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1.
Journal of Stroke ; : 141-149, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834636

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) is becoming increasingly important in the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the hospital volume threshold for optimal ERT remains unknown. We investigated the relationship between hospital volume of ERT and risk-adjusted patient outcomes. @*Methods@#From the National Health Insurance claims data in Korea, 11,745 patients with AIS who underwent ERT from July 2011 to June 2016 in 111 hospitals were selected. We measured the hospital’s ERT volume and patient outcomes, including the 30-day mortality, readmission, and postprocedural intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) rates. For each outcome measure, we constructed risk-adjusted prediction models incorporating demographic variables, the modified Charlson comorbidity index, and the stroke severity index (SSI), and validated them. Risk-adjusted outcomes of AIS cases were compared across hospital quartiles to confirm the volume-outcome relationship (VOR) in ERT. Spline regression was performed to determine the volume threshold. @*Results@#The mean AIS volume was 14.8 cases per hospital/year and the unadjusted means of mortality, readmission, and ICH rates were 11.6%, 4.6%, and 8.6%, respectively. The VOR was observed in the risk-adjusted 30-day mortality rate across all quartile groups, and in the ICH rate between the first and fourth quartiles (P<0.05). The volume threshold was 24 cases per year. @*Conclusions@#There was an association between hospital volume and outcomes, and the volume threshold in ERT was identified. Policies should be developed to ensure the implementation of the AIS volume threshold for hospitals performing ERT.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714375

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical trials demonstrated the clinical benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. These trials confirmed that good outcome after EVT depends on the time interval from symptom onset to reperfusion and that in-hospital delay leads to poor clinical outcome. However, there has been no universally accepted in-hospital workflow and performance benchmark for rapid reperfusion. Additionally, wide variety in workflow for EVT is present between each stroke centers. In this consensus statement, Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology and Korean Stroke Society Joint Task Force Team propose a standard workflow to reduce door-to-reperfusion time for stroke patients eligible for EVT. This includes early stroke identification and pre-hospital notification to stroke team of receiving hospital in pre-hospital phase, the transfer of stroke patients from door of the emergency department to computed tomography (CT) room, warming call to neurointervention team for EVT candidate prior to imaging, neurointervention team preparation in parallel with thrombolysis, direct transportation from CT room to angiography suite following immediate decision of EVT and standardized procedure for rapid reperfusion. Implementation of optimized workflow will improve stroke time process metrics and clinical outcome of the patient treated with EVT.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Angiography , Benchmarking , Consensus , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Joints , Reperfusion , Stroke , Transportation
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717866

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical trials demonstrated the clinical benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. These trials confirmed that good outcome after EVT depends on the time interval from symptom onset to reperfusion and that in-hospital delay leads to poor clinical outcome. However, there has been no universally accepted in-hospital workflow and performance benchmark for rapid reperfusion. Additionally, wide variety in workflow for EVT is present between each stroke centers. In this consensus statement, Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology and Korean Stroke Society Joint Task Force Team propose a standard workflow to reduce door-to-reperfusion time for stroke patients eligible for EVT. This includes early stroke identification and pre-hospital notification to stroke team of receiving hospital in pre-hospital phase, the transfer of stroke patients from door of the emergency department to computed tomography (CT) room, warming call to neurointervention (NI) team for EVT candidate prior to imaging, NI team preparation in parallel with thrombolysis, direct transportation from CT room to angiography suite following immediate decision of EVT and standardized procedure for rapid reperfusion. Implementation of optimized workflow will improve stroke time process metrics and clinical outcome of the patient treated with EVT.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Angiography , Benchmarking , Consensus , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Joints , Reperfusion , Stroke , Transportation
4.
Journal of Neurocritical Care ; (2): 93-101, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At most centers, general anesthesia (GA) has been preferred for endovascular treatment (EVT) of ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs). In this study, we analyzed procedural results, clinical outcomes, and follow-up angiographic findings for patients undergoing EVT for RIA under local anesthesia (LA) with conscious sedation (CS). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 308 consecutive patients who underwent EVT for RIAs at a single institution between June 2009 and February 2017. EVT under LA with CS was considered for all patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, regardless of Hunt and Hess (HH) scale score. RESULTS: EVT was performed for 320 aneurysms in 308 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhages. The mean patient age was 55.5±12.6 years. Moderate (III) and poor (IV, V) HH grades were observed in 75 (24.4%) and 77 patients (25%), respectively. Complete occlusion immediately after EVT was achieved for 270 (84.4%) of 320 aneurysms. Thromboembolic complications and intraprocedural ruptures occurred in 25 (7.8%) and 14 cases (4.3%), respectively. The morbidity rate at discharge (as defined by a modified Rankin scale score of 3 or greater) was 27.3% (84/308), while the mortality rate was 11.7% (36/308). Follow-up angiographic results were available for 210 (68.1%) of 308 patients. Recanalization was observed in 64 (29.3%) of 218 aneurysms in 210 patients. CONCLUSION: Based on our experience, EVT for RIAs under LA with CS was feasible, regardless of the clinical grade of the subarachnoid hemorrhage. Complication rates and follow-up angiographic results were also comparable to those observed when GA was used to perform the procedure.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Aneurysm , Conscious Sedation , Endovascular Procedures , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99766

ABSTRACT

Cushing disease in children and adolescents, especially with multiple pituitary adenomas (MPAs), is very rare. We report 17-year-old boy with MPAs. He presented with a vertebral compression fracture, weight gain, short stature, headache, and hypertension. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), only a left pituitary microadenoma was found. After surgery, transient clinical improvement was observed but headache and hypertension were observed again after 3 months later. Follow-up MRI showed a newly developed right pituitary microadenoma 6 months after the surgery. The need for careful clinical and radiographic follow-up should be emphasized in the search for potential MPAs in patients with persistent Cushing disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Compression , Headache , Humans , Hypertension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion , Pituitary Neoplasms , Weight Gain
6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 73-79, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) can show an intravascular thrombus as a hypointense susceptibility vessel sign (SVS). In this study, we investigated the usefulness of SWI in the detection of an intravascular thrombus in acute cardioembolic stroke by comparing the SVS on SWI to the vessel status on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). METHODS: We consecutively enrolled patients with cardioembolic stroke in the anterior circulation within 3 days from stroke onset. The frequency and location of the SVS on SWI were compared with those of occlusion on MRA. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-two patients were conclusively enrolled in this study. The SVS was observed in 75.4% (92/122) of the enrolled patients. MRA showed occlusion in 57% (70/122) of the enrolled patients. The SVS was identified in all 70 patients with occlusion on MRA. The SVS was observed in 22 (42.3%) of 52 patients without occlusion on MRA (P<0.001), which was identified mainly in post-bifurcation segments of the middle cerebral artery: the M2 segment in 4 patients, M3 segment in 10 patients, M4 segment in 4 patients, A3 segment in 1 patient, and multiple segments in 2 patients. The mean length of the SVS in the M1 segment was 13.65 mm (median: 12.39 mm, length range: 2.70-39.50 mm). CONCLUSIONS: SWI can provide useful information about the thrombus location, the presence of a single thrombus or multiple thrombi especially in distal intracranial arteries, and the thrombus burden, all in acute cardioembolic stroke.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Thrombosis
7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 73-79, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) can show an intravascular thrombus as a hypointense susceptibility vessel sign (SVS). In this study, we investigated the usefulness of SWI in the detection of an intravascular thrombus in acute cardioembolic stroke by comparing the SVS on SWI to the vessel status on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). METHODS: We consecutively enrolled patients with cardioembolic stroke in the anterior circulation within 3 days from stroke onset. The frequency and location of the SVS on SWI were compared with those of occlusion on MRA. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-two patients were conclusively enrolled in this study. The SVS was observed in 75.4% (92/122) of the enrolled patients. MRA showed occlusion in 57% (70/122) of the enrolled patients. The SVS was identified in all 70 patients with occlusion on MRA. The SVS was observed in 22 (42.3%) of 52 patients without occlusion on MRA (P<0.001), which was identified mainly in post-bifurcation segments of the middle cerebral artery: the M2 segment in 4 patients, M3 segment in 10 patients, M4 segment in 4 patients, A3 segment in 1 patient, and multiple segments in 2 patients. The mean length of the SVS in the M1 segment was 13.65 mm (median: 12.39 mm, length range: 2.70-39.50 mm). CONCLUSIONS: SWI can provide useful information about the thrombus location, the presence of a single thrombus or multiple thrombi especially in distal intracranial arteries, and the thrombus burden, all in acute cardioembolic stroke.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Thrombosis
8.
Neurointervention ; : 10-17, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and early outcomes of the Pipeline device for large/giant or fusiform aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Pipeline was implanted in a total of 45 patients (mean age, 58 years; M:F=10:35) with 47 large/giant or fusiform aneurysms. We retrospectively evaluated the characteristics of the treated aneurysms, the periprocedural events, morbidity and mortality, and the early outcomes after Pipeline implantation. RESULTS: The aneurysms were located in the internal carotid artery (ICA) cavernous segment (n=25), ICA intradural segment (n=11), vertebrobasilar trunk (n=8), and middle cerebral artery (n=3). Procedure-related events occurred in 18 cases, consisting of incomplete expansion (n=8), shortening-migration (n=5), transient occlusion of a jailed branch (n=3), and in-stent thrombosis (n=2). Treatment-related morbidity occurred in two patients, but without mortality. Both patients had modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 2, but had an improved mRS score of 0 at 1-month follow-up. Of the 19 patients presenting with mass effect, 16 improved but three showed no changes in their presenting symptoms. All patients had excellent outcomes (mRS, 0 or 1) during the follow-up period (median, 6 months; range, 2-30 months). Vascular imaging follow-up (n=31, 65.9%; median, 3 months, range, 1-25 months) showed complete or near occlusion of the aneurysm in 24 patients (77.4%) and decreased sac size in seven patients (22.6%). CONCLUSION: In this initial multicenter study in Korea, the Pipeline seemed to be safe and effective for large/giant or fusiform aneurysms. However, a learning period may be required to alleviate device-related events.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Carotid Artery, Internal , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Learning , Middle Cerebral Artery , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104229

ABSTRACT

Angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis and complete resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The absence of residual AVM after surgery is commonly believed to reduce the risk of future hemorrhage. However, AVMs can recur after proven complete angiographic resection can occur, albeit rarely, especially in the pediatric population. We report a rare case of a recurrent AVM two years after complete resection in an adult patient. This case report shows that AVMs in adults can recur despite their rarity and despite postoperative angiography confirming complete removal. Moreover, in this case, the recurrent AVM involved a new feeding vessel that was not involved with the initial lesion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Arteriovenous Malformations , Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Palate , Recurrence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126944

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old woman presented with cerebellar signs including dysarthria and ataxia, after intravenous infusion of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Several blood tests showed mild neutropenia, normocytic normochromic anemia, but no evidence of a marked hyponatremia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted sequences showed hyper-intense signal abnormalities in the extrapontine region, sparing the basis pontis. Here, we report on the case of a patient with reversible cerebellar ataxia related to extrapontine myelinolysis without hyponatremia after treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma and discuss the literature on cerebellar ataxia in patients who underwent recent chemotherapy for malignancy.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Ataxia , Brain , Cerebellar Ataxia , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cisplatin , Drug Therapy , Dysarthria , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hyponatremia , Infusions, Intravenous , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Neutropenia
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36048

ABSTRACT

Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) dissection with simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and cerebral infarction is very rare and its treatment continues to be debates. We present a case of simultaneous SAH and cerebral infarction caused by dissection of the ACA that was successfully treated by bypass surgery and an endovascular procedure.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Cerebral Infarction , Endovascular Procedures , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62762

ABSTRACT

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is rare but still the most commonly encountered vascular malformation of the spinal cord. A 31-year-old male developed gait disturbance due to weakness of his lower extremities, voiding difficulty and sexual dysfunction with a progressive course since 3 months. He showed areflexia in both knees and ankles. Electromyographic findings were suggestive of multiple root lesions involving bilateral L2 to S4 roots of moderate degree. Magnetic resonance images showed high signal intensity with an ill-defined margin in T2-weighted images and intensely enhanced by a contrast agent through the lumbosacral spinal cord. Selective spinal angiography confirmed a dural arteriovenous fistula with a nidus at the L2 vertebral level. After selective endovascular embolization, his symptoms drastically improved except sexual dysfunction. We report a rare case of cauda equina syndrome due to spinal arteriovenous fistula with drastic improvement after endovascular embolization.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Animals , Ankle , Arteriovenous Fistula , Cauda Equina , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Gait , Humans , Knee , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Polyradiculopathy , Spinal Cord , Vascular Malformations
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65662

ABSTRACT

Carney complex is an autosomal dominant disease that displays such characteristic features as cardiac and cutaneous myxomas and spotty pigmentation of the skin. We report here on a case of Carney complex that was accompanied by increased myxoid fibroadenomas in the breast and multiple intracranial aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Female , Fibroadenoma/complications , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pigmentation Disorders/complications , Syndrome
16.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 1194-1200, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical excision and alcohol sclerotherapy have been used to treat congenital vascular malformations (CVM) with a significant success rate but the methods have also left marked morbidity. The alternative, sclerotherapy using ordinary sclerosants, although resulting in trivial complications, has a relatively low cure rate and is rarely used in Korea for CVM management. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects and side effects of sclerotherapy using ordinary sclerosants such as polidocanol (POL) and sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) for the treatment of CVM of a venous and lymphatic type. METHODS: To confirm the long-term effects and safety with at least a 3-year follow-up, we chose a total of 26 patients who had undergone sclerotherapy between 2000 to 2004. There were 22 venous malformations (VMs) and 4 lymphatic malformations (LMs) which were rather small and superficial, not beyond muscular fascia. Sclerotherapy using POL and STS was performed by blind intraluminal and/or intralesional injection without the aid of imaging methods such as ultrasound examination. The results were evaluated by the patients' subjective satisfaction, physical examination, comparison of photographs and/or radiological examinations, then they were classified into 4 groups; excellent (improvement >75%), good (50~75%), fair (25~49%) and poor (<25%). RESULTS: Twenty two VMs comprised 14 in the excellent group (66.7%), 6 in the good group (25.0%), 1 in the fair group (4.2%) and 1 in the poor group (4.2%). Two LMs of macrocystic type revealed excellent results but the other two showing microcystic type revealed poor results. The dose of sclerosant was 0.1 to 2 ml in every session and a total of 1 to 6 sessions (average: 2.2) were performed. Only one VM showed hyperpigmentation as a side effect. CONCLUSION: Sclerosants for ordinary varicose vein eradication can be used on the treatment of small and superficial venous malformations and macrocystic-lymphatic malformations with relative efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Fascia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Injections, Intralesional , Korea , Physical Examination , Polyethylene Glycols , Sclerosing Solutions , Sclerotherapy , Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate , Varicose Veins , Vascular Malformations
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In order to assess the incidence of thromboembolic events and their clinical presentations, the present study prospectively examined routine brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) taken within 48 hours after a coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms. METHODS: From January 2006 to January 2008, 163 cases of coil embolization of cerebral aneurysm were performed along with routine brain MRI, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) imaging, within 48 hours after the embolization of the aneurysm to detect the silent thromboembolic events regardless of any neurological changes. If any neurological changes were observed, an immediate brain MRI follow-up was performed. High-signal-intensity lesions in the DW-MR images were considered as acute thromboembolic events and the number and locations of the lesions were also recorded. RESULTS: Among the 163 coil embolization cases, 98 (60.1%) showed high-signal intensities in the DW-MR imaging follow-up, 66 cases (67.0%) involved the eloquent area and only 6 cases (6.0%) showed focal neurological symptoms correlated to the DW-MR findings. The incidence of DW-MR lesions was higher in older patients (> or =60 yrs) when compared to younger patients (<60 yrs) (p=0.002, odd s ratio=1.043). The older patients also showed a higher incidence of abnormal DW-MR signals in aneurysm-unrelated lesions (p=0.0003, odd's ratio=5.078). CONCLUSION: The incidence of symptomatic thromboembolic attacks after coil embolization of the cerebral aneurysm was found to be lower than that reported in previous studies. While DW-MR imaging revealed a higher number of thromboembolic events, most of these were clinically silent and transient and showed favorable clinical outcomes. However, the incidence of DW-MR abnormalities was higher in older patients, along with unpredictable thromboembolic events on DW-MR images. Thus, in order to provide adequate and timely treatment and to minimize neurological sequelae, a routine DW-MR follow-up after coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms might be helpful, especially in older patients.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Brain , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Magnetics , Magnets , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism
18.
Neurointervention ; : 1-6, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730192

ABSTRACT

Ischemic strokes result from thrombotic or embolic occlusion of one of the vessels that supply blood to the brain. The primary constituents of the initial thrombus are platelets and fibrin, with erythrocytes and other blood cells becoming trapped as thrombosis continues. Therefore, the recent improvements in therapy have focused on inhibiting platelets and dissolving fibrin. A new generation of thrombolytic agents (plasminogen activators) has been developed over the last decade. However, the clinical improvement has at best been marginal and the frequency of serious intracranial hemorrhage remains unchanged. Therefore, we have extensively reviewed the medical literature to determine the reason for the unsatisfactory clinical outcomes with current pharmacological therapies.


Subject(s)
Blood Cells , Brain , Erythrocytes , Fibrin , Fibrinolytic Agents , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombosis
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725478

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated Doppler ultrasonographic (US) parameters of patients with acute stroke to predict the cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) measured by SPECT. MATERIALS and METHODS: We reviewed the flow velocity and cross-sectional area of the circular vessel at the common, external, and internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the vertebral arteries (VA) in 109 acute stroke patients who underwent SPECT. Flow volume (FV) of each artery was calculated as the product of the angle-corrected time-averaged flow velocity and cross-sectional area of the circular vessel. Total cerebral FV (TCBFV) was determined as the sum of the FVs of the right and left ICA and VA. We compared the Doppler US parameters between 44 cases of preserved and 65 cases of impaired CVR. RESULTS: In the preserved CVR group, ICA FV, anterior circulating FV (ACFV) and TCBFV were higher than in the impaired CVR group (p < 0.05, independent t-test). In the impaired CVR group, the ROC curves showed ACFV and TCBFV were suitable parameters to predict CVR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Doppler US was helpful for understanding the hemodynamic state of acute stroke. FV measurement by Doppler US was useful for predicting CVR.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Carotid Artery, Internal , Hemodynamics , Humans , ROC Curve , Stroke , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Vertebral Artery
20.
Neurointervention ; : 44-49, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730288

ABSTRACT

Cerebral aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease are often reviewed. When they occur, they generally are located around the circle of Willis and in the basal ganglia. Peripheral aneurysms in the lateral posterior choroidal artery are exceptionally rare and optimal treatment may be difficult. We describe a case of moyamoya disease with a thalamic hematoma and aneurysm in the distal LPChA unassociated with the thalamic hemorrhage. Endovascular treatment with glue was performed, resulting in an excellent anatomical and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Aneurysm , Arteries , Basal Ganglia , Choroid , Circle of Willis , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Intracranial Aneurysm , Moyamoya Disease
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