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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899881

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pediatric sedation in the emergency department (ED) is widely performed in Korea; thus exploring the trends of its use is necessary. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients and sedatives use in the ED and verify their changes over recent years. @*Methods@#A nationwide population-based retrospective study was conducted including pediatric patients aged ≤ 15 years who received sedative medication in the ED and were discharged during 2007–2018, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. Patient characteristics (age, sex, level of ED, and diagnosis) and type of sedative used were analyzed. @*Results@#Sedation was performed in total 468,221 visits during 2007–2018 (399,320 visits, at least 3.8% of overall ED visits during 2009–2018). Among these, 71.0% were children aged 1–3 years and 93.5% were sedated to support diagnosis of injury. An increase in total sedation was observed in patients aged 4–6 years during the study period (from 13.8% to 21.8%). A gradual decrease in the use of chloral hydrate (CH) compared with an increase in ketamine use was observed (CH, from 70.6% to 28.6%; ketamine, from 23.8% to 60.7%). Therefore, ketamine was the most used sedative since 2014. The most frequently used sedatives over the study period differed according to age groups (CH in <1 year and 1–3 years; ketamine in 4–6 years and 7–10 years; and midazolam in 11–15 years). @*Conclusions@#The characteristics of patients related to sedatives use in the ED have changed over time. These changes should be considered in the development of future Korean guidelines regarding pediatric sedation in the ED.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892177

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pediatric sedation in the emergency department (ED) is widely performed in Korea; thus exploring the trends of its use is necessary. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients and sedatives use in the ED and verify their changes over recent years. @*Methods@#A nationwide population-based retrospective study was conducted including pediatric patients aged ≤ 15 years who received sedative medication in the ED and were discharged during 2007–2018, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. Patient characteristics (age, sex, level of ED, and diagnosis) and type of sedative used were analyzed. @*Results@#Sedation was performed in total 468,221 visits during 2007–2018 (399,320 visits, at least 3.8% of overall ED visits during 2009–2018). Among these, 71.0% were children aged 1–3 years and 93.5% were sedated to support diagnosis of injury. An increase in total sedation was observed in patients aged 4–6 years during the study period (from 13.8% to 21.8%). A gradual decrease in the use of chloral hydrate (CH) compared with an increase in ketamine use was observed (CH, from 70.6% to 28.6%; ketamine, from 23.8% to 60.7%). Therefore, ketamine was the most used sedative since 2014. The most frequently used sedatives over the study period differed according to age groups (CH in <1 year and 1–3 years; ketamine in 4–6 years and 7–10 years; and midazolam in 11–15 years). @*Conclusions@#The characteristics of patients related to sedatives use in the ED have changed over time. These changes should be considered in the development of future Korean guidelines regarding pediatric sedation in the ED.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918674

ABSTRACT

We report a case of inguinal hernia that contained the entire uterus and both adnexa, presenting with an irreducible soft mass in the left groin and asymmetric labia majora, in a 2-month-old, full-term girl who visited the emergency department. Ultrasonography was performed immediately, and urgent surgical repair was performed without complications. Although inguinal hernia is a common surgical disease, it is rare that the hernia contains the uterus with its adnexa, and presents as a mass of the labia majora. Unlike the bowel herniation, the entity can be complicated by strangulation of the ovary, leading to infertility. To preserve fertility, rapid and accurate diagnosis using ultrasonography should be considered in an infant with an irreducible inguinal mass and asymmetric labia majora.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 400-405, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833372

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Presently, Korea is facing new challenges associated with an imbalance in blood supply and demand. The purpose ofthis study was to examine trends in blood supply and demand in Korea over the past 10 years through 2018 and to propose whatto prepare in the future. @*Materials and Methods@#Age demographics in Korea were analyzed using data from the Statistics Korea. Blood donation andblood supply data were analyzed using Blood Services Statistics 2018 by the Korean Red Cross. Blood transfusion data from hospitalsin 2018 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. @*Results@#In 2018, 2883270 whole blood and apheresis units were collected in Korea. The Korean Red Cross supplied 4277762 bloodcomponents to 2491 hospitals. The overall blood donation rate was 5.6%, and the most frequent donors were young male donors.Leukoreduced red blood cells (RBCs) constituted 25% of all RBCs used, and 40% of all platelets were supplied by single-donorplatelets. The self-sufficiency rate of domestic plasma with which to produce plasma-derived medicinal products was 68.7% in2018. Blood use was the most frequent among patients aged 70–79 years. @*Conclusion@#Blood management in Korea is changing rapidly due to a low birth rate, rapid aging, and an increase in severely illpatients who require most of the blood supply. Therefore, future plans to promote donation at a national level and optimal use ofblood in hospitals is necessary.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as acute respiratory distress syndrome with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema caused by transfusion. It occurs only rarely but could result in patient mortality. TRALI has been declining since the successful adoption of TRALI risk mitigation strategies in several countries. The new diagnostic criteria were suggested in 2019 based on the knowledge and experience gained throughout the last decade. This article integrated a series of TRALI cases diagnosed in a tertiary hospital while reviewing each case based upon the new diagnostic criteria.@*METHODS@#Among the reported transfusion adverse reactions that occurred from March 2013 to June 2019, seven TRALI cases were recruited for this study. Each case was retrospectively reexamined with its clinical condition and transfusion history. The diagnosed cases were classified into TRALI subtypes newly suggested in the 2019 version.@*RESULTS@#The mean time interval to adverse reaction was 117 minutes (range: 7~370 minutes) and all satisfied the condition of hypoxemia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrations. The transfused blood components were apheresis platelets in three cases, platelet concentrates in one case, red blood cells in one case and combinations of different products in two cases. Five cases were diagnosed as possible TRALI, and all five cases were diagnosed as TRALI type 2 (2019 criteria).@*CONCLUSION@#In our center, seven patients were diagnosed TRALI during the last 6 years. Screening more TRALI patients according to the new criteria, along with investigating the patients' clinical characteristics, transfused blood components, treatments and integrated research, will facilitate Korean research on this field of medicine.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759595

ABSTRACT

Antibodies to high-incidence red blood cell antigens should be considered if panagglutination reactions are noted in all panel cells, and negative reactions to autologous red blood cells are detected on antibody screening and identification tests. In Korea, most of those antibodies are identified through international reference laboratories. To prevent a hemolytic transfusion reaction, antigen-negative red cells should be provided for those patients who have antibodies to red cell antigens. However, this is nearly impossible when the antibody has specificity to high-incidence red cell antigen. In those cases, transfusion of autologous blood, cryopreserved rare blood and the least incompatible blood components can be considered. In the case of surgery, acute normovolemic hemodilution or intraoperative blood salvage can also be considered. For the patients who have antibodies to high-incidence red cell antigens, it should be discussed to set up a national reference laboratory to quickly identify antibody specificities, and to consider establishing rare blood donor registry and frozen rare blood storage/supply system. This article reviews characteristics of antibodies to high-incidence antigens found in Koreans and also the transfusion experiences of those patients based on literature.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibody Specificity , Blood Donors , Erythrocytes , Hemodilution , Humans , Isoantibodies , Korea , Mass Screening , Operative Blood Salvage , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transfusion Reaction
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719474

ABSTRACT

The detection and quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA plays an important role in diagnosing and monitoring HBV infection as well as in assessing the therapeutic response. We compared the analytical performance of a random access, fully automated HBV assay—DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA)—with that of Abbott RealTime HBV assay (Abbott Laboratories, Des Plaines, IL, USA). The between-day precision of the VERIS assay ranged from 0.92% (mean 4.68 log IU/mL) to 4.15% (mean 2.09 log IU/mL) for pooled sera from HBV patients. HBV DNA levels measured by the VERIS HBV assay correlated with the calculated HBV DNA levels (r²=0.9994; P < 0.0001). The lower limit of quantification was estimated as 8.76 IU/mL (Probit analysis, 95% confidence interval: 7.32–12.00 IU/mL). Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed good concordance between the VERIS and RealTime assays for 187 chronic HBV samples (y=−0.2397+0.9712x; r=0.981), as well as for 20 drug-resistant HBV genotype C positive samples (y=−0.5415+0.9954x; r=0.961). The VERIS assay demonstrated performance similar to the RealTime assay and is suitable for high-throughput HBV DNA monitoring in large hospital laboratories.


Subject(s)
DNA , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital , Pathology, Molecular
9.
Blood Research ; : 52-56, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Granulocyte transfusion (GTx) is performed as a supportive therapy in severe neutropenic patients caused by various conditions. The study aimed to analyze the hematologic parameters of donors, patients, and granulocyte concentrates to predict successful GTx. METHODS: This study was performed in 281 donors, with their granulocyte concentrates being collected through apheresis, and in 54 severe neutropenic patients who had various hematologic diseases. Complete blood cell counts of donors pre- and post-apheresis, granulocyte concentrates, and patients pre- and post-GTx were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to survival at discharge (Group S, survival; Group D, dead) to compare various factors including age, infection status, pre- and post-GTx total white blood cell counts (TWBCC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), total number of GTx, infused TWBCC and ANC per weight, and use of G-CSF during therapy. RESULTS: Overall data of patients showed that both TWBCC and ANC were significantly increased after GTx (median values at pre-GTx, TWBCC=0.40×109/L, ANC=0.14×109/L; post-GTx, TWBCC=0.57×109/L, ANC=0.29×109/L, both P<0.0001). After GTx, Group S (N=25) showed significantly higher TWBCC and ANC than Group D (N=29) (P=0.01 and P=0.04, respectively). Using different cutoff levels, post-GTx TWBCC greater than 0.5×109/L showed statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). None of the other factors showed statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: The TWBCC and ANC after GTx were significant factors to predict patients' outcome. Therefore, follow-up of those two parameters may be helpful to select or consider other therapeutic modalities including additional GTx.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , Blood Component Removal , Follow-Up Studies , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Tissue Donors
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1253-1256, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718489

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report a case of anti-Gerbich (Ge) alloantibody to a high-prevalence Ge antigen in a donor with Fy(a−b−) phenotype. The alloantibody was detected in an Emirati boy who was admitted to a Korean tertiary hospital for marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell donation. He did not have a history of transfusion. His blood type was A, RhD+, and findings from the antibody screening and identification test showed 2+ reactivity in all panel cells except autologous cells. We concluded that it would be very difficult to find compatible blood components for the donor and requested further tests from external laboratories. Anti-Ge2 was identified by additional tests in a foreign reference laboratory, and the Duffy genotype of the donor was FY*02/FY*02N.01 based on the Korean Rare Blood Program. Although the donor was not a Korean, as the number of foreign patients visiting Korea increases annually, there is growing interest in patients with rare blood types in the Korean population. However, there has been very little research on rare or high prevalence blood type antigen and antibody in the Korean population. Therefore, additional research in Korea is needed on rare blood group antibodies and antigens, including Ge cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Bone Marrow , Genotype , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Korea , Male , Mass Screening , Phenotype , Prevalence , Tertiary Care Centers , Tissue Donors
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718423

ABSTRACT

A 72-year-old man with general weakness visited the outpatient clinic of the hematology department. The patient had been treated under the diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia for 2 years. His hemoglobin level at the time of the visit was 6.3 g/dL, and a blood transfusion was requested to treat his anemia. The patient's blood type was A, RhD positive. Antibody screening and identification test showed agglutination in all reagent cells with a positive reaction to autologous red blood cells (RBCs). He had a prior transfusion history with three least incompatible RBCs. The patient returned home after receiving one unit of leukoreduced filtered RBC, which was the least incompatible blood in the crossmatching test. After approximately five hours, however, fever, chills, dyspnea, abdominal pain, and hematuria appeared and the patient returned to the emergency room next day after the transfusion. The anti-Fy(a) antibody, which was masked by the autoantibody, was identified after autoadsorption using polyethylene glycol. He was diagnosed with an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-Fy(a) that had not been detected before the transfusion. In this setting, it is necessary to consider the identification of coexisting alloantibodies in patients with autoantibodies and to become more familiar with the method of autoantibody adsorption.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adsorption , Aged , Agglutination , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anemia , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Autoantibodies , Blood Transfusion , Chills , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Emergency Service, Hospital , Erythrocytes , Fever , Hematology , Hematuria , Humans , Isoantibodies , Masks , Mass Screening , Methods , Polyethylene Glycols , Transfusion Reaction
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is an essential practice during surgery to accommodate for bleeding. As such, there are efforts being made to allow for a safe and appropriate transfusion due to shortages of blood components and to minimize transfusion-related adverse reactions. However, a conventional transfusion decision with relatively high hemoglobin (Hb) threshold is still performed in clinical setting. In this study, we investigated the threshold of Hblevel and appropriateness of RBC transfusion in patients receiving perioperative RBC transfusion in surgical departments. METHODS: We investigated the pre-transfusion Hb level of 1,379 patients (2,170 episodes) receiving perioperative RBC transfusion in five surgical departments, including cardiothoracic surgery (CS), general surgery (GS), neurosurgery (NS), obstetrics and gynecology (OBGY), and orthopedics (OS), between June 2017 and March 2018. The appropriateness of transfusion was evaluated with two criteria: 1) pretransfusion Hb level ≤10 g/dL and 2) posttransfusion Hb level ≤10 g/dL. RESULTS: The median pretransfusion Hb level was 8.5 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7~9.4); that of each department was as follows: 8.6 g/dL (7.9~9.2) in CS, 7.9 g/dL (7.3~8.6) in GS, 9.1 g/dL (8.5~9.8) in NS, 8.5 g/dL (7.7~9.8) in OBGY, and 8.7 g/dL (7.9~9.7) in OS. With a criteria of pretransfusion of Hb level ≤10 g/dL, 85.4% of total episodes were appropriate. With criteria of post-transfusion of Hb level ≤10 g/dL, 44.7% were appropriate. CONCLUSION: This study presents a fundamental data observing the trend of RBC transfusion in a single institution. A significant proportion of inappropriate RBC transfusion are still being conducted in surgical setting. Continuous and effective education of clinicians and implementation of monitoring systems to assess the appropriateness of RBC transfusion may be necessary.


Subject(s)
Education , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Gynecology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Neurosurgery , Obstetrics , Orthopedics
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161599

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), which is frequently encountered in pediatric patients, is the leading cause of hospitalization. We aimed to identify particular cytokines that correlated with ALRI clinical characteristics. We also aimed to identify any differences in cytokines between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related ALRI and non-RSV-related ALRI. METHODS: Cytokine levels were measured in the sera sampled from 103 pediatric patients diagnosed with ALRI and admitted to Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between May 2012 and April 2013. The correlations between cytokine levels and the length of hospitalization, the number of days with fever, body temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, oxygen saturation upon admission, and duration of oxygen supplementation were analyzed. RESULTS: In children with ALRI, the level of interleukin (IL)-6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and IL-10 were correlated with a higher body temperature on admission. In addition, the IL-8 level was correlated with pulse rate and respiration rate, and IL-1β level was related with oxygen saturation on admission. In children with RSV-related ALRI, the IL-6 was correlated the with duration of fever, and the IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-8 levels were related to pulse rate and respiration rate. In addition, the increase in interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) level was correlated with a higher body temperature on admission and a longer duration of hospitalization in children with RSV-related ALRI. CONCLUSION: In children with ALRI, the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, G-CSF, and IP-10 were correlated with its clinical features. In children with RSV-related ALRI, the IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10 level was correlated with the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature , Child , Cytokines , Fever , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Heart Rate , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Oxygen , Respiratory Rate , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Seoul
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770931

ABSTRACT

Malposition of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) venous cannula in the azygos vein is not frequently reported. We hereby present such a case, which occurred in a neonate with right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Despite ECMO application, neither adequate flow nor sufficient oxygenation was achieved. On the cross-table lateral chest radiograph, the cannula tip was identified posterior to the heart silhouette, which implied malposition of the cannula in the azygos vein. After repositioning the cannula, the target flow and oxygenation were successfully achieved. When sufficient venous flow is not achieved, as in our case, clinicians should be alerted so they can identify the cannula tip location on lateral chest radiograph and confirm whether malposition in the azygos vein is the cause of the ineffective ECMO.


Subject(s)
Azygos Vein , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen , Radiography, Thoracic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42555

ABSTRACT

Malposition of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) venous cannula in the azygos vein is not frequently reported. We hereby present such a case, which occurred in a neonate with right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Despite ECMO application, neither adequate flow nor sufficient oxygenation was achieved. On the cross-table lateral chest radiograph, the cannula tip was identified posterior to the heart silhouette, which implied malposition of the cannula in the azygos vein. After repositioning the cannula, the target flow and oxygenation were successfully achieved. When sufficient venous flow is not achieved, as in our case, clinicians should be alerted so they can identify the cannula tip location on lateral chest radiograph and confirm whether malposition in the azygos vein is the cause of the ineffective ECMO.


Subject(s)
Azygos Vein , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen , Radiography, Thoracic
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although transfusion is a paramount life-saving therapy, there are multiple potential significant risks. Therefore, all adverse transfusion reaction (ATR) episodes require close monitoring. Using the computerized reporting system, we assessed the frequency and pattern of non-infectious ATRs. METHODS: We analyzed two-year transfusion data from electronic medical records retrospectively. From March 2013 to February 2015, 364,569 units of blood were transfused. Of them, 334,582 (91.8%) records were identified from electronic nursing records. For the confirmation of ATRs by blood bank physicians, patients' electronic medical records were further evaluated. RESULTS: According to the nursing records, the frequency of all possible transfusion-related events was 3.1%. After the blood bank physicians' review, the frequency was found to be 1.2%. The overall frequency of febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) to red blood cells (RBCs), platelet (PLT) components, and fresh frozen plasmas (FFPs) were 0.9%, 0.3%, and 0.2%, respectively, and allergic reactions represented 0.3% (RBCs), 0.9% (PLTs), and 0.9% (FFPs), respectively. The pre-storage leukocyte reduction significantly decreased the frequency of FNHTRs during the transfusion of RBCs (P<0.01) or PLTs (Pfalling dots0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of FNHTRs, allergic reactions, and "no reactions" were 22.0%, 17.0%, and 60.7%, respectively. Leukocyte-reduction was associated with a lower rate of FNHTRs, but not with that of allergic reactions. The development of an effective electronic reporting system of ATRs is important in quantifying transfusion-related adverse events. This type of reporting system can also accurately identify the underlying problems and risk factors to further the quality of transfusion care for patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56793

ABSTRACT

Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Laboratories , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Quality Control , Reference Values , Republic of Korea , Staining and Labeling , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an effective and practical treatment for separation and removal of harmful antibodies or pathogenic substances from the blood. The volume of plasma removed must be replaced by a replacement fluid such as 4~5% albumin solution or Fresh frozen plasma (FFP). We conducted a study of coagulopathy using albumin solution and checked the chemical composition of fresh frozen plasma. METHODS: We measured pre- and post-TPE PT/aPTT for evaluation of the effect of albumin replacement on coagulation from 192 TPE sessions of 19 patients. We also investigated routine chemistry test items including glucose and electrolytes from 10 randomly selected FFP. RESULTS: The post PT and aPTT within four hours after TPE were prolonged due to a transient decrease in coagulation factors, but were normalized within 2 days after TPE. All coagulation time was corrected to the level of the pre-TPE status within four hours before the next TPE except the patients who received TPE 6 times or more. FFP showed higher level in glucose, sodium and inorganic phosphate. CONCLUSION: Albumin exchange produces temporary coagulation factor deficiency. However, this transient factor deficiency rarely causes clinical problems and the factors are rapidly corrected by redistribution and resynthesis. We should be careful about hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and hypernatremia when using FFP replacement.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Blood Coagulation Factors , Chemistry , Electrolytes , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypernatremia , Hypocalcemia , Plasma , Plasma Exchange , Sodium
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210261

ABSTRACT

Respiratory distress is not uncommon in children and adolescents, who are at higher risk of progressing into respiratory failure than adults. When managing dyspneic pediatric patients, a clinical history and physical examination should be performed simultaneously and must be followed up by prompt first aid, including oxygen supplementation. Prior to initiating an invasive therapy such as endotracheal intubation, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation should first be considered. This method may be effective in patients with chronic respiratory distress and failure. The prevention and proper management of respiratory infections are also important in affected patients. If chronic respiratory distress deteriorates into respiratory failure, a portable home mechanical ventilator may be needed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , First Aid , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Oxygen , Physical Examination , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency , Respiratory Tract Infections , Ventilators, Mechanical
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