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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874815

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Electrooculography (EOG) records eyeball movements as changes in the potential difference between the negatively charged retina and the positively charged cornea. We aimed to investigate whether reliable EOG waveforms can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the oculomotor and abducens nerves during skull base surgery. @*Methods@#: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 18 patients who had undergone a skull base tumor surgery using EOG (11 craniotomies and seven endonasal endoscopic surgeries). Stimulation was performed at 5 Hz with a stimulus duration of 200 μs and an intensity of 0.1–5 mA using a concentric bipolar probe. Recording electrodes were placed on the upper (active) and lower (reference) eyelids, and on the outer corners of both eyes; the active electrode was placed on the contralateral side. @*Results@#: Reproducibly triggered EOG waveforms were observed in all cases. Electrical stimulation of cranial nerves (CNs) III and VI elicited positive waveforms and negative waveforms, respectively, in the horizontal recording. The median latencies were 3.1 and 0.5 ms for craniotomies and endonasal endoscopic surgeries, respectively (p=0.007). Additionally, the median amplitudes were 33.7 and 46.4 μV for craniotomies and endonasal endoscopic surgeries, respectively (p=0.40). @*Conclusion@#: This study showed reliably triggered EOG waveforms with stimulation of CNs III and VI during skull base surgery. The latency was different according to the point of stimulation and thus predictable. As EOG is noninvasive and relatively easy to perform, it can be used to identify the ocular motor nerves during surgeries as an alternative of electromyography.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874230

ABSTRACT

Background@#Small-volume liposuction can be performed under local anesthesia, but intolerable pain usually occurs during the perioperative period. This study evaluated the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block prior to harvesting a small volume of fat from the lower abdomen under local anesthesia and to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this technique. @*Methods@#Eight patients who participated in a clinical trial of injecting autologous adipose-derived stromal cells obtained from small-volume liposuction of the lower abdomen from May 2020 to July 2020 were included in this study. Ultrasound-guided TAP block was performed 30 minutes before the main procedure. A total of 15 mL of a mixture of 2% lidocaine (20 mL) and normal saline (10 mL) was injected into the fascia layer between the internal oblique muscle and transverse abdominis muscle. Subjective pain was evaluated through questionnaires by a verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) at the time of tumescent infiltration and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the operation. @*Results@#The median time required for TAP block was 14 minutes (range, 10–21 minutes). The median VNRS score was 3.0 at the time of tumescent solution infiltration, 1.5 at postoperative 1 hour and 2 hours, and 2.0 at postoperative 4 and 6 hours. No complications occurred in relation to the TAP block procedure, including infection, inflammation, hematoma, nerve palsy, or bowel perforation. @*Conclusions@#Ultrasound-guided TAP block prior to small-volume liposuction of the lower abdomen was confirmed to be a safe and effective technique for perioperative analgesia.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899141

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Detecting antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK Abs) is essential for diagnosing myasthenia gravis (MG). We applied an in-house cellbased assay (CBA) to detect MuSK Abs. @*Methods@#A stable cell line was generated using a lentiviral vector, which allowed the expression of MuSK tagged with green fluorescent protein in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Serum and anti-human IgG antibody conjugated with red fluorescence were added. The presence of MuSK Abs was determined based on the fluorescence intensity and their colocalization in fluorescence microscopy. Totals of 218 serum samples collected from 177 patients with MG, 31 with other neuromuscular diseases, and 10 healthy controls were analyzed. The CBA results were compared with those of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). @*Results@#The MuSK-HEK293 cell line stably expressed MuSK protein. The CBA detected MuSK Abs in 34 (19.2%) of 177 samples obtained from patients with MG and in none of the participants having other neuromuscular diseases or in the healthy controls. The clinical characteristics of the patients with MuSK MG determined based on the CBA were strongly correlated with known clinical features of MuSK MG. There was an almost perfect agreement between the results of the CBA and those of the RIPA (Cohen’s kappa=0.880, p<0.001) and ELISA (Cohen’s kappa=0.982, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The results of the in-house CBA showed excellent agreement with both the RIPA and ELISA. Our in-house CBA can be considered a reliable method for detecting MuSK Abs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892888

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Tacrolimus, a macrolide immunosuppressant, is approved in Korea for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus nephritis (LN) and myasthenia gravis (MG). We report three prospective post-marketing surveillance studies of tacrolimus conducted in South Korea in these indications. @*Methods@#Studies were conducted according to South Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety requirements. Patients were followed up for the duration of the study (up to 4 years) or until treatment discontinuation. Occurrence and likely relationship with tacrolimus of adverse events (AEs), adverse drug reactions (ADRs; defined as AEs where causal relationship to tacrolimus could not be excluded) and serious AEs were recorded. Association of AEs with demographic and medical factors was evaluated by multivariable analysis. @*Results@#The studies included 740 (RA), 307 (LN) and 104 (MG) patients. The incidence of AEs was 12.7% in RA (64.2% of AEs potentially related to tacrolimus), 20.9% (37.8% potentially related) in LN and 29.8% (56.8% potentially related) in MG. The incidence of ADRs was 8.4%, 9.8% and 20.2%, respectively. Serious AEs were reported in 0.7%, 7.2% and 8.7%, respectively. The most common AEs were abdominal pain (RA), pharyngitis (LN) and diarrhea (MG). Unexpected AEs occurred in 3.5% of patients with RA, 2.9% in LN and 8.7% in MG; no pattern of unexpected AEs was apparent. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients with comorbidity had higher probability of experiencing an AE in RA and MG studies. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of AEs and the safety profile of tacrolimus in each indication was consistent with previous reports.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891437

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Detecting antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK Abs) is essential for diagnosing myasthenia gravis (MG). We applied an in-house cellbased assay (CBA) to detect MuSK Abs. @*Methods@#A stable cell line was generated using a lentiviral vector, which allowed the expression of MuSK tagged with green fluorescent protein in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Serum and anti-human IgG antibody conjugated with red fluorescence were added. The presence of MuSK Abs was determined based on the fluorescence intensity and their colocalization in fluorescence microscopy. Totals of 218 serum samples collected from 177 patients with MG, 31 with other neuromuscular diseases, and 10 healthy controls were analyzed. The CBA results were compared with those of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). @*Results@#The MuSK-HEK293 cell line stably expressed MuSK protein. The CBA detected MuSK Abs in 34 (19.2%) of 177 samples obtained from patients with MG and in none of the participants having other neuromuscular diseases or in the healthy controls. The clinical characteristics of the patients with MuSK MG determined based on the CBA were strongly correlated with known clinical features of MuSK MG. There was an almost perfect agreement between the results of the CBA and those of the RIPA (Cohen’s kappa=0.880, p<0.001) and ELISA (Cohen’s kappa=0.982, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The results of the in-house CBA showed excellent agreement with both the RIPA and ELISA. Our in-house CBA can be considered a reliable method for detecting MuSK Abs.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900592

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Tacrolimus, a macrolide immunosuppressant, is approved in Korea for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus nephritis (LN) and myasthenia gravis (MG). We report three prospective post-marketing surveillance studies of tacrolimus conducted in South Korea in these indications. @*Methods@#Studies were conducted according to South Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety requirements. Patients were followed up for the duration of the study (up to 4 years) or until treatment discontinuation. Occurrence and likely relationship with tacrolimus of adverse events (AEs), adverse drug reactions (ADRs; defined as AEs where causal relationship to tacrolimus could not be excluded) and serious AEs were recorded. Association of AEs with demographic and medical factors was evaluated by multivariable analysis. @*Results@#The studies included 740 (RA), 307 (LN) and 104 (MG) patients. The incidence of AEs was 12.7% in RA (64.2% of AEs potentially related to tacrolimus), 20.9% (37.8% potentially related) in LN and 29.8% (56.8% potentially related) in MG. The incidence of ADRs was 8.4%, 9.8% and 20.2%, respectively. Serious AEs were reported in 0.7%, 7.2% and 8.7%, respectively. The most common AEs were abdominal pain (RA), pharyngitis (LN) and diarrhea (MG). Unexpected AEs occurred in 3.5% of patients with RA, 2.9% in LN and 8.7% in MG; no pattern of unexpected AEs was apparent. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients with comorbidity had higher probability of experiencing an AE in RA and MG studies. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of AEs and the safety profile of tacrolimus in each indication was consistent with previous reports.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916308

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old man complained of right truncal pain around T7-8 dermatomal distribution and on examination, T7-8 spinal tenderness was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed osteolytic mass in T8 vertebral body without structural lesions involving spinal nerve roots. Dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials (DSEP) were helpful in diagnosis with thoracic radiculopathy. Finally, Langerhans cell histiocytosis was confirmed in bone biopsy. Thoracic radiculopathy can be caused by various etiologies including bone tumor and DSEP is useful supplementary tool for diagnosing thoracic radiculopathy.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834757

ABSTRACT

Carotid stenosis is an important etiology of ischemic stroke. Most of the strokes associated with carotid stenosis are caused by artery-to-artery embolism. The risk of embolism highly depends on the stenosis degree and the vulnerability of the carotid plaque. Carotid ultrasonography is useful for evaluating the characteristics of carotid plaque. This review aims to provide information on performing and interpreting the result of carotid ultrasonography and the treatment of carotid artery disease based on the current guidelines. The degree of stenosis can be measured by the diameter reduction and flow velocity criteria. The risk of embolism is highest when the stenosis degree is around 70% to 80%. A heterogeneous echolucent plaque with an irregular surface or an ulcer shows a high risk of embolism. Appropriate treatment is important for the patients with carotid stenosis. In symptomatic patients, a potent antiplatelet treatment, especially during the acute stage, is beneficial. Patients with asymptomatic stenosis over 50% can also be considered for antiplatelet treatments. The associated risk factors should be managed according to the targets. Medically intractable cases or patients with high risk of embolism may receive carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting depending on the concomitant disease and the degree of carotid stenosis. Considering the safety of ultrasound imaging, treatment may be followed-up by carotid ultrasonography.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919944

ABSTRACT

The musculoskeletal system can be damaged by massive contractions of the muscles in the case of systemic attacks by epilepsy. Several studies or case reports of multiple thoracic vertebrae fractures following generalized seizures without underlying diseases or falls have been reported, but there are few domestic studies or case reports. This paper reports the case of a 42-year-old male patient without any specific underlying disease, who was diagnosed with multiple fractures of the thoracic vertebrae caused by generalized myoclonic epilepsy during sleep.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological involvement in Behçet's disease [neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD)] is uncommon, but it is worth investigating since it can cause substantial disability. However, difficulties exist in understanding the clinical features of NBD due to regional variations and the lack of studies utilizing well-established diagnostic criteria. We therefore analyzed the clinical features of patients with NBD based on the recent international consensus recommendation. METHODS: We retrospectively searched electronic databases for patients with Behçet's disease (BD) between 2000 and 2017, and reviewed their medical records. Based on the recent international consensus recommendation, patients with definite or probable NBD were included. RESULTS: Of 9,817 patients with the diagnosis code for BD, 1,682 (17.1%) visited the neurology clinic and 110 (1.1%) were classified as NBD. Ninety-eight patients exhibited parenchymal NBD and 12 exhibited nonparenchymal NBD. Their age at the onset of NBD was 37.6±10.6 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1.24:1. Brainstem syndrome (43.9%) was the most common condition in the 98 patients with parenchymal NBD, followed by multifocal (32.7%) and spinal cord (12.2%) syndromes. 72.4% exhibited acute NBD and 27.6% exhibited a progressive disease course. Frequent manifestations included pyramidal signs (52.0%), headache (45.9%), dysarthria (42.9%), and fever (31.6%). A frequent pattern in brain MRI was an upper brainstem lesion extending to the thalamus and basal ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1% of the patients with suspected BD exhibited NBD. Neurologists must understand the clinical characteristics of NBD in order to perform the differential diagnosis and management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia , Brain , Brain Stem , Classification , Consensus , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dysarthria , Fever , Headache , Humans , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Neurology , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord , Thalamus
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 633-639, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762097

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a lifelong autoimmune disorder that affects neuromuscular transmission. The long-term treatment plan should include immunotherapy. We investigated the long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus for the treatment of MG in real-world clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 160 MG patients treated with tacrolimus from 2005 to 2015. Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification, MGFA post-intervention status, myasthenic functional score, and dose of oral prednisolone were investigated. RESULTS: Adverse events occurred in 68 patients (42.5%), most of which were minor and well-managed. Clinical severity scales improved after administration of tacrolimus, compared to the baseline. Compared to 6 months before administration of tacrolimus, prednisolone dose significantly decreased at 12 months after treatment (2.85±0.92 mg/day, p=0.002), 18 months after treatment (3.36±0.99 mg/day, p=0.001), and 24 months after treatment (3.71±0.93 mg/day, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tacrolimus may be effective in reducing the severity of MG and may permit a reduction in the steroid dose prescribed to the patients. Adverse events due to tacrolimus treatment were not serious.


Subject(s)
Americas , Classification , Humans , Immunotherapy , Myasthenia Gravis , Prednisolone , Retrospective Studies , Tacrolimus , Weights and Measures
15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 207-216, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to assess whether early resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could predict recovery from visual field defect (VFD) in acute stroke patients. METHODS: Patients with VFD due to acute ischemic stroke in the visual cortex and age-matched healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Serial resting-state (RS)-fMRI and Humphrey visual field (VF) tests were performed within 1 week and at 1 and 3 months (additional VF test at 6 months) after stroke onset in the patient group. The control group also underwent RS-fMRI and a Humphrey VF test. The changes in RSFCs and VF scores (VFSs) over time and their correlations were investigated. RESULTS: In 32 patients (65±10 years, 25 men), the VFSs were lower and the interhemispheric RSFC in the visual cortices was decreased compared to the control group (n=15, 62±6 years, seven men). The VFSs and interhemispheric RSFC in the visual cortex increased mainly within the first month after stroke onset. The interhemispheric RSFC and VFSs were positively correlated at 1 month after stroke onset. Moreover, the interhemispheric RSFCs in the visual cortex within 1 week were positively correlated with the follow-up VFSs. CONCLUSIONS: Interhemispheric RSFCs in the visual cortices within 1 week after stroke onset may be a useful biomarker to predict long-term VFD recovery.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Stroke , Visual Cortex , Visual Fields
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations between non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and corresponding brain metastases (BMs) in Korea society. METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, a total of 74 patients underwent surgical resection of a metastatic brain tumor from NSCLC. Among them, we performed retrospective analysis for 46 patients who underwent EGFR sequencing of primary NSCLC tissues. RESULTS: Among these 46 cases, 18 (39.1%) cases showed EGFR mutation in primary lung cancer. Detected mutation sites were exon 19 (8 cases), exon 21 (6 cases), exon 18 (1 cases), and multiple mutations (3 cases). In 18 cases of BM, EGFR mutation studies were done. Among them, 8 (25.6%) cases showed mutation on exon 19 (5 cases) or exon 21 (3 cases). To compare EGFR mutation status between primary lung cancer and BM, 18 paired tissues from both NSCLC and matched BM were collected. Four (22.5%) patients were discordant for the status of EGFR between primary and metastatic sites. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were significantly discordant between primary tumors and corresponding metastases in a significant portion of NSCLC. In treatment of BM of EGFR mutant metastatic NSCLC, due to possibility of discordance, pathologic confirming through brain biopsy is recommended.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Epidermal Growth Factor , Exons , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762766

ABSTRACT

Myxomas can be divided into two groups: those derived from the facial skeleton, and those derived from external skeletal soft tissue. Soft tissue myxomas of the head and neck are uncommon, with fewer than 50 cases reported. In any form and location, myxoma of parotid gland is rare. We report a case of myxoma arising from the left superficial lobe of the parotid gland with good long-term follow-up after superficial parotidectomy with tumor excision. A 49-year-old man was referred to our department of plastic and reconstructive surgery with a painless palpable mass that had persisted in the left mandible angle region for 2 years. Excision of the facial mass and superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation were performed. The biopsy result was myxoma. Long-term follow-up for 22 months showed favorable results without evidence of recurrence but with temporary facial nerve weakness right after the surgery. Myxoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis when benign tumor of the parotid gland is being considered.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Facial Nerve , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , Mandible , Middle Aged , Myxoma , Neck , Parotid Gland , Plastics , Recurrence , Skeleton , Soft Tissue Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, a variety of surgical approaches have been used to reconstruct the medial orbital wall fracture. Still however, there is still a controversy as to their applicability because of postoperative scars, injury of anatomical structures and limited visual fields. The purpose of this study was to introduce a useful additional medial subbrow approach for better reduction and securement more accurate implant pocket of medial orbital wall fracture with the subciliary technique. METHODS: We had performed our technique for a total of 14 patients with medial orbital wall fracture at our medical institution between January 2016 and July 2017. All fractures were operated through subciliary technique combined with the additional medial subbrow approach. They underwent subciliary approach accompanied by medial wall dissection using a Louisville elevator through the slit incision of the medial subbrow procedure. This facilitated visualization of the medial wall fracture site and helped to ensure a more accurate pocket for implant insertion. RESULTS: Postoperative outcomes showed sufficient coverage without displacement. Twelve cases of preoperative diplopia improved to two cases of postoperative diplopia. More than 2 mm enophthalmos was 14 cases preoperatively, improving to 0 case postoperatively. Without damage such as major vessels or extraocular muscles, enophthalmos was corrected and there was no restriction of eyeball motion. CONCLUSION: Our ancillary procedure was useful in dissecting the medial wall, and it was a safe method as to cause no significant complications in our clinical series. Also, there is an only nonvisible postoperative scar. Therefore, it is a recommendable surgical modality for medial orbital wall fracture.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix , Diplopia , Elevators and Escalators , Enophthalmos , Fracture Fixation , Humans , Methods , Muscles , Orbit , Orbital Fractures , Visual Fields
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762738

ABSTRACT

Uniform mixing of liquid substances is difficult to attain. Recently, mixtures of fat and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been used extensively in autologous fat transfer. Although various methods have been utilized to mix the fat and PRP involved in this procedure, these methods still carry disadvantages in the time taken and the potential for cell damage, and it is questionable whether effective mixing can occur using these techniques. To facilitate mixing that is as uniform as possible, the authors of this study invented a special cannula. Use of the conventional luer-lock-to-luer-lock connector method has been found to cause cell damage and makes it difficult to achieve uniform mixing, while random injection-type mixing has been shown to have limited accuracy and effectiveness. We expect that the newly designed cannula will solve the problem detailed above.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Clothing , Methods , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Stress, Mechanical
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