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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925688

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the real-world efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and to identify clinicolaboratory factors to predict treatment outcomes in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving ICIs. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty patients with metastatic or unresectable ESCC treated with nivolumab (n=48) or pembrolizumab (n=12) as ≥ second-line treatment between 2016 and 2019 at Asan Medical Center were included. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 68 years (range, 52 to 76 years), and 93.3% were male. Most patients had metastatic disease (81.7%) and had been previously treated with fluoropyrimidines, platinum, and taxane. In 53 patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate and disease control rate were 15.1% and 35.8%, respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 16.0 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 2.19) and 6.4 months (95% CI, 4.77 to 8.11), respectively. After multivariate analysis, recent use of antibiotics, low prognostic nutrition index (< 35.93), high Glasgow Prognosis Score (≥ 1) at baseline, and ≥ 1.4-fold increase in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio after one cycle from baseline were significantly unfavorable factors for both PFS and OS. Younger age (< 65 years) was a significant factor for unfavorable PFS and hyponatremia (< 135 mmol/L) for unfavorable OS. @*Conclusion@#The use of ICIs after the failure of chemotherapy showed comparable efficacy in patients with advanced ESCC in real practice; this may be associated with host immune-nutritional status, which could be predicted by clinical and routine laboratory factors.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925505

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Malignant intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct of the liver (IPNB-L) cannot readily be diagnosed through preoperative CT or MRI, but fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is a viable alternative. This study evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic impacts of FDG-PET in patients with IPNB-L. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective single-center study of 101 IPNB-L patients who underwent hepatectomy between 2010 and 2019. @*Results@#Mean age was 64.4 ± 8.3 years and 76 (75.2%) were male. Anatomical hepatic resection was performed in 99 (98.0%). Concurrent bile duct resection and pancreaticoduodenectomy were performed in 41 (40.6%) and 1 (1.0%), respectively. R0 and R1 resections were performed in 88 (87.1%) and 13 (12.9%), respectively. Low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and high-grade neoplasia/invasive carcinoma were diagnosed in 19 (18.8%) and 82 (81.2%), respectively. Median FDG-PET maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in low-grade neoplasia and high-grade neoplasia/carcinoma were 3.6 (range, 1.7–7.6) and 5.2 (range, 1.5–18.7) (P = 0.019), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of SUVmax showed area under the curve of 0.674, with sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 47.4% at SUVmax cutoff of 3.0. This cutoff had no significant influence on tumor recurrence (P = 0.832) or patient survival (P = 0.996) in patients with IPNB-L of high-grade neoplasia or invasive carcinoma. @*Conclusion@#IPNB-L is a rare type of biliary neoplasm and encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from benign disease to invasive carcinoma. An FDG-PET SUVmax cutoff of 3.0 appears to effectively discern high-grade neoplasia/ carcinoma from low-grade neoplasia, which will assist with the surgical strategy for these cases.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874360

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The clinical implications of tumor-infiltrating T cell subsets and their spatial distribution in biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin were investigated. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 52 BTC patients treated with palliative gemcitabine plus cisplatin were included. Multiplexed immunohistochemistry was performed on tumor tissues, and immune infiltrates were separately analyzed for the stroma, tumor margin, and tumor core. @*Results@#The density of CD8+ T cells, FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells, and FoxP3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells was significantly higher in the tumor margin than in the stroma and tumor core. The density of LAG3- or TIM3-expressing CD8+ T cell and FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cell infiltrates was also higher in the tumor margin. In extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, there was a higher density of T cell subsets in the tumor core and regulatory T cells in all regions. A high density of FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells in the tumor margin showed a trend toward better progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.092) and significantly better overall survival (OS) (p=0.012). In multivariate analyses, a high density of FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells in the tumor margin was independently associated with favorable PFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#The tumor margin is the major site for the active infiltration of T cell subsets with higher levels of LAG3 and TIM3 expression in BTC. The density of tumor margin-infiltrating FoxP3- CD4+ helper T cells may be associated with clinical outcomes in BTC patients treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874223

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare borderline vascular tumor. This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the outcomes of hepatic resection (HR) in patients with hepatic EHE. @*Methods@#Over the 10-year period from 2009 to 2018, 11 patients with hepatic EHE underwent HR, accounting for 0.1% of the 11,979 adults who underwent HR at our center. Diagnosis of hepatic EHE was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for CD34, CD31, and factor VIII-related antigen. @*Results@#The 11 patients included 9 females (81.8%) and 2 males (18.2%) with mean age of 43.5 ± 13.6 years. Preoperative imaging resulted in a preliminary diagnosis of suspected liver metastasis or EHE, with 9 patients (81.8%) undergoing liver biopsy. No patient presented with abnormally elevated concentrations of liver tumor markers. The extents of HR were determined by tumor size and location from trisectionectomy to partial hepatectomy. All patients recovered uneventfully from HR. Five patients showed tumor recurrence, with 4 receiving locoregional treatments for recurrent lesions. The 1-, 3-and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 90.9%, 54.5%, and 54.5%, respectively. Currently, all patients remain alive and are doing well. Univariate analysis on tumor recurrence showed that tumor size ≥ 4 cm was significantly associated with tumor recurrence (P = 0.032), but tumor number ≥ 4 was not related to (P = 0.24). @*Conclusion@#Hepatic EHE is a rare form of primary liver tumor often misdiagnosed as a metastatic tumor. Because of its malignant potential, HR is indicated if possible. HR plus, when necessary, treatment of recurrence yields favorable overall survival rates in patients with hepatic EHE.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903582

ABSTRACT

The phosphorous balance is clinically important in increasing the long-term outcomes and preventing complications of end-stage renal disease. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder used widely to regulate hyperphosphatemia. On the other hand, gastrointestinal side effects increase with increasing sevelamer intake. A 29-year-old male with end-stage renal disease of IgA nephropathy on maintenance hemodialysis was admitted for diffuse alveolar bleeding and pneumonia. He presented with a low-grade fever and watery diarrhea tinged with blood. Initially, a Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea treatment was started with positive findings of Clostridioides difficile toxin and culture. Despite this, there was no improvement in the symptoms even with the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an occlusive mass in the rectum and secondary obstructive changes in the sigmoid colon. The initial suspicion was a malignancy or fungal infection. Sigmoidoscopy with a biopsy identified the mass as a lump of mucous material with the entire lumen covered with exudate. The subsequent histopathology examination revealed a colonic mucosal injury and characteristic ''fish scale"-like sevelamer crystals in the exudate. The diagnosis of a sevelamer-induced rectal ulcer was made. We report this case of a sevelamer-associated rectal ulcer of the sigmoid.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897014

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) has wide histologic diversity. This study investigated the effects of cHCC-CC histology, according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, on patient prognosis. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who underwent surgical resection for cHCC-CC at our institution between July 2012 and June 2019 were retrospectively evaluated. @*Results@#During the study period, 168 patients, 122 males (72.6%) and 46 females (27.4%), underwent surgical resection for cHCC-CC, including 159 patients (94.6%) who underwent R0 resection. Mean tumor diameter was 4.4 ± 2.8 cm, and 161 patients (95.8%) had solitary tumors. Histologically, 86 patients (51.2%) had classical type, and 82 (48.8%) had tumors with stem cell (SC) features, including 33 (19.6%) with intermediate-cell and 23 (13.7%) each with typical SC and cholangiolocellular features; 3 tumors (1.8%) were unclassifiable. At 1, 3, and 5 years, tumor recurrence rates were 31.9%, 49.6%, and 58.1%, respectively, and patient survival rates were 91.0%, 70.2%, and 60.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size of >5 cm, microscopic and macroscopic vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage, and 2010 WHO classification were significantly prognostic. Multivariate analysis showed that the 8th AJCC tumor stage and 2010 WHO histologic classification were independently prognostic for tumor recurrence and patient survival. There were no significant prognostic differences among the 3 SC subtypes. @*Conclusion@#Postresection outcomes are better in patients with SC-type than with classical-type cHCC-CC.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895878

ABSTRACT

The phosphorous balance is clinically important in increasing the long-term outcomes and preventing complications of end-stage renal disease. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder used widely to regulate hyperphosphatemia. On the other hand, gastrointestinal side effects increase with increasing sevelamer intake. A 29-year-old male with end-stage renal disease of IgA nephropathy on maintenance hemodialysis was admitted for diffuse alveolar bleeding and pneumonia. He presented with a low-grade fever and watery diarrhea tinged with blood. Initially, a Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea treatment was started with positive findings of Clostridioides difficile toxin and culture. Despite this, there was no improvement in the symptoms even with the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an occlusive mass in the rectum and secondary obstructive changes in the sigmoid colon. The initial suspicion was a malignancy or fungal infection. Sigmoidoscopy with a biopsy identified the mass as a lump of mucous material with the entire lumen covered with exudate. The subsequent histopathology examination revealed a colonic mucosal injury and characteristic ''fish scale"-like sevelamer crystals in the exudate. The diagnosis of a sevelamer-induced rectal ulcer was made. We report this case of a sevelamer-associated rectal ulcer of the sigmoid.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889310

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) has wide histologic diversity. This study investigated the effects of cHCC-CC histology, according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, on patient prognosis. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who underwent surgical resection for cHCC-CC at our institution between July 2012 and June 2019 were retrospectively evaluated. @*Results@#During the study period, 168 patients, 122 males (72.6%) and 46 females (27.4%), underwent surgical resection for cHCC-CC, including 159 patients (94.6%) who underwent R0 resection. Mean tumor diameter was 4.4 ± 2.8 cm, and 161 patients (95.8%) had solitary tumors. Histologically, 86 patients (51.2%) had classical type, and 82 (48.8%) had tumors with stem cell (SC) features, including 33 (19.6%) with intermediate-cell and 23 (13.7%) each with typical SC and cholangiolocellular features; 3 tumors (1.8%) were unclassifiable. At 1, 3, and 5 years, tumor recurrence rates were 31.9%, 49.6%, and 58.1%, respectively, and patient survival rates were 91.0%, 70.2%, and 60.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size of >5 cm, microscopic and macroscopic vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage, and 2010 WHO classification were significantly prognostic. Multivariate analysis showed that the 8th AJCC tumor stage and 2010 WHO histologic classification were independently prognostic for tumor recurrence and patient survival. There were no significant prognostic differences among the 3 SC subtypes. @*Conclusion@#Postresection outcomes are better in patients with SC-type than with classical-type cHCC-CC.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831071

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The most recent 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) has refined the three-tiered 2010 scheme by separating grade 3 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (G3 PanNETs) from poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (PanNECs). However, differentiating between G3 Pan- NETs and PanNECs is difficult in clinical practice. @*Materials and Methods@#Eighty-two surgically resected PanNENs were collected from 16 institutions and reclassified according to the 2017 WHO classification based on the histological features and proliferation index (mitosis and Ki-67). Immunohistochemical stains for ATRX, DAXX, retinoblastoma, p53, Smad4, p16, and MUC1 were performed for 15 high-grade PanNENs. @*Results@#Re-classification resulted in 20 G1 PanNETs (24%), 47 G2 PanNETs (57%), eight G3 well-differentiated PanNETs (10%), and seven poorly differentiated PanNECs (9%). PanNECs showed more frequent diffuse nuclear atypia, solid growth patterns and apoptosis, less frequent organoid growth and regular vascular patterns, and absence of low-grade PanNET components than PanNETs. The Ki-67 index was significantly higher in PanNEC (58.2%± 15.1%) compared to G3 PanNET (22.6%±6.1%, p < 0.001). Abnormal expression of any two of p53, p16, MUC1, and Smad4 could discriminate PanNECs from G3 PanNETs with 100% specificity and 87.5% sensitivity. @*Conclusion@#Histological features supporting the diagnosis of PanNECs over G3 PanNETs were the absence of a low-grade PanNET component in the tumor, the presence of diffuse marked nuclear atypia, solid growth pattern, frequent apoptosis and markedly increased proliferative activity with homogeneous Ki-67 labeling. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, MUC1, and Smad4 may be helpful in distinguishing PanNECs from G3 PanNETs in histologically ambiguous cases, especially in diagnostic practice when only small biopsied tissues are available.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831052

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The 8th edition of gallbladder cancer staging in the American Joint Committee on Cancer(AJCC) staging system changed the T and N categories. @*Materials and Methods@#In order to validate the new staging system, a total of 348 surgically resected gallbladdercancers were grouped based on the 8th edition of the T and N categories and comparedwith patients’ survival. @*Results@#Significant differences were noted between T1b-T2a (p=0.003) and T2b-T3 (p < 0.001)tumors, but not between Tis-T1a, T1a-T1b, and T2a-T2b tumors. However, significant survivaldifferences were observed both by the overall and pair-wise (T1-T2, T2-T3) comparisons(all, p < 0.001) without dividing T1/T2 subcategories. When cases with ! 6 examined lymphnodes were evaluated, significant survival differences were observed among the entire comparison(p < 0.001) and pair-wise comparisons of N0-N1 (p=0.001) and N1-N2 (p=0.039)lesions. When cases without nodal dissection (NX) were additionally compared, significantsurvival differences were observed between patients with N0-NX (p=0.001) and NX-N1(p < 0.001) lesions. @*Conclusion@#The T category in the 8th edition of the AJCC staging system did not completely stratify theprognosis of patients with gallbladder cancer. Modification by eliminating T subcategoriescan better stratify the prognosis. In contrast, the N category clearly determines patients’survival with ! 6 examined lymph nodes. The survival time in patients of gallbladder cancerswithout nodal dissection is between N0 and N1 cases. Therefore, close postoperative followedup is recommended for those patients.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831039

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The current standard chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) has limited benefit,and novel therapies need to be investigated. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective cohort study, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)–positive BTC patientswho progressed on first-line gemcitabine plus cisplatin were enrolled. Pembrolizumab 200mg was administered intravenously every 3 weeks. @*Results@#Between May 2018 and February 2019, 40 patients were enrolled. Pembrolizumab wasgiven as second-line (47.5%) or  third-line therapy (52.5%). The objective response ratewas 10% and 12.5% by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST) v1.1 andimmune-modified RECIST (imRECIST) and median duration of response was 6.3 months.Among patients with progressive disease as best response, one patient (1/20, 5.0%)achieved complete response subsequently. The median progression-free survival (PFS) andoverall survival (OS) were 1.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0 to 3.0) and 4.3months (95% CI, 3.5 to 5.1), respectively, and objective response per imRECIST was significantlyassociated with PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p=0.001). Tumor proportion score  50%was significantly associated with higher response rates including the response after pseudoprogression(vs. < 50%; 37.5% vs. 6.5%; p=0.049). @*Conclusion@#Pembrolizumab showed modest anti-tumor activity in heavily pretreated PD-L1–positiveBTC patients. In patients who showed objective response, durable response could beachieved.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834573

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although lymph node metastasis is a poor prognostic factor in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), our understanding of lymph node size in association with PDAC is limited. Increased nodal size in preoperative imaging has been used to detect node metastasis. We evaluated whether lymph node size can be used as a surrogate preoperative marker of lymph node metastasis. @*Methods@#We assessed nodal size and compared it to the nodal metastatic status of 200 patients with surgically resected PDAC. The size of all lymph nodes and metastatic nodal foci were measured along the long and short axis, and the relationships between nodal size and metastatic status were compared at six cutoff points. @*Results@#A total of 4,525 lymph nodes were examined, 9.1% of which were metastatic. The mean size of the metastatic nodes (long axis, 6.9±5.0 mm; short axis, 4.3±3.1 mm) was significantly larger than that of the non-metastatic nodes (long axis, 5.0±4.0 mm; short axis, 3.0±2.0 mm; all p<.001). Using a 10 mm cutoff, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, overall accuracy, and area under curve was 24.8%, 88.0%, 17.1%, 82.3%, and 0.60 for the long axis and 7.0%, 99.0%, 40.3%, 90.6%, and 0.61 for the short axis, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The metastatic nodes are larger than the non-metastatic nodes in PDAC patients. However, the difference in nodal size was too small to be identified with preoperative imaging. The performance of preoperative radiologic imaging to predict lymph nodal metastasis was not good. Therefore, nodal size cannot be used a surrogate preoperative marker of lymph node metastasis.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834557

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reports of metastatic sarcoma to the pancreas are limited. We reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of such cases. @*Methods@#We reviewed 124 cases of metastatic tumors to the pancreas diagnosed at Asan Medical Center between 2000 and 2017. @*Results@#Metastatic tumors to the pancreas consisted of 111 carcinomas (89.5%), 12 sarcomas (9.6%), and one melanoma (0.8%). Primary sarcoma sites were bone (n = 4); brain, lung, and soft tissue (n = 2 for each); and the uterus and pulmonary vein (n = 1 for each). Pathologically, the 12 sarcomas comprised 2 World Health Organization grade III solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas, and one case each of synovial sarcoma, malignant solitary fibrous tumor, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, intimal sarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, subtype uncertain, and high-grade spindle-cell sarcoma of uncertain type. The median interval between primary cancer diagnosis and pancreatic metastasis was 28.5 months. One case manifested as a solitary pancreatic osteosarcoma metastasis 15 months prior to detection of osteosarcoma in the femur and was initially misdiagnosed as sarcomatoid carcinoma of the pancreas. @*Conclusions@#The metastatic sarcoma should remain a differential diagnosis when spindle-cell malignancy is found in the pancreas, even for solitary lesions or in patients without prior history.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766009

ABSTRACT

Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP1) is an IgG4-related systemic disease that mimics tumors. We report a rare case of AIP1 accompanied by mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). A pancreatic lesion was incidentally detected in a woman in her 60s. After 6 years of follow-up, the lesion abruptly increased in size. Computed tomography showed a 3.5 cm unilocular cyst in the tail of the pancreas and distal pancreatectomy was performed. On microscopic examination, the cyst was lined by mucinous and non-mucinous epithelial cells with mild cytologic atypia. The surrounding stroma comprised ovarian-type spindle cells with progesterone receptor positivity. The pericystic pancreas exhibited multifocal lymphoid follicles, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations, obliterative phlebitis, and storiform fibrosis. IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration (215 cells high-power field) and the IgG4/IgG ratio (57%) were increased. Cases of MCN coexisting with AIP1 are extremely rare; only two such cases have been reported in the English-language literature. This third case featured low-grade MCN with AIP1.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells , Female , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mucins , Pancreas , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatitis , Phlebitis , Plasma Cells , Receptors, Progesterone , Tail
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739566

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Insistence that total regression of primary tumor would not represent long-term oncologic outcomes has been raised. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of these patients after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) and radical surgery and to evaluate the associated risk factors. METHODS: We included 189 patients with rectal cancer who showed total regression of the primary tumor after PCRT, followed by radical resection, between 2001 and 2012. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the results were compared with 77 patients with Tis rectal cancer who received only radical resection. Factors associated with RFS were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Sphincter-saving resection was performed for 146 patients (77.2%). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 168 patients (88.9%). During the follow-up period, recurrence occurred in 17 patients (9%). The 5-year RFS was 91.3%, which was significantly lower than that of patients with Tis rectal cancer without PCRT (P = 0.005). In univariate analysis, preoperative CEA and histologic differentiation were associated with RFS. However, no factors were found to be associated with RFS. CONCLUSION: RFS was lower in patients with total regression of primary rectal cancer after PCRT than in those with Tis rectal cancer without PCRT, and it would not be considered as the same entity with early rectal cancer or “disappeared tumor” status.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Methods , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Risk Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719714

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: T category of the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for distal bile duct carcinoma (DBDC) was changed to include tumor invasion depth measurement, while the N category adopted a 3-tier classification system based on the number of metastatic nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To validate cancer staging, a total of 200 surgically resected DBDCs were staged and compared according to the seventh and eighth editions. RESULTS: T categories included T1 (n=37, 18.5%), T2 (n=114, 57.0%), and T3 (n=49, 24.5%). N categories included N0 (n=133, 66.5%), N1 (n=50, 25.0%), and N2 (n=17, 8.5%). Stage groupings included I (n=33, 16.5%), II (n=150, 75.0%), and III (n=17, 8.5%). The overall 5-year survival rates (5-YSRs) of T1, T2, and T3 were 59.3%, 42.4%, and 12.2%, respectively. T category could discriminate patient survival by both pairwise (T1 and T2, p=0.011; T2 and T3, p < 0.001) and overall (p < 0.001) comparisons. The overall 5-YSRs of N0, N1, and N2 were 47.3%, 17.0%, and 14.7%, respectively. N category could partly discriminate patient survival by both pairwise (N0 and N1, p < 0.001; N1 and N2, p=0.579) and overall (p < 0.001) comparisons. The overall 5-YSRs of stages I, II, and III were 59.0%, 35.4%, and 14.7%, respectively. Stages could distinguish patient survival by both pairwise (I and II, p=0.002; II and III, p=0.015) and overall (p < 0.001) comparisons. On multivariate analyses, T and N categories (p=0.014 and p=0.029) and pancreatic invasion (p=0.006) remained significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: The T andNcategories of the eighth edition AJCC staging system for DBDC accurately predict patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Bile , Cholangiocarcinoma , Classification , Humans , Joints , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Survival Rate
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719601

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis and management of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have evolved significantly in recent years. There are several diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and controversies regarding the management of these lesions. In this review, we focus on the recent significant changes and controversial issues regarding the diagnosis and management of NENs and discuss the role of imaging in the multidisciplinary team approach.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Global Health , Joints , Neoplasm Staging , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , World Health Organization
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 287-293, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759933

ABSTRACT

Type I autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a form of chronic pancreatitis, is included within the spectrum of immunoglobulin G4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). IgG4-RD can involve the salivary glands, bile ducts, kidneys and retroperitoneum, and the pancreas, and responds well to corticosteroid treatment. However, gastric involvement in IgG4-RD has been rarely reported. Here we report the case of a 56-year-old man with type I autoimmune pancreatitis who presented with a giant gastric ulcer mimicking advanced gastric cancer, which was subsequently determined to be IgG4-RD. Both the patient' symptoms and his ulcerative lesions in the stomach responded to steroid treatment, which obviated the need for major surgery such as gastrectomy. Our case demonstrates the importance of recognizing potential gastric involvement in IgG4-RD, especially in a patient with concurrent AIP/IgG4-RD or a history of the disease, who is evaluated for an intractable and/or atypical gastric ulcer. A prompt diagnosis and proper management will avoid unnecessary surgery.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Diagnosis , Gastrectomy , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Kidney , Middle Aged , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Salivary Glands , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach Ulcer , Stomach , Ulcer , Unnecessary Procedures
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 461-470, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered extremely rare in East Asia. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence, clinical characteristics and radiological findings of type 2 AIP highlighting patients presenting as acute pancreatitis in a single center. METHODS: Type 2 AIP patients were classified according to International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria. Radiological findings were compared between type 2 AIP presenting as acute pancreatitis and gallstone pancreatitis. RESULTS: Among 244 patients with AIP, 27 (11.1%) had type 2 AIP (definite, 15 [55.5%] and probable 12 [44.5%]). The median age of patients with type 2 AIP was 29 years (interquartile range, 20 to 39 years). Acute pancreatitis was the most common initial presentation (n=17, 63%) while obstructive jaundice was present in only one patient. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was associated with type 2 AIP in 44.4% (12/27) of patients. Radiological pancreatic imaging such as delayed enhancement of diffusely enlarged pancreas, homogeneous enhancement of focal enlargement/mass, absent/minimal peripancreatic fat infiltration or fluid collection, and multifocal main pancreatic duct narrowings were helpful for differentiating type 2 AIP from gallstone pancreatitis. During follow-up (median, 32.3 months), two patients (2/25, 8%) experienced relapse. CONCLUSIONS: In South Korea, type 2 AIP is not as rare as previously thought. Overall, the clinical profile of type 2 AIP was similar to that of Western countries. Type 2 AIP should be considered in young UC patients with acute pancreatitis of uncertain etiology.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Consensus , Far East , Follow-Up Studies , Gallstones , Humans , Jaundice, Obstructive , Korea , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis , Prevalence , Recurrence
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