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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

2.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 123-133, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917386

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Atherectomy as a pretreatment has the potential to improve the outcomes of drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment by reducing and modifying atherosclerotic plaques. The present study investigated the outcomes of atherectomy plus DCB (A+DCB) compared with DCB alone for the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease. @*Methods@#A total of 311 patients (348 limbs) underwent endovascular therapy using DCB for native femoropopliteal artery lesions at two endovascular centers. Of these, 82 limbs were treated with A+DCB and 266 limbs with DCB alone. After propensity score matching based on clinical and lesion characteristics, a total of 82 pairs was compared for immediate and mid-term outcomes. @*Results@#For the matched study groups, the lesion length was 172.7±111.2 mm, and severe calcification was observed in 43.3%. The technical success rate was higher in the A+DCB group than in the DCB group (80.5% vs. 62.2%, p=0.015). However, the A+DCB group showed more procedure-related minor complications (37.0% vs. 13.4%, p=0.047). At 2-year follow-up, primary clinical patency (73.8% vs. 82.6%, p=0.158) and the target lesion revascularization (TLR)-free survival (84.3% vs. 88.2%, p=0.261) did not differ between the two groups. In Cox proportional hazard analysis, atherectomy showed no significant impact on the outcome of DCB treatments. @*Conclusions@#The pretreatment with atherectomy improved technical success of DCB treatment; however, it was associated with increased minor complications. In this study, A+DCB showed no clinical benefit in terms of TLR-free survival or clinical patency compared with DCB treatment alone.

3.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 441-451, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901660

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The EPIC™ stent is a self-expanding, nitinol stent that has been designed to enhance flexibility and provide expansion within vessels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of the EPIC™ stent when used to treat iliac artery diseases in a prospective Korean multicenter registry. @*Methods@#A total of 138 patients with iliac artery diseases who received endovascular treatment with EPIC™ stents at 9 Korean sites were enrolled in a prospective cohort and followed for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the 1-year freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR). The secondary endpoints were 1-year clinical patency and freedom from major adverse events (MAEs). @*Results@#The mean age of the study subjects was 66.8±8.5 years and most subjects were male (86.2%). The most frequent lesion type was Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus B (43.5%) and the majority (56.5%) of the target lesions were located in the common iliac artery. Procedural success was obtained in 99.3% of patients. The freedom from TLR and the clinical patency at 1-year follow-up were 94.9% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year rate of MAEs was 5.1%. Combined coronary artery disease (hazard ratio [HR], 5.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–30.89; p=0.035) and smaller stent diameter (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17–0.88;p=0.023) were identified as independent risk factors of TLR after EPIC™ stent implantation. @*Conclusions@#The EPIC™ stents demonstrated excellent immediate and 1-year efficacy and safety outcomes in iliac artery lesions in this multicenter, prospective, registry-based study.

4.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 222-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901647

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been reported as a good alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with small aortic annulus. Head-to-head comparisons of different transcatheter aortic valves in these patients are insufficient. We compared the outcomes after TAVR between two different types of recent transcatheter aortic valves (self-expanding vs. balloon-expandable) in patients with small aortic annulus. @*Methods@#A total of 70 patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annulus (mean diameter ≤23 mm or minimal diameter ≤21 mm on computed tomography) underwent TAVR with either a self-expanding valve with supra-annular location (n=45) or a balloon-expandable valve with intra-annular location (n=25). The echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters after TAVR and 1-year follow-up were compared. @*Results@#Between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the clinical outcomes including permanent pacemaker implantation (11.1% vs. 8.0%), acute kidney injury stage 2 or 3 (4.4% vs. 4.0%), and major vascular complication (4.4% vs. 0.0%) were similar without all-cause mortality, stroke, and life-threatening bleeding during 30-day follow-up. Compared with the balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the self-expanding valve-treated patients presented larger effective orifice area (EOA) (1.46±0.28 vs. 1.75±0.42 cm2 , p=0.002) and indexed EOA (0.95±0.21 vs. 1.18±0.28 cm2 /m2 , p=0.001), whereas mean aortic valve gradient (11.7±2.9 vs. 8.9±5.2 mmHg, P=0.005) and incidence of ≥moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (36.0% vs. 8.9%, p=0.009) were lower. These hemodynamic differences were maintained at 1-year follow-up. @*Conclusions@#TAVR with self-expanding valves was associated with superior hemodynamic outcomes compared with balloon-expandable valves in patients with small aortic annulus.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 696-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901587

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Few studies have investigated the obesity paradox in clinical outcomes of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We investigated the association between body massindex (BMI) and clinical outcomes in PAD patients undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT). @*Methods@#Patients (n=2,914) from the retrospective Korean Vascular Intervention Society Endovascular Therapy in Lower Limb Artery Disease registry were categorized according to BMI: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 , n=204), normal weight (18.5–25 kg/m2 , n=1,818), overweight (25–30 kg/m2 , n=766), or obese (≥30 kg/m2 , n=126). Groups were compared for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE). @*Results@#The underweight and obese groups were older and had more frequent critical limb ischemia and infrapopliteal artery disease than the normal or overweight groups (all p<0.001). Hypertension and diabetes were more frequent and current smoking was less frequent in the overweight and obese groups than the underweight or normal weight groups (all p <0.001). The underweight group showed the higher rates of MACE and MALE at 3 years (17.2%, 15.7%) compared with the normal weight (10.8%, 11.7%), overweight (8.4%, 10.7%), or obese groups (8.7%, 14.3%) (log-rank p<0.001, p=0.015). In contrast, the risk of MACE was lower in the overweight than the normal weight group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.706; 95% CI, 0.537–0.928). @*Conclusions@#In PAD patients undergoing EVT, underweight was an independent predictor for MACE and MALE, whereas MACE risk was lower for overweight than normal weight patients.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899913

ABSTRACT

Background@#Drug-resistance surveillance (DRS) data provide key information for building an effective treatment regimen in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).This study was conducted to investigate the patterns and trends of additional drug resistance in MDR-TB patients in South Korea. @*Methods@#Phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST) results of MDR-TB patients collected from seven hospitals in South Korea from 2010 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 633 patients with MDR-TB were included in the analysis. Of all patients, 361 (57.0%) were new patients. All patients had additional resistance to a median of three antiTB drugs. The resistance rates of any fluoroquinolone (FQ), linezolid, and cycloserine were 26.2%, 0.0%, and 6.3%, respectively. The proportions of new patients and resistance rates of most anti-TB drugs did not decrease during the study period. The number of additional resistant drugs was significantly higher in FQ-resistant MDR-TB than in FQ-susceptible MDR-TB (median of 9.0 vs. 2.0). Among 26 patients with results of minimum inhibitory concentrations for bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid (DLM), one (3.8%) and three (11.5%) patients were considered resistant to BDQ and DLM with interim critical concentrations, respectively. Based on the DST results, 72.4% and 24.8% of patients were eligible for the World Health Organization's longer and shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The proportions of new patients and rates of additional drug resistance in patients with MDR-TB were high and remain stable in South Korea. A nationwide analysis of DRS data is required to provide effective treatment for MDR-TB patients in South Korea.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 441-451, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893956

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The EPIC™ stent is a self-expanding, nitinol stent that has been designed to enhance flexibility and provide expansion within vessels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of the EPIC™ stent when used to treat iliac artery diseases in a prospective Korean multicenter registry. @*Methods@#A total of 138 patients with iliac artery diseases who received endovascular treatment with EPIC™ stents at 9 Korean sites were enrolled in a prospective cohort and followed for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the 1-year freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR). The secondary endpoints were 1-year clinical patency and freedom from major adverse events (MAEs). @*Results@#The mean age of the study subjects was 66.8±8.5 years and most subjects were male (86.2%). The most frequent lesion type was Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus B (43.5%) and the majority (56.5%) of the target lesions were located in the common iliac artery. Procedural success was obtained in 99.3% of patients. The freedom from TLR and the clinical patency at 1-year follow-up were 94.9% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year rate of MAEs was 5.1%. Combined coronary artery disease (hazard ratio [HR], 5.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–30.89; p=0.035) and smaller stent diameter (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17–0.88;p=0.023) were identified as independent risk factors of TLR after EPIC™ stent implantation. @*Conclusions@#The EPIC™ stents demonstrated excellent immediate and 1-year efficacy and safety outcomes in iliac artery lesions in this multicenter, prospective, registry-based study.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 222-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893943

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been reported as a good alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with small aortic annulus. Head-to-head comparisons of different transcatheter aortic valves in these patients are insufficient. We compared the outcomes after TAVR between two different types of recent transcatheter aortic valves (self-expanding vs. balloon-expandable) in patients with small aortic annulus. @*Methods@#A total of 70 patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annulus (mean diameter ≤23 mm or minimal diameter ≤21 mm on computed tomography) underwent TAVR with either a self-expanding valve with supra-annular location (n=45) or a balloon-expandable valve with intra-annular location (n=25). The echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters after TAVR and 1-year follow-up were compared. @*Results@#Between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the clinical outcomes including permanent pacemaker implantation (11.1% vs. 8.0%), acute kidney injury stage 2 or 3 (4.4% vs. 4.0%), and major vascular complication (4.4% vs. 0.0%) were similar without all-cause mortality, stroke, and life-threatening bleeding during 30-day follow-up. Compared with the balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the self-expanding valve-treated patients presented larger effective orifice area (EOA) (1.46±0.28 vs. 1.75±0.42 cm2 , p=0.002) and indexed EOA (0.95±0.21 vs. 1.18±0.28 cm2 /m2 , p=0.001), whereas mean aortic valve gradient (11.7±2.9 vs. 8.9±5.2 mmHg, P=0.005) and incidence of ≥moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (36.0% vs. 8.9%, p=0.009) were lower. These hemodynamic differences were maintained at 1-year follow-up. @*Conclusions@#TAVR with self-expanding valves was associated with superior hemodynamic outcomes compared with balloon-expandable valves in patients with small aortic annulus.

9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 696-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893883

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Few studies have investigated the obesity paradox in clinical outcomes of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We investigated the association between body massindex (BMI) and clinical outcomes in PAD patients undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT). @*Methods@#Patients (n=2,914) from the retrospective Korean Vascular Intervention Society Endovascular Therapy in Lower Limb Artery Disease registry were categorized according to BMI: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 , n=204), normal weight (18.5–25 kg/m2 , n=1,818), overweight (25–30 kg/m2 , n=766), or obese (≥30 kg/m2 , n=126). Groups were compared for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE). @*Results@#The underweight and obese groups were older and had more frequent critical limb ischemia and infrapopliteal artery disease than the normal or overweight groups (all p<0.001). Hypertension and diabetes were more frequent and current smoking was less frequent in the overweight and obese groups than the underweight or normal weight groups (all p <0.001). The underweight group showed the higher rates of MACE and MALE at 3 years (17.2%, 15.7%) compared with the normal weight (10.8%, 11.7%), overweight (8.4%, 10.7%), or obese groups (8.7%, 14.3%) (log-rank p<0.001, p=0.015). In contrast, the risk of MACE was lower in the overweight than the normal weight group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.706; 95% CI, 0.537–0.928). @*Conclusions@#In PAD patients undergoing EVT, underweight was an independent predictor for MACE and MALE, whereas MACE risk was lower for overweight than normal weight patients.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892209

ABSTRACT

Background@#Drug-resistance surveillance (DRS) data provide key information for building an effective treatment regimen in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).This study was conducted to investigate the patterns and trends of additional drug resistance in MDR-TB patients in South Korea. @*Methods@#Phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST) results of MDR-TB patients collected from seven hospitals in South Korea from 2010 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 633 patients with MDR-TB were included in the analysis. Of all patients, 361 (57.0%) were new patients. All patients had additional resistance to a median of three antiTB drugs. The resistance rates of any fluoroquinolone (FQ), linezolid, and cycloserine were 26.2%, 0.0%, and 6.3%, respectively. The proportions of new patients and resistance rates of most anti-TB drugs did not decrease during the study period. The number of additional resistant drugs was significantly higher in FQ-resistant MDR-TB than in FQ-susceptible MDR-TB (median of 9.0 vs. 2.0). Among 26 patients with results of minimum inhibitory concentrations for bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid (DLM), one (3.8%) and three (11.5%) patients were considered resistant to BDQ and DLM with interim critical concentrations, respectively. Based on the DST results, 72.4% and 24.8% of patients were eligible for the World Health Organization's longer and shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The proportions of new patients and rates of additional drug resistance in patients with MDR-TB were high and remain stable in South Korea. A nationwide analysis of DRS data is required to provide effective treatment for MDR-TB patients in South Korea.

11.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 136-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918387

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Rasmussen’s aneurysm may cause life-threatening hemoptysis. We investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with hemoptysis and Rasmussen’s aneurysm. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated patients who clinically presented with hemoptysis and were diagnosed with a Rasmussen’s aneurysm on spiral chest computed tomography (CT). @*Results@#Our study included 16 patients (men:women, 12:4; mean age, 65.25 ± 13.0 years). Massive hemoptysis was observed in nine patients (56%) and blood-tinged sputum in four patients (25%). Ten patients (62.5%) had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis, and three patients (18.7%) had underlying lung cancer. Chest CT revealed coexisting fungal balls in seven patients (43.7%). Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed in 12 patients (75%). One patient died of uncontrolled massive hemoptysis. @*Conclusions@#Patients with Rasmussen’s aneurysm showed hemoptysis during the course of the disease; however, bleeding can be controlled with conservative therapy and radiological interventions, such as BAE.

12.
Immune Network ; : e17-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914534

ABSTRACT

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic dilation of the aorta with a tendency to enlarge and eventually rupture, which constitutes a major cause of cardiovascular mortality.Although T-cell infiltrates have been observed in AAA, the cellular, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of these tissue-infiltrating T cells are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the proportional changes of T-cell subsets—including CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and γδ T cells—and their effector functions in AAAs. We found that Vδ2 + T cells were presented at a higher frequency in aortic aneurysmal tissue compared to normal aortic tissue and PBMCs from patients with AAA. In contrast, no differences were observed in the frequencies of CD4 + , CD8 + , and Vδ1 + T cells. Moreover, we observed that the Vδ2 +T cells from AAA tissue displayed immunophenotypes indicative of CCR5 + non-exhausted effector memory cells, with a decreased proportion of CD16 + cells. Finally, we found that these Vδ2 + T cells were the main source of IL-17A in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased Vδ2 + T cells that robustly produce IL-17A in aortic aneurysmal tissue may contribute to AAA pathogenesis and progression.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 209-214, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875617

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute coronary occlusion is a rare but fatal complication that may occur during trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and appears more frequently in patients with low coronary heights. We evaluated the feasibility of self-expanding valves in patients with low coronary heights undergoing TAVI. @*Materials and Methods@#TAVI for native aortic valve stenosis was conducted in 276 consecutive patients between 2015 and 2019 at our institute. Using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), information on the aortic valve, coronary arteries, and vascular anatomy in 269 patients was analyzed. Patients with low coronary heights were defined as those with coronary heights of 10 mm or less during MDCT analysis. @*Results@#Among the 269 patients, 29 (10.8%) patients had coronary arteries with low heights. The mean coronary height was 8.9±1.2 mm in the left coronary artery. These patients with low coronary heights were treated with self-expandable (n=28) or balloon-expandable (n=1) valves. Prophylactic coronary protection with a guidewire, balloon, or stent prepositioned down at-risk coronary arteries was not pursued in all patients. No acute coronary occlusion occurred in any of these patients during TAVI. Five patients (17.9%) died during follow-up (average of 553.8 days), including four from non-cardiogenic causes and one from a cardiogenic (aggravation of heart failure) cause. @*Conclusion@#A considerable number of patients with low coronary heights were observed among TAVI candidates in this study. Use of a self-expandable valve may be feasible for successful TAVI without acute coronary occlusion in patients with low coronary heights.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Infectious conditions may increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factor for combined infectious disease and its influence on mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).@*METHODS@#Patients with PE diagnosed based on spiral computed tomography findings of the chest were retrospectively analyzed. They were classified into two groups: patients who developed PE in the setting of infectious disease or those with PE without infection based on review of their medical charts.@*RESULTS@#Of 258 patients with PE, 67 (25.9%) were considered as having PE combined with infectious disease. The sites of infections were the respiratory tract in 52 patients (77.6%), genitourinary tract in three patients (4.5%), and hepatobiliary tract in three patients (4.5%). Underlying lung disease (odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.926–7.081; p<0.001), bed-ridden state (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.390–5.811; p=0.004), and malignant disease (OR, 1.867; 95% CI, 1.017–3.425; p=0.044) were associated with combined infectious disease in patients with PE. In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with PE combined with infectious disease than in those with PE without infection (24.6% vs. 11.0%, p=0.006). In the multivariate analysis, combined infectious disease (OR, 4.189; 95% CI, 1.692–10.372; p=0.002) were associated with non-survivors in patients with PE.@*CONCLUSION@#A substantial portion of patients with PE has concomitant infectious disease and it may contribute a mortality in patients with PE.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837361

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival rates of very elderly (age ≥80) critically ill patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (MICU) at a regional tertiary-care hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data from patients who survived after discharged from the MICU of our hospital. Survival rates at 90 days, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were assessed between patients age ≥80 and those age <80. Survival status was evaluated using the National Health Insurance Service data. @*Results@#A total of 468 patients were admitted, 286 (179 males, 97 females; mean age, 70.18±13.2) of whom survived and were discharged soon after their treatment. Among these patients, 69 (24.1%) were age ≥80 and 217 (75.9%) were age <80. The 90-day, 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates of patients age ≥80 were significantly lower than those in patients age <80 (50.7%, 31.9%, 15.9% and 14.5% vs. 68.3%, 54.4%, 45.6%, and 40.1%, respectively) (p<0.01). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed significantly lower survival rates in patients age ≥80 than in those age <80 (p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#The poor rates of long-term survival in very elderly (age ≥80) and critically ill patients admitted to an ICU should be considered while managing and treating them.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837359

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although few studies have reported improved clinical outcomes with the administration of vitamin B1 and C in critically ill patients with septic shock or severe pneumonia, its clinical impact on patients with sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association with vitamin B and C supplementation and clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. @*Methods@#Patients with ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients administered with vitamin B1 (200 mg/day) and C (2 g/day) June 2018–May 2019 (the supplementation group) and those who did not receive vitamin B1 and C administration June 2017–May 2018 (the control group). @*Results@#Seventy-nine patients were included. Thirty-three patients received vitamin B1 and C whereas 46 patients did not. Steroid administration was more frequent in patients receiving vitamin B1 and C supplementation than in those without it. There were no significant differences in the mortality between the patients who received vitamin B1 and C and those who did not. There were not significant differences in ventilator and ICU-free days between each of the 21 matched patients. @*Conclusion@#Vitamin B1 and C supplementation was not associated with reduced mortality rates, and ventilator and ICU-free days in patients with sepsis-related ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation.

17.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 443-457, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model.@*METHODS@#Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment.@*RESULTS@#Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase+ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4uclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious conditions may increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factor for combined infectious disease and its influence on mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).METHODS: Patients with PE diagnosed based on spiral computed tomography findings of the chest were retrospectively analyzed. They were classified into two groups: patients who developed PE in the setting of infectious disease or those with PE without infection based on review of their medical charts.RESULTS: Of 258 patients with PE, 67 (25.9%) were considered as having PE combined with infectious disease. The sites of infections were the respiratory tract in 52 patients (77.6%), genitourinary tract in three patients (4.5%), and hepatobiliary tract in three patients (4.5%). Underlying lung disease (odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.926–7.081; p<0.001), bed-ridden state (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.390–5.811; p=0.004), and malignant disease (OR, 1.867; 95% CI, 1.017–3.425; p=0.044) were associated with combined infectious disease in patients with PE. In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with PE combined with infectious disease than in those with PE without infection (24.6% vs. 11.0%, p=0.006). In the multivariate analysis, combined infectious disease (OR, 4.189; 95% CI, 1.692–10.372; p=0.002) were associated with non-survivors in patients with PE.CONCLUSION: A substantial portion of patients with PE has concomitant infectious disease and it may contribute a mortality in patients with PE.

19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 443-457, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model.METHODS: Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment.RESULTS: Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase+ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment.CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Atherosclerosis , Catheters , Constriction, Pathologic , Diet , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Male , Nitric Oxide , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Rabbits , Toll-Like Receptors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the frequency of respiratory viral infection in patients with pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not uncommon, clinical significance of the condition remains to be further elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics and outcomes of patients with pulmonary ARDS infected with influenza and other respiratory viruses. METHODS: Clinical data of patients with pulmonary ARDS infected with respiratory viruses January 2014–June 2018 were reviewed. Respiratory viral infection was identified by multiplex reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Among 126 patients who underwent multiplex RT-PCR, respiratory viral infection was identified in 46% (58/126): 28 patients with influenza and 30 patients with other respiratory viruses. There was no significant difference in baseline and clinical characteristics between patients with influenza and those with other respiratory viruses. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was more frequent in patients with influenza than in those with other respiratory viruses (32.1% vs 3.3%, p=0.006). Co-bacterial pathogens were more frequently isolated from respiratory samples of patients with pulmonary ARDS infected with influenza virus than those with other respiratory viruses. (53.6% vs 26.7%, p=0.036). There were no significant differences regarding clinical outcomes. In multivariate analysis, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II was associated with 30-mortality (odds ratio, 1.158; 95% confidence interval, 1.022–1.312; p=0.022). CONCLUSION: Respiratory viral infection was not uncommon in patients with pulmonary ARDS. Influenza virus was most commonly identified and was associated with more co-bacterial infection and ECMO therapy.


Subject(s)
APACHE , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Influenza, Human , Multivariate Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Distress Syndrome
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