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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 991-996, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002743

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been recently introduced for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although there are data supporting the efficacy of ACT, only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of ACT against any obsessivecompulsive (OC) symptom dimension or a specific dimension alone. @*Methods@#In total, 64 patients with OCD received an 8-session ACT group program. All measures were evaluated before and after treatment. The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD severity across the four empirically supported symptom dimensions (i.e., contamination, responsibility for harm, unacceptable thoughts, and symmetry). ACT processes were evaluated using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire for Obsessions and Compulsions (AAQOC), and Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire. @*Results@#After an 8-week program, there were significant reductions in all four OC symptom dimensions after ACT. The unacceptable thoughts and contamination domains had medium effect size. The responsibility for harm and symmetry dimensions had small effect size. The unacceptable thoughts dimension was significantly correlated with all ACT process measures. The symmetry dimension was significantly correlated with AAQ-OC and AAQ-II scores while the responsibility for harm dimension was correlated with AAQ-II alone. However, the contamination dimension was not associated with any process measures. @*Conclusion@#ACT may be effective for managing all four symptom dimensions with small to moderate effect size. Moreover, depending on the symptom dimension, there may be different relationship patterns between symptom reduction and changes in ACT processes.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 120-129, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968542

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Thought-action fusion (TAF), which is a tendency to make the relationship between one’s thoughts and external consequences, is a dysfunctional belief linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). While the TAF is commonly evaluated using the Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), it cannot fully reflect the actual experience of experimentally evoked TAF. In the present study, we applied a multiple-trial version of the classic TAF experiment and evaluate two variables, reaction time (RT) and emotional intensity (EI). @*Methods@#Ninety-three patients with OCD and 45 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The participants were asked to read the name of a close or neutral person embedded in different positive (PS) or negative (NS) TAF statements. During the experiments, RT and EI were gathered. @*Results@#The OCD patients presented with longer RT and lower EI in the NS condition than HCs. In each group, the HCs showed a significant relationship between RT in the NS condition and TAFS scores, whereas the patients did not, although they had higher TAFS scores than the HCs. In contrast, the patients showed a trend toward a correlation between RT in the NS condition and guilt. @*Conclusion@#These findings may indicate our multiple-trial version of the classical TAF showed reliable results of the two new variables, especially RT, in the task and allow to newly identify paradoxical patterns in which the TAFS scores are high but actual performance is impaired, that is, the inefficient activation of TAF in OCD.

3.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 63-72, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926077

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was performed to investigate the effect of drain placement on complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy (cLC) for acute cholecystitis (AC). @*Methods@#This single-center retrospective study reviewed patients with AC who underwent cLC between January 2010 and December 2020. cLC was defined as open conversion, subtotal cholecystectomy, adjacent organ injury during surgery, operation time of ≥90 minutes, or estimated blood loss of ≥100 mL. One-toone propensity score matching was performed to compare the surgical outcomes between patients with and without drain on cLC. @*Results@#A total of 216 patients (mean age, 65.8 years; 75 female patients [34.7%]) underwent cLC, and 126 (58.3%) underwent intraoperative abdominal drainage. In the propensity score-matched cohort (61 patients in each group), early drain removal (≤postoperative day 3) was performed in 42 patients (68.9%). The overall rate of surgical site infection (SSI) was 10.7%. Late drain removal demonstrated significantly worse surgical outcomes than no drain placement and early drain removal for overall complications (13.1% vs. 21.4% vs. 47.4%, p = 0.006), postoperative hospital stay (3.8 days vs. 4.4 days vs. 12.7 days, p < 0.001), and SSI (4.9% vs. 11.9% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.006). In the multivariate analysis, late drain removal was the most significant risk factor for organ space SSI. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated that drain placement is not routinely recommended, even after cLC for AC. When placing a drain, early drain removal is recommended because late drain removal is associated with a higher risk of organ space SSI.

4.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 323-333, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925217

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Migraine is reportedly associated with several cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCDs), but some of these diseases have not received sufficient attention. We thus attempted to determine the associations of migraine with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF), ischemic stroke (IS), and hemorrhagic stroke (HS). @*Methods@#The study population was recruited by applying International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes to the database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002 to 2018. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to compare the incidence rates of CCDs between the migraine (ICD-10 code G43; n=130,050) and nonmigraine (n=130,050) groups determined using 1:1 propensity-score matching. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CCDs in patients with any migraine, migraine with aura (n=99,751), and migraine without aura (n=19,562) compared with nonmigraine controls. @*Results@#For all CCDs, the cumulative incidence rates were higher in the migraine group than the nonmigraine group (p<0.001 in log-rank test). Any migraine, irrespective of the presence of aura, was associated with PAD (aHR 2.29, 95% CI 2.06–2.53), IHD (aHR 2.17, 95% CI 2.12– 2.23), AF (aHR 1.84, 95% CI 1.70–1.99), IS (aHR 2.91, 95% CI 2.67–3.16), and HS (aHR 2.46, 95% CI 2.23–2.71). aHR was higher in female than in male migraineurs for all of the CCDs. @*Conclusions@#Associations of migraine with CCDs have been demonstrated, which are stronger in females than in males.

5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health ; : 146-163, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938368

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the current status of counseling services provided by the Korea Counseling Center for Fertility and Depression, analyzing the characteristics of peripartum women and baby-rearing mothers and establishing guidelines for providing psychological support, and suggesting measures for improving the system. @*Methods@#Data on 3,660 peripartum women & their spouses and baby-rearing mothers counseled through the service over the last 4 years were collected and a demographic analysis was conducted. By analyzing the clinical information of 216 peripartum women and 219 baby-rearing mothers who have registered with the Center and received routine counseling services, factors affecting depression were identified. Finally, a paired sample t-test was conducted to verify the effect of counseling services. @*Results@#An overall 20.4% of pregnant women & their spouses were screened for high risk for depression, of whom 27.3% received registered counseling services; further, 26.2% of baby-rearing parents were at high-risk group for depression, of whom 25% received registered counseling services. Results of a logistic regression analysis suggested that, for peripartum women, level of education and conflicts with partner and family were the crucial factors predicting moderate or severe depression. For baby-rearing mothers, obstetric history of spontaneous abortion was the crucial predicting factor. @*Conclusion@#For the early detection and prevention of peripartum depression, screening tests that start from early pregnancy should be routinely administered. Further, continuous management—covering the periods before and after childbirth—should be provided by establishing organic ties between domestic projects.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 114-123, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919606

ABSTRACT

Neuronal loss and axonal degeneration after spinal cord injury or peripheral injury result in the loss of sensory and motor functions. Nerve regeneration is a complicated and medical challenge that requires suitable guides to bridge nerve injury gaps and restore nerve function. Due to the hostility of the microenvironment in the lesion, multiple conditions should be fulfilled to achieve improved functional recovery. Many nerve conduits have been fabricated using various natural and synthetic polymers. The design and material of the nerve guide conduits were carefully reviewed. A detailed review was conducted on the fabrication method of the nerve guide conduit for nerve regeneration. The typical fabrication methods used to fabricate nerve conduits are dip coating, solvent casting, micropatterning, electrospinning, and additive manufacturing. The advantages and disadvantages of the fabrication methods were reported, and research to overcome these limitations was reviewed. Extensive reviews have focused on the biological functions and in vivo performance of polymeric nerve conduits. In this paper, we emphasize the fabrication method of nerve conduits by polymers and their properties. By learning from the existing candidates, we can advance the strategies for designing novel polymeric systems with better properties for nerve regeneration.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 44-53, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918748

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to investigate the prevalence of the addictive use of the internet, smartphone, and alcohol in medical students, the association of this addictive use with stress, and the mediating roles of resilience and self-esteem in this association. @*Methods@#A total of 866 medical students completed measures of three addictive uses as well as psychological scales for stress, resilience, and self-esteem. Correlation analyses and parallel mediation analysis were carried out. @*Results@#The prevalence of potential-risk and high-risk users was 5.8% and 1.7% for internet use, 5.4% and 2.2% for smartphone use, 22.6% and 5.3% for alcohol use, respectively. All three addictive behaviors tended to increase in terms of prevalence or mean score according to an increase in a students’ grade. Stress was positively correlated with internet use (r=0.324, p<0.001) and smartphone use (r=0.347, p<0.001). Resilience and self-esteem were found to be mediators in the association between stress and internet use or smartphone use. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that addictions in medical students are as prevalent as in a general population and that internet use and smartphone use may be better explained by a stress-addiction model with resilience and self-esteem as mediators than alcohol use.

8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 29-41, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924977

ABSTRACT

Abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein is a key element in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. α-synuclein aggregation spreads through various brain regions during the course of disease progression, a propagation that is thought to be mediated by the secretion and subsequent uptake of extracellular α-synuclein aggregates between neuronal cells. Thus, aggregated forms of this protein have emerged as promising targets for disease-modifying therapy for PD and related diseases. Here, we generated and characterized conformation-specific antibodies that preferentially recognize aggregated forms of α-synuclein. These antibodies promoted phagocytosis of extracellular α-synuclein aggregates by microglial cells and interfered with cell-to-cell propagation of α-synuclein. In an α-synuclein transgenic model, passive immunization with aggregate-specific antibodies significantly ameliorated pathological phenotypes, reducing α-synuclein aggregation, gliosis, inflammation, and neuronal loss. These results suggest that conformation-specific antibodies targeting α-synuclein aggregates are promising therapeutic agents for PD and related synucleinopathies.

9.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 15-21, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926581

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Maltreatment experiences can alter brain function related to emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal. While dysregulation of emotion is an important risk factor to mental health problems in maltreated people, studies reported alterations in brain networks related to cognitive reappraisal are still lacking. @*Methods@#Twenty-seven healthy subjects were recruited in this study. The maltreatment experiences and positive reappraisal abilities were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, respectively. Twelve subjects reported one or more moderate maltreatment experiences. Subjects were re-exposed to pictures after the cognitive reappraisal task using the International Affective Picture System during fMRI scan. @*Results@#The maltreatment group reported more negative feelings on negative pictures which tried cognitive reappraisal than the no-maltreatment group (p 20). @*Conclusions@#We found that paradoxical activities in semantic networks were shown in the victims of maltreatment. Further study might be needed to clarify these aberrant functions in semantic networks related to maltreatment experiences.

10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 49-56, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926375

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT) was recently introduced to the treatment of the obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD). Major core components of ACT can be effectively applied to OCD treatment. Cognitive defusion can make to reduce anxiety related to obsessional thought by observing and flowing the thoughts in a nonjudgemental manner. Value-based commitment can be helpful to confront situations rather than experiential avoidance. Although several studies verified the effectiveness of ACT treatment on OCD, there is a lack of study in Korea. @*Methods@#:Forty-four patients with OCD were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups (22 patients per group). An eight-session, 90-minute ACT program was developed and conducted for 8 weeks for the treatment group. Symptoms were measured before and after 8 weeks, using Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ). @*Results@#:After eight-week program, the treatment group showed greater reductions in cognitive fusion score (p= 0.001) as well as obsessive-compulsive symptoms measured by both Y-BOCS and OCI (ps<0.001) compared to the control group. Moreover, changes in cognitive fusion score were significantly correlated with changes of Y-BOCS, OCI, and BDI scores (all ps<0.05). @*Conclusions@#:To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report to verify the effectiveness of a group based ACT program on OCD in Korea. Our ACT program was effective to reduce symptoms of OCD and related cognitive fusion. Future study with longitudinal design and large sample sizes are needed to investigate confirmatory and longterm effects of our ACT program for OCD.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 545-552, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903198

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fall into two categories: cognitive deficit models and dysfunctional belief models, these approaches have their own ways and have hardly been reconciled. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential relationships between cognitive deficit (using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, WCST) and dysfunctional belief (measured by scales of dysfunctional beliefs) mediated by neural activity in OCD patients. @*Methods@#Thirty OCD patients and 30 healthy participants performed the WCST condition and a baseline MATCH condition during the 3T-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. @*Results@#Engagement of additional frontoparietal networks with poorer performance of WCST was found during the fMRI scan in OCD patients. Selected regions of interest from activated regions have positive relationships with dysfunctional beliefs and with the unacceptable thoughts symptom dimension in the OCD group. @*Conclusion@#Findings suggest that alteration in frontoparietal networks related to cognitive deficits can be associated with dysfunctional beliefs while performing conventional neurocognitive tasks and this association with dysfunctional beliefs may be pronounced in the unacceptable thoughts domain-dominant OCD patients.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 348-356, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903165

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS) is a self-reported instrument used to measure a cognitive bias, namely, thoughtaction fusion (TAF), in which intrusive thoughts have moral and actual consequences. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the 19-item TAFS (K-TAFS) in Korean samples. @*Methods@#In this study, 628 university students and 93 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed the K-TAFS and several other psychological scales. Descriptive analyses, correlations, group comparisons, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. @*Results@#The results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a two-factor structure with TAF-Morality and TAFLikelihood that best fits the data in the university sample. The reliability analyses showed that TAFS and its factors had excellent internal consistencies. Regarding the concurrent validity, positive correlations were observed between TAF-Likelihood and cognitive fusion, while the TAFS scores did not show any consistent correlations with other symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Compared to the university students, the OCD patients showed higher TAFS scores and their obsessive-compulsive symptoms were significantly associated with both TAF-Morality and TAF-Likelihood. @*Conclusion@#Overall, the findings of this study support the reliability and validity of the K-TAFS.

13.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 223-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900079

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study surveyed the quality of psychotherapy training and psychotherapy competencies during residency in Korea. @*Methods@#A questionnaire developed by The Committee of Residency Training of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association was completed by fourth-year residents of Korean psychiatry (n=120). The questionnaire examined their demographic characteristics, their experience of clinical psychotherapy training, their degree of satisfaction in the quality of psychotherapy training, and self-rated competence regarding the six types of psychotherapies, including supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, psychoanalytic psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. @*Results@#The degree of satisfaction of the residents with the psychotherapy training was diverse among the types of psychotherapy and contents of training. Across all types of psychotherapies, the satisfaction levels of the quantity and quality of supervision education were low, except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Overall, more than 70% of residents were not satisfied with the theoretical education, clinical practice, and supervision education in three types of psychotherapies, including interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. A positive correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the quality of training experience and self-rated competence of psychotherapy. Specifically, the self-rated competence of psychotherapy was more highly correlated with the experience of clinical cases and supervision than theoretical education @*Conclusion@#This study showed the quantitative and qualitative status of psychotherapy training in Korean psychiatry residency programs, and the satisfaction level of psychotherapy education was low except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. There is a strong need for the improvement of psychotherapy training programs in Korea.

14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 202-210, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897753

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for treating undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare the long-term outcomes of ESD and surgery for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. @*Methods@#The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were used to search for relevant studies comparing ESD and surgery for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. The methodological quality of the included publications was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Nonrandomized Studies. The rates of overall survival, recurrence, adverse event, and complete resection were determined. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also evaluated. @*Results@#This meta-analysis enrolled five studies with 429 and 1,236 participants undergoing ESD and surgery, respectively. No significant difference was found in the overall survival rate between the ESD and surgery groups (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 0.98–5.36; p=0.06). However, ESD was associated with a higher recurrence rate and a lower complete resection rate. The adverse event rate was similar between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESD with meticulous surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy may be as effective and safe as surgery in patients with undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. Further large-scale, randomized, controlled studies from additional regions are required to confirm these findings.

15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 545-552, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895494

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fall into two categories: cognitive deficit models and dysfunctional belief models, these approaches have their own ways and have hardly been reconciled. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential relationships between cognitive deficit (using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, WCST) and dysfunctional belief (measured by scales of dysfunctional beliefs) mediated by neural activity in OCD patients. @*Methods@#Thirty OCD patients and 30 healthy participants performed the WCST condition and a baseline MATCH condition during the 3T-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. @*Results@#Engagement of additional frontoparietal networks with poorer performance of WCST was found during the fMRI scan in OCD patients. Selected regions of interest from activated regions have positive relationships with dysfunctional beliefs and with the unacceptable thoughts symptom dimension in the OCD group. @*Conclusion@#Findings suggest that alteration in frontoparietal networks related to cognitive deficits can be associated with dysfunctional beliefs while performing conventional neurocognitive tasks and this association with dysfunctional beliefs may be pronounced in the unacceptable thoughts domain-dominant OCD patients.

16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 348-356, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895461

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS) is a self-reported instrument used to measure a cognitive bias, namely, thoughtaction fusion (TAF), in which intrusive thoughts have moral and actual consequences. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the 19-item TAFS (K-TAFS) in Korean samples. @*Methods@#In this study, 628 university students and 93 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed the K-TAFS and several other psychological scales. Descriptive analyses, correlations, group comparisons, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. @*Results@#The results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a two-factor structure with TAF-Morality and TAFLikelihood that best fits the data in the university sample. The reliability analyses showed that TAFS and its factors had excellent internal consistencies. Regarding the concurrent validity, positive correlations were observed between TAF-Likelihood and cognitive fusion, while the TAFS scores did not show any consistent correlations with other symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Compared to the university students, the OCD patients showed higher TAFS scores and their obsessive-compulsive symptoms were significantly associated with both TAF-Morality and TAF-Likelihood. @*Conclusion@#Overall, the findings of this study support the reliability and validity of the K-TAFS.

17.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 235-241, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894628

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the safety and efficacy of preservative-free (PF) latanoprost in glaucoma patients. @*Methods@#In this prospective, open-label, observational study, a total of 27 primary open-angle glaucoma patients who used benzalkonium chloride-preserved prostaglandin analogues for at least 6 months were enrolled. After changing the eye drops to PF lataprost, the intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular surface symptoms and signs were evaluated in all patients on days 0 (first visit, D0), 45 (D45), and 90 (D90). @*Results@#Mean IOP remained stable during the study period (14.0 ± 2.4 mmHg at D0, 13.9 ± 2.0 mmHg at D45, 13.7 ± 2.2 mmHg at D90; p = 0.603). Mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and best-corrected visual acuity were similar before and after eye drops replacement. Bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, corneal staining, and conjunctival staining were significantly decreased over 90 days (p = 0.025, p < 0.001, p = 0.020, respectively). The ocular surface disease index score showed a statistically significant improvement from 26.4 ± 18.5 at D0 to 19.8 ± 17.0 at D45 and 15.7 ± 15.6 at D90 (p < 0.001). In the evaluation of ocular tolerability, burning symptoms and dryness were significantly decreased (p = 0.001, p = 0.040). @*Conclusions@#The effects of PF latanoprost on reducing IOP were comparable with those of benzalkonium chloride-preserved prostaglandin analogues, but side effects on the ocular surface were much less pronounced when PF latanoprost was used. With this efficacy, PF latanoprost could slow the progression of glaucoma by increasing patient compliance.

18.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 628-639, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914079

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Thought-action fusion (TAF), one of the most-studied dysfunctional beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder, represents an individual’s belief that his/her thoughts directly influence events. TAF belief types are divided into personal thoughts relating to positive (positive TAF) and negative outcomes (negative TAF). However, the neural mechanisms underlying both aspects of the TAF response remain elusive. @*Methods@#This functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to investigate the neural circuits related to positive and negative TAF and their relationships with psychological measures. Thirty-one healthy male volunteers participated in a modified TAF task wherein they were asked to read the name of a close person embedded in positive statements (PS) or negative statements (NS). @*Results@#Conjunction analysis revealed activation of the fusiform and lingual gyri, midcingulate and superior medial frontal gyri, inferior orbitofrontal gyrus, and temporoparietal junction. The NS > PS comparison showed additional activation in the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, insula, globus pallidus, thalamus, and midbrain. Precuneus activity was associated with the TAF score among these areas. Moreover, activity in the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus, insula, superior, middle and medial frontal gyri, globus pallidus, inferior parietal lobule, and precuneus was associated with dimensional obsessive-compulsive scores. In contrast, the PS > NS comparison revealed no significant activation. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that negative TAF, relative to positive TAF, recruits additional regions for self-referential processing, salience, and habitual responding, which may contribute to the activation of the belief that a negative thought increases the probability of that negative outcome.

19.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 83-89, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874314

ABSTRACT

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by presence of α-synuclein-positive inclusions in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes. These glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) are considered an integral part of the pathogenesis of MSA, leading to demyelination and neuronal demise. What is most puzzling in the research fields of GCIs is the origin of α-synuclein aggregates in GCIs, since adult oligodendrocytes do not express high levels of α-synuclein. The most recent leading hypothesis is that GCIs form via transfer and accumulation of α-synuclein from neurons to oligodendrocytes. However, studies regarding this subject are limited due to the absence of proper human cell models, to demonstrate the entry and accumulation of neuronal α-synuclein in human oligodendrocytes. Here, we generated mature human oligodendrocytes that can take up neuronderived α-synuclein and form GCI-like inclusions. Mature human oligodendrocytes are derived from neural stem cells via “oligosphere” formation and then into oligodendrocytes, treating the cells with the proper differentiation factors at each step. In the final cell preparations, oligodendrocytes consist of the majority population, while some astrocytes and unidentified stem cell-like cells were present as well. When these cells were exposed to α-synuclein proteins secreted from neuron-like human neuroblastoma cells, oligodendrocytes developed perinuclear inclusion bodies with α-synuclein immunoreactivity, resembling GCIs, while the stem cell-like cells showed α-synuclein-positive, scattered puncta in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, we have established a human oligodendrocyte model for the study of GCI formation, and the characterization and use of this model might pave the way for understanding the pathogenesis of MSA.

20.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 223-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892375

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study surveyed the quality of psychotherapy training and psychotherapy competencies during residency in Korea. @*Methods@#A questionnaire developed by The Committee of Residency Training of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association was completed by fourth-year residents of Korean psychiatry (n=120). The questionnaire examined their demographic characteristics, their experience of clinical psychotherapy training, their degree of satisfaction in the quality of psychotherapy training, and self-rated competence regarding the six types of psychotherapies, including supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, psychoanalytic psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. @*Results@#The degree of satisfaction of the residents with the psychotherapy training was diverse among the types of psychotherapy and contents of training. Across all types of psychotherapies, the satisfaction levels of the quantity and quality of supervision education were low, except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Overall, more than 70% of residents were not satisfied with the theoretical education, clinical practice, and supervision education in three types of psychotherapies, including interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and family psychotherapy. A positive correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the quality of training experience and self-rated competence of psychotherapy. Specifically, the self-rated competence of psychotherapy was more highly correlated with the experience of clinical cases and supervision than theoretical education @*Conclusion@#This study showed the quantitative and qualitative status of psychotherapy training in Korean psychiatry residency programs, and the satisfaction level of psychotherapy education was low except for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. There is a strong need for the improvement of psychotherapy training programs in Korea.

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