 in intermediate-risk group. The median follow-up was 62 months. Loco-regional failure (LRF) alone occurred in 7 patients (2.8%), distant metastasis alone in 37 patients (15.0%) and LRF with DM in 4 patients (1.6%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for both groups were 79.7% and 87.6%, respectively. In the high-risk group, the 5-year DFS and OS probabilities were 72.5% and 81.9%, respectively. Histologic type, pathologic tumor size, and the number of pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastasis were significant prognostic factors for DFS and OS. We suggest a scoring system (0–3) using these prognostic factors to predict poor prognosis in high-risk patients. Using this system, patients with higher scores have higher recurrence and lower survival rates. CONCLUSION: In the high-risk cervical-cancer group who received primary surgery and adjuvant CCRT, non-squamous type, large tumor size and the number of PLN metastasis were significant prognostic factors, and the number of these factors was associated with survival rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Hysterectomy , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 169-175, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166636

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We analyzed the association of lymph node ratio (LNR) wth locoregional control (LRC) in breast cancer patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes who underwent multimodality treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 234 breast cancer patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes between 2000 and 2011. All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) after radical surgery. The cutoff value of LNR was obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The majority of patients (87.2%) received chemotherapeutic regimen including taxane. RT consisted of tangential fields to the chest wall or intact breast, delivered at a median dose of 50 Gy, and a single anterior port to the supraclavicular lymph node area, delivered at a median dose of 50 Gy. For patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, an electron boost with a total dose of 9 to 15 Gy was delivered to the tumor bed. RESULTS: Within a median follow-up period of 73.5 months (range, 11-183 months), locoregional recurrence (LRR) occurred in 30 patients (12.8%) and the 5-year LRC rate was 88.8%. After multivariate analysis, LNR ≥0.7 was the only independent factor significantly associated with LRC (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-4.29; p=0.05). CONCLUSION: An aggressive multimodal treatment approach showed favorable locoregional outcome in patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes. However, patients with a high LNR ≥0.7 still had an increased risk for LRR, even in the setting of current local treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Combined Modality Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Thoracic Wall
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1074-1083, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the role of adjuvant therapy in stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) alone or chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) according to risk group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted including patients with surgical stage IIIA endometrial cancertreated by radical surgery and adjuvant RT or CTRT. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients with stage IIIA disease were identified. Nineteen patients (20.4%) experienced recurrence, mostly distant metastasis (17.2%). Combined CTRT did not affect DFS (74.1% vs. 82.4%, p=0.130) or OS (96.3% vs. 91.9%, p=0.262) in stage IIIA disease compared with RT alone. Patients with age ≥ 60 years, grade G2/3, and lymphovascular space involvement had a significantly worse DFS and those variables were defined as risk factors. The high-risk group showed a significant reduction in 5-year DFS (≥ 2 risk factors) (49.0% vs. 88.0%, p < 0.001) compared with the low-risk group (< 2). Multivariate analysis confirmed that more than one risk factor was the only predictor of worse DFS (hazard ratio, 5.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.12 to 13.98; p < 0.001). Of patients with no risk factors, a subset treated with RT alone showed an excellent 5-year DFS and OS (93.8% and 100%, respectively). CONCLUSION: We identified a low-risk subset of stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who might be reasonable candidates for adjuvant RT alone. Further randomized studies are needed to determine which subset might benefit from combined CTRT.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Endometrial Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 955-961, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61889

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study is to assess the spectrum of genetic variation in the BRIP1 gene among Korean high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for the BRCA1/2 mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 235 Korean patientswith BRCA1/2 mutation-negative high-risk breast cancerwere screened for BRIP1 mutations. The entire BRIP1 gene was analyzed using fluorescent-conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis. In silico analysis of BRIP1 variants was performed using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. RESULTS: A total of 20 sequence alterations including 12 exonic and eight intronic variantswere found. Among the 12 exonic variants, 10 were missense and two were silent mutations. No protein-truncating mutation was found among the tested patients. Among the 10 missense variants, four (p.L263F, p.L340F, p.L474P, and p.R848H) were predicted to be pathogenic by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT, and these variants were found in five patients. Of the four missense variants, p.L263F, p.L474P, and p.R848H localize to regions between the helicase motifs, while p.L340F resides in an iron-sulfur domain of BRIP1. CONCLUSION: No protein-truncating mutation in BRIP1 was found among the tested patients. The contribution of BRIP1 variants is thought to be minor in Korean non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Computer Simulation , Electrophoresis , Exons , Genetic Variation , Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome , Introns , Korea , Silent Mutation
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 50-56, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173793

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to investigate the proportion and clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients who did not receive postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). METHODS: This retrospective study included all breast cancer patients received curative BCS without PORT between 2003 and 2013. In the PORT omission group, characteristics and local recurrence differences were compared between the recommended group and the refused group. To compare the local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) of the PORT omission group and the control group who received PORT, subjects were selected by using the pooled data of patients treated between 1994 and 2007. RESULTS: During the study period, 96 patients did not receive PORT among a total of 6,680 patients who underwent BCS. Therefore, the overall rate of PORT omission was 1.4%. Among the 96 patients, 20 were recommended for PORT omission (recommended group) and 76 refused PORT (refused group). The median follow-up period of all study participants was 19.3 months (range, 0.3-115.1 months). Patients in the recommended group were older (p=0.004), were more likely to be postmenopausal (p=0.013), and had more number of positive prognostic factors compared with the refused group. Overall, 12 cases of disease recurrence, including 11 cases of local recurrence, developed in the PORT-refused group. The LRFS of the PORT-omission group was significantly inferior to that of patients who received PORT after BCS (p<0.001). In the PORT-omission group, significant favorable prognostic factors for LRFS were having histologic grade 1 or 2 disease (p=0.023), having no axillary lymph node metastasis (p=0.039), receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy (p=0.046), and being in the recommended group (p=0.026). CONCLUSION: The rate of PORT omission in the present study is very low among women who underwent surgery compared to that of other studies worldwide. PORT omission is significantly related to a high local recurrence rate.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 301-309, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70163

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify prognostic factors for disease progression and survival of patients with extracranial oligometastatic breast cancer (EOMBC), and to investigate the role of radiation therapy (RT) for metastatic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients who had been diagnosed with EOMBC following standard treatment for primary breast cancer initially, and received RT for metastatic lesions, with or without other systemic therapy between January 2004 and December 2008. EOMBC was defined as breast cancer with five or less metastases involving any organs except the brain. All patients had bone metastasis (BM) and seven patients had pulmonary, hepatic, or lymph node metastasis. Median RT dose applied to metastatic lesions was 30 Gy (range, 20 to 60 Gy). RESULTS: The 5-year tumor local control (LC) and 3-year distant progression-free survival (DPFS) rate were 66.1% and 36.8%, respectively. High RT dose (> or =50 Gy10) was significantly associated with improved LC. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 49%. Positive hormone receptor status, pathologic nodal stage of primary cancer, solitary BM, and whole-lesion RT (WLRT), defined as RT whose field encompassed entire extent of disease, were associated with better survival. On analysis for subgroup of solitary BM, high RT dose was significantly associated with improved LC and DPFS, shorter metastasis-to-RT interval (< or =1 month) with improved DPFS, and WLRT with improved DPFS and OS, respectively. CONCLUSION: High-dose RT in solitary BM status and WLRT have the potential to improve the progression-free survival and OS of patients with EOMBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Lymph Nodes , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 337-343, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70159

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to describe the proton therapy system at Samsung Medical Center (SMC-PTS) including the proton beam generator, irradiation system, patient positioning system, patient position verification system, respiratory gating system, and operating and safety control system, and review the current status of the SMC-PTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SMC-PTS has a cyclotron (230 MeV) and two treatment rooms: one treatment room is equipped with a multi-purpose nozzle and the other treatment room is equipped with a dedicated pencil beam scanning nozzle. The proton beam generator including the cyclotron and the energy selection system can lower the energy of protons down to 70 MeV from the maximum 230 MeV. RESULTS: The multi-purpose nozzle can deliver both wobbling proton beam and active scanning proton beam, and a multi-leaf collimator has been installed in the downstream of the nozzle. The dedicated scanning nozzle can deliver active scanning proton beam with a helium gas filled pipe minimizing unnecessary interactions with the air in the beam path. The equipment was provided by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., RayStation from RaySearch Laboratories AB is the selected treatment planning system, and data management will be handled by the MOSAIQ system from Elekta AB. CONCLUSION: The SMC-PTS located in Seoul, Korea, is scheduled to begin treating cancer patients in 2015.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cyclotrons , Helium , Korea , Metallurgy , Particle Accelerators , Patient Positioning , Proton Therapy , Protons , Radiation Oncology , Respiratory System , Seoul
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 285-290, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and to compare the clinicopathological features and treatment results after breast conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy between ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). METHODS: A total of 1,071 patients who underwent BCS followed by radiotherapy were included in the study. Medical records and pathological reports were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The incidence of ILC was 5.2% (n=56). Bilateral breast cancer, lower nuclear grade, and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were more frequent in patients with ILC than in those with IDC. There were no cases of lymphovascular invasion or the basal-like subtype in patients with ILC. There were no statistically significant differences in patterns of failure or treatment outcomes between patients with ILC and those with IDC. The development of metachronous contralateral breast cancer was more frequent in patients with IDC (n=27). Only one patient with ILC developed contralateral breast cancer, with a case of ductal carcinoma in situ. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ILC was slightly higher in our study than in previous Korean studies, but was lower than the incidences reported in Western studies. The differences we observed in clinico pathological features between ILC and IDC were similar to those described elsewhere in the literature. Although there were no statistically significant differences, there was a trend toward better disease-specific survival and disease-free survival rates in patients with ILC than in those with IDC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Carcinoma, Lobular , Disease-Free Survival , Incidence , Mastectomy, Segmental , Medical Records , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 149-154, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We performed exome sequencing in a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A family that three sisters have a history of breast cancer was selected for analysis. There were no family members with breast cancer in the previous generation. Genetic testing for BRCA mutation was negative, even by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. Two sisters with breast cancer were selected as affected members, while the mother of the sisters was a non-affected member. Whole exome sequencing was performed on the HiSeq 2000 platform with paired-end reads of 101 bp in the three members. RESULTS: We identified 19,436, 19,468, and 19,345 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions. Among them, 8,759, 8,789, and 8,772 were non-synonymous SNPs, respectively. After filtering out 12,843 synonymous variations and 12,105 known variations with indels found in the dbSNP135 or 1000 Genomes Project database, we selected 73 variations in the samples from the affected sisters that did not occur in the sample from the unaffected mother. Using the Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), PolyPhen-2, and MutationTaster algorithms to predict amino acid substitutions, the XCR1, DLL1, TH, ACCS, SPPL3, CCNF, and SRL genes were risky among all three algorithms, while definite candidate genes could not be conclusively determined. CONCLUSION: Using exome sequencing, we found 7 variants for a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. Genetic evidence of disease association should be confirmed by future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Substitution , Breast Neoplasms , Clinical Coding , Exome , Genetic Testing , Genome , Mothers , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Siblings
15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 149-154, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129459

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We performed exome sequencing in a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A family that three sisters have a history of breast cancer was selected for analysis. There were no family members with breast cancer in the previous generation. Genetic testing for BRCA mutation was negative, even by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. Two sisters with breast cancer were selected as affected members, while the mother of the sisters was a non-affected member. Whole exome sequencing was performed on the HiSeq 2000 platform with paired-end reads of 101 bp in the three members. RESULTS: We identified 19,436, 19,468, and 19,345 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions. Among them, 8,759, 8,789, and 8,772 were non-synonymous SNPs, respectively. After filtering out 12,843 synonymous variations and 12,105 known variations with indels found in the dbSNP135 or 1000 Genomes Project database, we selected 73 variations in the samples from the affected sisters that did not occur in the sample from the unaffected mother. Using the Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), PolyPhen-2, and MutationTaster algorithms to predict amino acid substitutions, the XCR1, DLL1, TH, ACCS, SPPL3, CCNF, and SRL genes were risky among all three algorithms, while definite candidate genes could not be conclusively determined. CONCLUSION: Using exome sequencing, we found 7 variants for a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. Genetic evidence of disease association should be confirmed by future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Substitution , Breast Neoplasms , Clinical Coding , Exome , Genetic Testing , Genome , Mothers , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Siblings
16.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 213-220, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178786

ABSTRACT

Insufficiency fracture occurs when normal or physiological stress applied to weakened bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Recently, many studies reported the development of IF after radiation therapy (RT) in gynecological cancer, prostate cancer, anal cancer and rectal cancer. The RT-induced insufficiency fracture is a common complication during the follow-up using modern imaging studies. The clinical suspicion and knowledge the characteristic imaging patterns of insufficiency fracture is essential to differentiate it from metastatic bone lesions, because it sometimes cause severe pain, and it may be confused with bone metastasis.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Stress , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostatic Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms , Stress, Physiological
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 148-157, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106247

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of radiochemotherapeutic sequence and time to initiation of adjuvant treatment on loco-regional control for resected stage II and III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment outcomes for rectal cancer patients from two hospitals with different sequencing strategies regarding adjuvant concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRCT) were compared retrospectively. Pelvic radiotherapy was administered concurrently on the first (early CRCT, n=180) or the third cycle of chemotherapy (late CRCT, n=180). During radiotherapy, two cycles of fluorouracil were provided to patients in both groups. In the early CRCT group, median six cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin were prescribed during the post-CRCT period. In the late CRCT group, two cycles of fluorouracil were administered in the pre- and post-CRCT periods. RESULTS: No significant differences in the 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) (92.5% vs. 95.6%, p=0.43) or overall survival and disease-free survival were observed between groups. Patients who began receiving adjuvant treatment later than five weeks after surgery had lower LRRFS than patients who received adjuvant treatment within five weeks following surgery (79% vs. 91%, p<0.01). The risk of loco-regional recurrence increased as the time to initiation of adjuvant treatment was delayed. CONCLUSION: In the current study, treatment outcomes were not significantly influenced by the sequence of adjuvant treatment but by the delay of adjuvant treatment for more than five weeks. Timely administration of adjuvant treatment is deemed important in achieving loco-regional tumor control for stage II/III rectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Leucovorin , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 48-54, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In some unusual cases, in patients with cervical cancer, an elevation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) was not observed at diagnosis but was observed on recurrence, or vice versa. The objective of this study was to identify patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors associated with this unusual level of SCC-Ag, and to determine whether SCC-Ag is a useful tumor marker in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 129 patients with recurrence, 14 who showed a normal SCC-Ag level at diagnosis but an elevated level at recurrence were classified as group I; 22 patients with an elevated SCC-Ag level at diagnosis but not at recurrence were classified as group II; and 76 patients with an elevated SCC-Ag level at both diagnosis and recurrence were classified as group III. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, unusual SCC-Ag showed statistically significant relationships with pathology and biochemical response to treatment. However, in the multivariate analysis, none of the clinicopathologic factors showed a statistical relationship with unusual levels of SCC-Ag. The 5-year disease-free survival rates for groups I, II, and III were 7.1%, 9.1%, and 0% (p=0.418), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 34.3%, 58.4%, and 33.3% (p=0.142), respectively. CONCLUSION: The value of SCC-Ag has been confirmed in all patients; thus, check of SCC-Ag level at follow-up should be considered. Although no statistically significant differences were observed among the groups, we conclude that patients with a high initial SCC-Ag and elevated SCC-Ag at relapse have poor prognosis due to high SCC-Ag level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Neoplasm , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Serpins , Survival Rate , Biomarkers, Tumor , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
19.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 222-227, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for survival from first relapse (SFFR) in stage I-III breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 1994 to June 2008, 3,835 patients were treated with surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I-III breast cancer at Samsung Medical Center. Among them, a total of 224 patients died by June 2009, and 175 deaths were of breast cancer. Retrospective review was performed on medical records of 165 patients who met the inclusion criteria of this study. Univariate and multivariate analysis were done on survivals according to variables, such as age, stage, hormone status of tumor, disease-free interval (DFI), sites of first failure, number of organs involved by recurrent disease (NOR), application of salvage treatments, and existence of brain or liver metastasis (visceral metastasis). RESULTS: Patients' median overall survival time was 38 months (range, 8 to 123 months). Median SFFR was 17 months (range, 5 to 87 months). Ninety percent of deaths occurred within 40 months after first recurrence. The patients with SFFR 3), visceral metastasis for first relapse than the patients with SFFR >1 year. In multivariate analysis, longer DFI (>2 vs. < or =2 years), absence of visceral metastasis, and application of salvage treatments were statistically significant prognosticators for longer SFFR. CONCLUSION: The DFI, application of salvage treatments, and visceral metastasis were significant prognostic factors for SFFR in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Liver , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 72-80, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We designed this study to identify and suggest the reasonable timing of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent and patterns of progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a total of 50 carcinosarcoma patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. Among these 50 patients, 32 underwent curative surgery and 13 underwent maximal tumor debulking surgery. The remaining five patients underwent biopsy only. Twenty-six patients received chemotherapy, and 15 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 17.3 months. Curative resection (p < 0.001) and stage (p < 0.001) were statistically significant factors affecting survival. During follow-up, 30 patients showed progression. Among these, eight patients (16.0%) had loco-regional progression only. The patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy did not show loco-regional progression, and radiotherapy was a significant negative risk factor for loco-regional progression (p = 0.01). The time to loco-regional progression was much earlier for non-curative than curative resection (range, 0.7 to 7.6 months vs. 7.5 to 39.0 months). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinosarcoma might be related to a low loco-regional progression rate. Radiotherapy should be considered in non-curatively resected patients as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Carcinosarcoma , Follow-Up Studies , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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