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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 610-619, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000367

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is categorized into three subtypes: overweight/obese (OW), leanormal weight with metabolic abnormalities, and diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated whether fibrotic burden in liver differs across subtypes of MAFLD patients. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional multicenter study was done in cohorts of subjects who underwent a comprehensive medical health checkup between January 2014 and December 2020. A total of 42,651 patients with ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver were included. Patients were classified as no MAFLD, OW-MAFLD, lean-MAFLD, and DM-MAFLD. Advanced liver fibrosis was defined based on the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS) or fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index. @*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 50.0 years, and 74.1% were male. The proportion of patients with NFS-defined advanced liver fibrosis was the highest in DM-MAFLD (6.6%), followed by OW-MAFLD (2.0%), lean-MAFLD (1.3%), and no MAFLD (0.2%). The proportion of patients with FIB-4-defined advanced liver fibrosis was the highest in DM-MAFLD (8.6%), followed by lean-MAFLD (3.9%), OW-MAFLD (3.0%), and no MAFLD (2.0%). With the no MAFLD group as reference, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for NFS-defined advanced liver fibrosis were 4.46 (2.09 to 9.51), 2.81 (1.12 to 6.39), and 9.52 (4.46 to 20.36) in OW-MAFLD, leanMAFLD, and DM-MAFLD, respectively, and the adjusted odds ratios for FIB-4-defined advanced liver fibrosis were 1.03 (0.78 to 1.36), 1.14 (0.82 to 1.57), and 1.97 (1.48 to 2.62) in OW-MAFLD, lean-MAFLD, and DM-MAFLD. @*Conclusions@#Fibrotic burden in the liver differs across MAFLD subtypes. Optimized surveillance strategies and therapeutic options might be needed for different MAFLD subtypes.

2.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 433-452, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999965

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Global distribution of dominant liver cancer aetiologies has significantly changed over the past decades. This study analyzed the updated temporal trends of liver cancer aetiologies and sociodemographic status in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. @*Methods@#The Global Burden of Disease 2019 report was used for statistical analysis. In addition, we performed stratification analysis to five quintiles using sociodemographic index and 21 geographic regions. @*Results@#The crude numbers of liver cancer disease-adjusted life years (DALYs) and deaths significantly increased during the study period (DALYs; 11,278,630 in 1990 and 12,528,422 in 2019, deaths; 365,215 in 1990 and 484,577 in 2019). However, the Age-standardized DALY and mortality rates decreased. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of liver cancer DALYs and mortality, followed by hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitison-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NASH/NAFLD). Although Age-standardized DALY and mortality rates of liver cancer due to HBV and HCV have decreased, the rates due to alcohol consumption and NASH/NAFLD have increased. In 2019, the population of the East Asia region had the highest Age-standardized DALY and mortality rates, followed by high-income Asia-Pacific and Central Asia populations. Although East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions showed a decrease during the study period, Age-standardized DALY rates increased in Central Asia. High-income North American and Australasian populations also showed a significant increase in Age-standardized DALY. @*Conclusions@#Liver cancer remains an ongoing global threat. The burden of liver cancer associated with alcohol consumption and NASH/NAFLD is markedly increasing and projected to continuously increase.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 299-307, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966890

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated the factors related to spleen length and the diagnostic accuracy of a model using spleen length corrected by related factors, for the prediction of varices needing treatment (VNT). @*Methods@#Various prediction models for VNT including spleen length were analyzed in the cohort of compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD), defined as liver stiffness (LS) ≥10 kPa in a recent study. The associated factors for spleen length were identified in healthy subjects to improve the prediction of VNT. @*Results@#Among 1,218 cACLD patients, VNT was noted in 249 patients (20.4%). On multivariate analysis, longer spleen length, lower platelet count, and higher LS value were independent predictors for VNT (all p<0.001). In multivariate analysis of 1,041 healthy subjects, age (β=–0.027), sex (β=0.762), and body mass index (β=0.097) were found to be significant factors for spleen length (all p<0.001). Using the β values, the estimated spleen length was calculated. To improve the prediction of VNT, the ratio of measured and estimated spleen length was calculated. Based on binary regression analysis results, the LS value-spleen ratio to platelet score (LSRPS) was calcu-lated as follows: 0.027×LS value (kPa)+2.690×measured/estimated spleen ratio–0.011×platelet count (cells×10 9 /L)–4.215. The area under the receiver operating characteristic of the LSRPS for VNT was 0.820, which was significantly higher than 0.797 of LS value-spleen diameter to plateletratio score (LSPS) (p=0.006). @*Conclusions@#Spleen length is influenced by age, sex, and body mass index in the Asian population. The LSRPS using the measured/estimated spleen ratio had higher diagnostic accuracy than LSPS in predicting VNT in patients with cACLD.

4.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : S136-S149, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966586

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide and becoming a major cause of liver disease-related morbidity and mortality. The presence of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD is closely related to prognosis, including the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and other complications of cirrhosis. Therefore, assessment of the presence of significant or advanced liver fibrosis is crucial. Although liver biopsy has been considered the “gold standard” method for evaluating the degree of liver fibrosis, it is not suitable for extensive use in all patients with NAFLD owing to its invasiveness and high cost. Therefore, noninvasive biochemical and imaging biomarkers have been developed to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy. Imaging biomarkers for the stratification of liver fibrosis have been evaluated in patients with NAFLD using different imaging techniques, such as transient elastography, shear wave elastography, and magnetic resonance elastography. Furthermore, artificial intelligence and deep learning methods are increasingly being applied to improve the diagnostic accuracy of imaging techniques and overcome the pitfalls of existing imaging biomarkers. In this review, we describe the usefulness and future prospects of noninvasive imaging biomarkers that have been studied and used to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

5.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 425-472, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937328

ABSTRACT

The global burden of chronic liver disease (CLD) is substantial. Due to the limited indication of and accessibility to antiviral therapy in viral hepatitis and lack of effective pharmacological treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the beneficial effects of antidiabetics and non–antidiabetics in clinical practice have been continuously investigated in patients with CLD. In this narrative review, we focused on non-antidiabetic drugs, including ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin, dimethyl4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-dimethylenedixoybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate, L-ornithine L-aspartate, branched chain amino acids, statin, probiotics, vitamin E, and aspirin, and summarized their beneficial effects in CLD. Based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties, and regulatory functions in glucose or lipid metabolism, several non–antidiabetic drugs have shown beneficial effects in improving liver histology, aminotransferase level, and metabolic parameters and reducing risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality, without significant safety concerns, in patients with CLD. Although the effect as the centerpiece management in patients with CLD is not robust, the use of these non-antidiabetic drugs might be potentially beneficial as an adjuvant or combined treatment strategy.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 290-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear. @*Methods@#Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysdatabase were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiol-ogy/American Heart Association guidelines. @*Results@#The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023). @*Conclusions@#Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890754

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

8.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 402-412, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889965

ABSTRACT

Over the past several decades, entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) have remained the first-line antiviral agents in several international guidelines. These two antiviral agents have shown similar short to intermediateterm efficacy, including virologic, biochemical, serologic, and histologic responses. However, huge controversies regarding the antiviral efficacy of ETV and TDF in preventing the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still exist. In this review, we summarized recent studies that compared the treatment efficacy of ETV and TDF in terms of HCC development.

9.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 295-304, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889959

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The immune-tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is not generally indicative of antiviral therapy (AVT). We assessed and compared the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the IT-phase stringently defined by a low fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, compared to that in patients undergoing AVT. @*Methods@#Among 125 untreated patients that were hepatitis B e-antigen positive, hepatitis B virus-DNA >20,000 IU/mL, with normal alanine aminotransferase level from 2012 to 2018, those with a FIB-4 index of <1.45 were classified into the IT-group. The cumulative probability of HCC was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All patients were assessed until HCC development (intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis), whereas those suspected of experiencing CHB phase switch were assessed using the per-protocol (PP) and censored at the time of phase switch. @*Results@#The cumulative probability of HCC at 1-, 3-, and 5-years among the IT-group was zero, compared to AVT-treated patients with FIB-4 indices <1.45 during the same period: 0.2%, 0.6%, and 1.4%, respectively (P=0.264 for ITT and P=0.533 for PP). Among the initially screened 125 untreated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to the IT-group (P=0.005). Furthermore, among AVT-treated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to their counterpart (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The risk of HCC was negligible in the IT-group stringently defined by a low FIB-4 index. However, given that a higher HCC risk exists among untreated patients with higher FIB-4, appropriate criteria for AVT should be established.

10.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 257-269, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889950

ABSTRACT

There is some dissatisfaction with the term “nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),” which overemphasizes alcohol and underemphasizes the importance of metabolic risk factors in this disease. Recently, a consensus recommended “metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)” as a more appropriate term to describe fatty liver diseases (FLD) associated with metabolic dysfunction. During the definition change from NAFLD to MAFLD, subjects with FLD and metabolic abnormalities, together with other etiologies of liver diseases such as alcohol, virus, or medication who have been excluded from the NAFLD criteria, were added to the MAFLD criteria, while subjects with FLD but without metabolic abnormality, who have been included in the NAFLD criteria, were excluded from the MAFLD criteria. This means that there is an emphasis on the metabolic dysfunction in MAFLD which may underestimate the prognostic value of hepatic steatosis itself, whereas the MAFLD criteria might better identify subjects who are at a higher risk of hepatic or cardiovascular outcomes. However, non-metabolic risk NAFLD subjects who are excluded from the MAFLD criteria are missed from the diagnosis, and their potential risk can be the cause of future diseases. Although huge controversies remain, this review focused on summarizing recent studies that compared the clinical and prognostic characteristics between subjects with NAFLD and MAFLD.

11.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900267

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primarily originates in the liver with hepatic differentiation. However, HCCs are not homogenous, and approximately 35% of HCC cases are classified as histopathological variants that present distinct pathologic characteristics. In particular, the lymphocyte-rich variant is the rarest subtype accounting for less than 1% of HCCs, which is not well known to date about molecular features and pathophysiology. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was suspected of metastatic liver cancer and confirmed as lymphocyte-rich HCC pathologically. A 78-year-old woman who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer was referred to our hospital for a newly detected liver mass. We could not make a decision because of insufficient evidence for diagnosis from imaging studies. After resection, we found that it was a lymphocyte-rich HCC. The pathologic features and prognostic trends of this subtype are also discussed.

12.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 97-103, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900262

ABSTRACT

Optimal treatment strategies for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is yet to be determined. Herein, we present a case of advanced HCC with tumor invasion into the right anterior portal vein and right hepatic vein where complete response (CR) was achieved via a multidisciplinary approach. This patient had a 10.5 cm-sized HCC invading segment VI, without extrahepatic spread. Liver function was classified as Child-Pugh class A, and the performance status was good. Transarterial radio-embolization (TARE) was performed 6 weeks after the completion of liver-directed concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and CR was confirmed 3 months post-TARE. Adoptive cell therapies were performed as adjuvant therapy and CR was maintained for over 15 months, until the local recurrence of a 2 cm-sized HCC was found. Therefore, in selected cases with preserved liver function, combination therapies, including LRTs and systemic therapy, can be a useful therapeutic option for advanced HCC.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e105-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899857

ABSTRACT

Background@#Since September 2015, the initiation of antiviral therapy (AVT) for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis has been reimbursed according to the revised Korean Association for the Study of Liver (KASL) guideline, if the patient had hepatitis B virus DNA level ≥ 2,000 IU/L, regardless of aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase levels. This study investigated whether the KASL guideline implementation reduced the risk of CHB-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 429 patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT between 2014 and 2016 were recruited. The risk of HCC development was compared between patients who initiated AVT before and after September 2015 (pre-guideline [n = 196, 45.7%] vs. postguideline implementation [n = 233, 54.3%]). @*Results@#Univariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation, older age, male gender, and diabetes significantly predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Subsequent multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 1.941), older age (HR = 5.762), male gender (HR = 2.555), and diabetes (HR = 1.568) independently predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 2.309), male gender (HR = 3.058), and lower platelet count (HR = 0.989) independently predicted mortality (P < 0.05). The cumulative incidences of HCC and mortality were significantly higher in patients who initiated AVT before guideline implementation than in those who initiated AVT after guideline implementation (all P < 0.05, log-rank test). @*Conclusion@#The prognosis of patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT improved after guideline implementation according to the revised KASL guideline.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898458

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

15.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 402-412, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897669

ABSTRACT

Over the past several decades, entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) have remained the first-line antiviral agents in several international guidelines. These two antiviral agents have shown similar short to intermediateterm efficacy, including virologic, biochemical, serologic, and histologic responses. However, huge controversies regarding the antiviral efficacy of ETV and TDF in preventing the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still exist. In this review, we summarized recent studies that compared the treatment efficacy of ETV and TDF in terms of HCC development.

16.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 295-304, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897663

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The immune-tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is not generally indicative of antiviral therapy (AVT). We assessed and compared the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the IT-phase stringently defined by a low fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, compared to that in patients undergoing AVT. @*Methods@#Among 125 untreated patients that were hepatitis B e-antigen positive, hepatitis B virus-DNA >20,000 IU/mL, with normal alanine aminotransferase level from 2012 to 2018, those with a FIB-4 index of <1.45 were classified into the IT-group. The cumulative probability of HCC was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All patients were assessed until HCC development (intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis), whereas those suspected of experiencing CHB phase switch were assessed using the per-protocol (PP) and censored at the time of phase switch. @*Results@#The cumulative probability of HCC at 1-, 3-, and 5-years among the IT-group was zero, compared to AVT-treated patients with FIB-4 indices <1.45 during the same period: 0.2%, 0.6%, and 1.4%, respectively (P=0.264 for ITT and P=0.533 for PP). Among the initially screened 125 untreated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to the IT-group (P=0.005). Furthermore, among AVT-treated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to their counterpart (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The risk of HCC was negligible in the IT-group stringently defined by a low FIB-4 index. However, given that a higher HCC risk exists among untreated patients with higher FIB-4, appropriate criteria for AVT should be established.

17.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 257-269, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897654

ABSTRACT

There is some dissatisfaction with the term “nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),” which overemphasizes alcohol and underemphasizes the importance of metabolic risk factors in this disease. Recently, a consensus recommended “metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)” as a more appropriate term to describe fatty liver diseases (FLD) associated with metabolic dysfunction. During the definition change from NAFLD to MAFLD, subjects with FLD and metabolic abnormalities, together with other etiologies of liver diseases such as alcohol, virus, or medication who have been excluded from the NAFLD criteria, were added to the MAFLD criteria, while subjects with FLD but without metabolic abnormality, who have been included in the NAFLD criteria, were excluded from the MAFLD criteria. This means that there is an emphasis on the metabolic dysfunction in MAFLD which may underestimate the prognostic value of hepatic steatosis itself, whereas the MAFLD criteria might better identify subjects who are at a higher risk of hepatic or cardiovascular outcomes. However, non-metabolic risk NAFLD subjects who are excluded from the MAFLD criteria are missed from the diagnosis, and their potential risk can be the cause of future diseases. Although huge controversies remain, this review focused on summarizing recent studies that compared the clinical and prognostic characteristics between subjects with NAFLD and MAFLD.

18.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892563

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primarily originates in the liver with hepatic differentiation. However, HCCs are not homogenous, and approximately 35% of HCC cases are classified as histopathological variants that present distinct pathologic characteristics. In particular, the lymphocyte-rich variant is the rarest subtype accounting for less than 1% of HCCs, which is not well known to date about molecular features and pathophysiology. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was suspected of metastatic liver cancer and confirmed as lymphocyte-rich HCC pathologically. A 78-year-old woman who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer was referred to our hospital for a newly detected liver mass. We could not make a decision because of insufficient evidence for diagnosis from imaging studies. After resection, we found that it was a lymphocyte-rich HCC. The pathologic features and prognostic trends of this subtype are also discussed.

19.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 97-103, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892558

ABSTRACT

Optimal treatment strategies for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is yet to be determined. Herein, we present a case of advanced HCC with tumor invasion into the right anterior portal vein and right hepatic vein where complete response (CR) was achieved via a multidisciplinary approach. This patient had a 10.5 cm-sized HCC invading segment VI, without extrahepatic spread. Liver function was classified as Child-Pugh class A, and the performance status was good. Transarterial radio-embolization (TARE) was performed 6 weeks after the completion of liver-directed concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and CR was confirmed 3 months post-TARE. Adoptive cell therapies were performed as adjuvant therapy and CR was maintained for over 15 months, until the local recurrence of a 2 cm-sized HCC was found. Therefore, in selected cases with preserved liver function, combination therapies, including LRTs and systemic therapy, can be a useful therapeutic option for advanced HCC.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e105-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892153

ABSTRACT

Background@#Since September 2015, the initiation of antiviral therapy (AVT) for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis has been reimbursed according to the revised Korean Association for the Study of Liver (KASL) guideline, if the patient had hepatitis B virus DNA level ≥ 2,000 IU/L, regardless of aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase levels. This study investigated whether the KASL guideline implementation reduced the risk of CHB-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 429 patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT between 2014 and 2016 were recruited. The risk of HCC development was compared between patients who initiated AVT before and after September 2015 (pre-guideline [n = 196, 45.7%] vs. postguideline implementation [n = 233, 54.3%]). @*Results@#Univariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation, older age, male gender, and diabetes significantly predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Subsequent multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 1.941), older age (HR = 5.762), male gender (HR = 2.555), and diabetes (HR = 1.568) independently predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 2.309), male gender (HR = 3.058), and lower platelet count (HR = 0.989) independently predicted mortality (P < 0.05). The cumulative incidences of HCC and mortality were significantly higher in patients who initiated AVT before guideline implementation than in those who initiated AVT after guideline implementation (all P < 0.05, log-rank test). @*Conclusion@#The prognosis of patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT improved after guideline implementation according to the revised KASL guideline.

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