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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899918

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892214

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811339

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients who recently acquired strabismus and diplopia as the initial presentations of hyperthyroidism and thyroid eye disease (TED).METHODS: The medical records of patients with acquired strabismus and diplopia who visited our clinic for evaluation between January 2017 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed; patients diagnosed initially with hyperthyroidism and TED were included in this study.RESULTS: A total of 410 patients were referred to our clinic for the evaluation and treatment of diplopia. Among these patients, 12 (2.9%, 12/410) showed acquired strabismus and diplopia as the initial presentation signs of hyperthyroidism and TED. The mean age of onset of diplopia was 54.7 years (range, 18–78 years). Nine patients (75%, 9/12) were male. Six male patients were active smokers at the initial presentation. Hypotropia was the most common type of strabismus (83.3%, 10/12). The mean angle of hypodeviation was 17.5 prism diopters (PD) (range, 4–40 PD). One patient showed exotropia with hypotropia and one patient showed esotropia with a bilateral up gaze limitation. Four male patients (all active smokers) underwent strabismus surgery, and one female patient underwent orbital decompression surgery.CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acquired strabismus and diplopia as the initial presentation sign of hyperthyroidism was predominant in male patients. Hypotropia was the most common type of strabismus. Male patients who smoked were more likely to show progression to a severe clinical course than female patients.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835404

ABSTRACT

Background@#A diabetic foot is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations (LEA). The study seeks to assess the risk factors of amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). @*Methods@#The study was conducted on 351 patients with DFUs from January 2010 to December 2018. Their demographic characteristics, disease history, laboratory data, ankle-brachial index, Wagner classification, osteomyelitis, sarcopenia index, and ulcer sizes were considered as variables to predict outcome. A chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to test the relationship of the data gathered. Additionally, the subjects were divided into two groups based on their amputation surgery. @*Results@#Out of the 351 subjects, 170 required LEA. The mean age of the subjects was 61 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 15 years; there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of these averages. Osteomyelitis (hazard ratio [HR], 6.164; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.561−10.671), lesion on percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (HR, 2.494; 95% CI, 1.087−5.721), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.981−0.999), ulcer size (HR, 1.247; 95% CI, 1.107−1.405), and forefoot ulcer location (HR, 2.475; 95% CI, 0.224−0.73) were associated with risk of amputation. @*Conclusion@#Osteomyelitis, peripheral artery disease, chronic kidney disease, ulcer size, and forefoot ulcer location were risk factors for amputation in diabetic foot patients. Further investigation would contribute to the establishment of a diabetic foot risk stratification system for Koreans, allowing for optimal individualized treatment.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832359

ABSTRACT

Background@#To determine the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we explored the clinical characteristics of patients with DM and compared risk factors such as age, glycemic control, and medications to those without DM. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study of 117 confirmed patients with COVID-19 which conducted at a tertiary hospital in Daegu, South Korea. The primary outcome was defined as the severe and critical outcome (SCO), of which the composite outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, intensive care unit care, and 28-day mortality. We analyzed what clinical features and glycemic control-related factors affect the prognosis of COVID-19 in the DM group. @*Results@#After exclusion, 110 participants were finally included. DM patients (n=29) was older, and showed higher blood pressure compared to non-DM patients. DM group showed higher levels of inflammation-related biomarkers and severity score, and highly progressed to SCO. After adjustment with other risk factors, DM increased the risk of SCO (odds ratio [OR], 10.771;p <0.001). Among the DM patients, SCO was more prevalent in elderly patients of ≥70 years old and age was an independent risk factor for SCO in patients with DM (OR, 1.175; p =0.014), while glycemic control was not. The use of medication did not affect the SCO, but the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors showed protective effects against acute cardiac injury (OR, 0.048; p=0.045). @*Conclusion@#The COVID-19 patients with DM had higher severity and resulted in SCO. Intensive and aggressive monitoring of COVID-19 clinical outcomes in DM group, especially in elderly patients is warranted.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. @*Methods@#We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. @*Results@#Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. @*Conclusion@#DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832322

ABSTRACT

Impaired β-cell function is the key pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and chronic exposure of nutrient excess could lead to this tragedy. For preserving β-cell function, it is essential to understand the cause and mechanisms about the progression of β-cells failure. Glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and glucolipotoxicity have been suggested to be a major cause of β-cell dysfunction for decades, but not yet fully understood. Fatty acid translocase cluster determinant 36 (CD36), which is part of the free fatty acid (FFA) transporter system, has been identified in several tissues such as muscle, liver, and insulin-producing cells. Several studies have reported that induction of CD36 increases uptake of FFA in several cells, suggesting the functional interplay between glucose and FFA in terms of insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism. However, we do not currently know the regulating mechanism and physiological role of CD36 on glucolipotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells. Also, the downstream and upstream targets of CD36 related signaling have not been defined. In the present review, we will focus on the expression and function of CD36 related signaling in the pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (ceramide) along with the clinical studies on the association between CD36 and metabolic disorders.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the trends in the severity and treatment modality of patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) at a single tertiary referral center in Korea over the last 10 years and compare the outcomes before and after the introduction of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot team. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, electronic medical records of patients from years 2002 to 2015 at single tertiary referral center were reviewed. Based on the year of first admission, patients were assigned to a group either before or after the year 2012, the year the diabetes team launched. RESULTS: Of the 338 patients with DFU, 229 were first admitted until the year 2011 (group A), while 109 were first admitted since the year 2012 (group B). Mean age was higher in group B, and ulcer size was larger than those of group A. Whereas duration of diabetes was longer in group B, glycemic control was improved (mean glycosylated hemoglobin, 9.48% vs. 8.50%). The proportion of minor lower extremity amputation (LEA) was increased, but length of hospital stay was decreased (73.7±79.6 days vs. 39.8±36.9 days). As critical ischemic limb increased, the proportion of major LEA was not decreased. CONCLUSION: Improved glycemic control, multidisciplinary strategies with prompt surgical treatment resulted in reduced length of hospital stay, but these measures did not reduce major LEAs. The increase in critical ischemic limb may have played a role in the unexpected outcome, and may suggest the need for increased vascular intervention strategies in DFU treatment.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Diabetic Foot , Diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Extremities , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Korea , Length of Stay , Lower Extremity , Observational Study , Patient Care Team , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Ulcer
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28197

ABSTRACT

The widely used polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based solutions have been proven effective for bowel preparation when 4 L of the solution is administered before colonoscopy. However, large volumes of the solutions are generally poorly tolerated. A new PEG-based solution consisting of 2 L of PEG and a high dose of ascorbic acid has recently become available. Electrolyte abnormalities caused by PEG-based solutions have rarely been reported. We report on a case of acute severe hyponatremia with associated generalized tonic-clonic seizures after bowel preparation with a low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid solution in a 74-year-old woman with no history of seizures. She took a beta blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and glimepiride for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. She showed general weakness, nausea, agitation, muscle cramping, and seizures after ingestion of the PEG plus ascorbic acid solution. Her serum sodium level was 112 mEq/L. Her symptoms improved after intravenous administration of hypertonic saline. Physicians should pay attention to screening for electrolytes and development of neurological symptoms during bowel preparation.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Ascorbic Acid , Colonoscopy , Diabetes Mellitus , Dihydroergotamine , Eating , Electrolytes , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Hyponatremia , Mass Screening , Muscle Cramp , Nausea , Polyethylene Glycols , Seizures , Sodium
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 492-495, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164066

ABSTRACT

Heterotopic pancreas is a tissue histologically similar to normal pancreatic tissue found in a location other than the usual place, and having no anatomic or vascular connection with the pancreas itself. Heterotopic pancreas is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. However, it can cause problems such as abdominal pain, melena, anemia, and severe bleeding. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding caused by heterotopic pancreas located in Meckel's diverticulum. Gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy showed no bleeding focus. By capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy, a bleeding focus was suspected in the ileum. The patient received a laparoscopic resection of the Meckel's diverticulum. Pathologic examination revealed heterotopic pancreatic tissue within the muscular layer of the diverticulum. The patient recovered well without further bleeding.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Anemia , Capsule Endoscopy , Colonoscopy , Diverticulum , Double-Balloon Enteroscopy , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypogonadism , Ileum , Meckel Diverticulum , Melena , Mitochondrial Diseases , Ophthalmoplegia , Pancreas
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229045

ABSTRACT

Colonoscopy is commonly used as a screening tool for colorectal polyps and cancer. It also offers a chance to remove polyps via the polypectomy technique. Colonoscopic polypectomy is a relatively safe procedure, yet there is the possibility of serious complications such as perforation and bleeding. Postpolypectomy coagulation syndrome presents with pain, fever, an elevated white blood cell count and signs of peritoneal irritation, and usually within 12 hours of the procedure. No free air is seen on plain films or a CT scan, which is different from frank bowel perforation. The management of postpolypectomy coagulation syndrome includes fasting, antibiotics and intravenous hydration. We report here on a case of a 53-year-old woman who underwent right hemicolectomy because she presented with fever, signs of peritoneal irritation and shock after colonoscopic polypectomy. The final diagnosis was postpolypectomy coagulation syndrome as there was no perforation in the resected specimen.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Colonic Polyps , Colonoscopy , Fasting , Female , Fever , Hemorrhage , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Polyps , Shock
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