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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913784

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic Rathke’s cleft cysts (RCCs) can be treated by surgical procedures, usually through an endonasal transsphenoidal corridor using either a microscope or an endoscope. We report a large suprasellar extended RCC causing obstructive hydrocephalus, which was efficiently managed by a novel surgical route named “reverse” trans-sellar approach using transventricular neuroendoscopy. A 48-yearold woman complained of persistent headache and a tendency to fall that had begun 6 months previously. The images obtained from MRI scan showed intra- and supra-sellar cystic masses occupying the third ventricle with obstruction of the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius. The cystic wall showed a slight enhancement, and the cystic contents showed iso-signal intensity on T1-and T2-weighted images. Instead of trans-nasal trans-sellar surgery, we decided to operate using a conventional transventricular endoscope. A thin cystic capsule, which blocked the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius, was fenestrated and removed and a third ventriculostomy was performed. The defect in the infundibulum between sellar and suprasellar cysts was widened and used as a corridor to drain cystic contents (reverse trans-sellar route). The final pathological finding revealed an RCC with focal metaplasia. We efficiently managed a large RCC by transventricular neuroendoscopic surgery with cyst fenestration and third ventriculostomy and simultaneously drained the sellar contents using a novel surgical route. Reverse trans-sellar neuroendoscopic surgery is a relevant treatment option for selective patients with large suprasellar extensions of RCCs.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919965

ABSTRACT

The use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming more common, and its use is increasing in the orthopedic surgery. Currently, there are four major methods of using 3D printing technology in orthopedic surgery. First, surgical planning simulation using 3D printing model; second, patient-specific surgical instruments; third, production of customized prosthesis using 3D printing technique; fourth, patient-specific prosthesis produced by 3D printing. The areas of orthopedic surgery where 3D printing technology can be used are shoulder joint, spine, hip and pelvis, knee joints, ankle joint, and tumors. Since the diseases and characteristics handled by each area are different, the method of using 3D printing technology is also slightly different in each area. However, using 3D printing technology in all areas can increase the efficiency of surgery, shorten the surgery time, and reduce radiation exposure intraoperatively. 3D printing technology can be of great help in treating patients with particularly complex and difficult orthopedic diseases or fractures. Therefore, the orthopedic surgeon should make the most of the benefits of the 3D printing technology so that patient can be treated effectively.

3.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 96-101, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914508

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To examine the perceptions and opinions of orthopedic surgeons on new medical technology for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) bone models in the diagnosis and treatment of orthopedic diseases related to the hip joint. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 75 doctors who were trained in orthopedic surgery or were current residents in the Republic of Korea were surveyed via questionnaires. Eight questions were included regarding the utility and current issues in the diagnosis and treatment of orthopedic disease using a customized 3D bone model made from s patient’s computed tomography (CT) image. In addition to the questionnaire, the simple plain radiography and 3D CT image of the patient and 3D printed models of two actual patients were presented for comparison. @*Results@#An average of 92.7% of the orthopedic surgeons answered “very much” or “yes” to questions regarding the effectiveness of diagnosis, treatment, education, and simulation of surgery using the patient-specific 3D bone model. To the question, “Do you think you must have medical insurance to provide better medical services by using a new patient-specific 3D bone model medical technology for simulated surgery?” 93.3% of orthopedic surgeons answered either “very much” or “yes”. @*Conclusion@#Patient-specific 3D bone models of new medical technology can provide breakthrough support in the diagnosis, treatment, and education of orthopedic diseases in the field of hip joints. Therefore, it seems that efforts should be made to change governmental policy for coverage of patient-specific 3D bone modeling.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874923

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, autoimmune disorder that impairs patients’ overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of adalimumab in Korean patients with active RA on HRQOL. @*Methods@#Patients included in the study had moderate to severe active RA that did not respond to conventional drugs with a Disease Activity Score of 28 joints >3.2 and were biologics-naïve. All patients received adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every other week and were followed for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in baseline Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score at week 24. Secondary endpoints were changes in the EuroQol 5-dimension 3-Level (EQ-5D-3L) baseline score and Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) domain scores at weeks 12 and 24 and change in baseline HAQ-DI score at week 12. @*Results@#In total, 91 Korean patients were included. Ninety-three percent of patients were in high disease activity with a baseline mean DAS28 value of 6.1 within all patients. The mean change from baseline in HAQ-DI scores were −0.46 at week 12 and∼0.67 at week 24 (p<0.0001). Additionally, EQ-5D-3L score at weeks 12 and 24 had significantly improved (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. SF-36 at weeks 12 and 24 had significantly improved (p<0.0001, p=0.0001) compared to baseline. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adalimumab resulted in significant improvement in HAQ-DI, EQ-5D-3L, and SF-36 scores at 12 and 24 weeks in Korean RA patient.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917993

ABSTRACT

Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs) are rare and usually asymptomatic, and they usually do not require surgical treatment. If symptoms manifest, however, surgical treatment is required. A 25-year-old male patient complained of impotence upon admission. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of his lumbar spine showed a SEAC located longitudinally from the T11 to L3, which was accompanied by thecal sac compression. Verifying the location of the dural defect is crucial for minimizing surgical treatments. Cystography, myelography, and lumbar spine MRI were conducted to locate the leak in real-time; however, it was not found.Hence, the location of the cerebrospinal fluid leak was estimated based on cystography, computed tomography, myelography, and MRI findings. We suggest that the region with the earliest contrast-filling, as well as the middle and widest area of the cyst, may correspond to the location of the dural defect.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899063

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the average life span in modern society continues to increase, much interest is focused on high-risk procedures in elderly patients, including major surgical operations. We investigated the results of endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) in patients over 80 years of age. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients aged over 80 years who underwent coil embolization for UIA between April 2007 and April 2019 at our hospital. @*Results@#Complete occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) immediately after surgery was performed in 44 (84.6%) of 52 cases of cerebral aneurysms. Four patients (7.7%) had residual aneurysmal necks, and four (7.7%) had contrast flow in the aneurysmal sac. Follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (mean: 8.2 months) was performed in 37 aneurysms in 24 patients. There was evidence of blood flow in the neck in seven cases (18.9%) and aneurysm in two cases (5.4%). Follow-up DSA (mean: 20.5 months) was performed in 14 aneurysms in 11 patients, and 11 aneurysms (78.6%) had complete occlusion, 1 aneurysm (7.1%) had an aneurysmal neck, and 2 aneurysms (14.3%) had contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. Coil embolization procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (7.7%). Cerebral infarction occurred in 1 (2.6%), arterial dissection in 1 (2.6%), and hypoesthesia in 1 (2.6%). @*Conclusions@#Active treatment of UIA in elderly patients over 80 years of age through endovascular coil embolization can be considered.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891359

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the average life span in modern society continues to increase, much interest is focused on high-risk procedures in elderly patients, including major surgical operations. We investigated the results of endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) in patients over 80 years of age. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients aged over 80 years who underwent coil embolization for UIA between April 2007 and April 2019 at our hospital. @*Results@#Complete occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) immediately after surgery was performed in 44 (84.6%) of 52 cases of cerebral aneurysms. Four patients (7.7%) had residual aneurysmal necks, and four (7.7%) had contrast flow in the aneurysmal sac. Follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (mean: 8.2 months) was performed in 37 aneurysms in 24 patients. There was evidence of blood flow in the neck in seven cases (18.9%) and aneurysm in two cases (5.4%). Follow-up DSA (mean: 20.5 months) was performed in 14 aneurysms in 11 patients, and 11 aneurysms (78.6%) had complete occlusion, 1 aneurysm (7.1%) had an aneurysmal neck, and 2 aneurysms (14.3%) had contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. Coil embolization procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (7.7%). Cerebral infarction occurred in 1 (2.6%), arterial dissection in 1 (2.6%), and hypoesthesia in 1 (2.6%). @*Conclusions@#Active treatment of UIA in elderly patients over 80 years of age through endovascular coil embolization can be considered.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831772

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare changes in the simplified disease activity index (SDAI) between biologic (b) and conventional (c) disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) users with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in daily clinical practice. Methods: This was a nationwide multicenter observational study. Patients who had three or more active joint counts and abnormal inf lammatory marker in blood test were enrolled. The selection of DMARDs was determined by the attending rheumatologist. Clinical parameters, laboratory findings, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were obtained at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Serial SDAI changes and clinical remission rate at 6 and 12 months were assessed. Results: A total of 850 patients participated in this study. The mean baseline SDAI score in bDMARD group was higher than that in cDMARD group (32.08 ± 12.98 vs 25.69 ± 10.97, p < 0.0001). Mean change of SDAI at 12 months was –19.0 in the bDMARD group and –12.6 in the cDMARD group (p < 0.0001). Clinical remission rates at 12 months in bDMARD and cDMARD groups were 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. Patient global assessment and HAQ at 12 months were also significantly improved in both groups. Multivariate logistic regression showed that baseline HAQ score was the most notable factor associated with remission. Conclusions: There was a significant reduction in SDAI within 12 months after receiving DMARDs in Korean seropositive RA patients irrespective of bDMARD or cDMARD use in real-world practice. Clinical remission was achieved in those with lower baseline HAQ scores.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831089

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels for solid tumors have been useful in clinical framework for accurate tumor diagnosis and identifying essential molecular aberrations. However, most cancer panels have been designed to address a wide spectrum of pan-cancer models, lacking integral prognostic markers that are highly specific to gliomas. @*Materials and Methods@#To address such challenges, we have developed a glioma-specific NGS panel, termed “GliomaSCAN,” that is capable of capturing single nucleotide variations and insertion/deletion, copy number variation, and selected promoter mutations and structural variations that cover a subset of intron regions in 232 essential glioma-associated genes. We confirmed clinical concordance rate using pairwise comparison of the identified variants from whole exome sequencing (WES), immunohistochemical analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. @*Results@#Our panel demonstrated high sensitivity in detecting potential genomic variants that were present in the standard materials. To ensure the accuracy of our targeted sequencing panel, we compared our targeted panel to WES. The comparison results demonstrated a high correlation. Furthermore, we evaluated clinical utility of our panel in 46 glioma patients to assess the detection capacity of potential actionable mutations. Thirty-two patients harbored at least one recurrent somatic mutation in clinically actionable gene. @*Conclusion@#We have established a glioma-specific cancer panel. GliomaSCAN highly excelled in capturing somatic variations in terms of both sensitivity and specificity and provided potential clinical implication in facilitating genome-based clinical trials. Our results could provide conceptual advance towards improving the response of genomically guided molecularly targeted therapy in glioma patients.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The laboratory biomarkers used to diagnose spinal infection include white blood cell (WBC) counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Recently, procalcitonin (PCT) has been used as a biomarker to distinguish between bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection. We aimed to compare the changes of conventional biomarker and PCT in patients with spinal infection before and after antibiotic treatment. METHODS: ESR, CRP, WBC counts, and PCT were measured in 29 patients diagnosed with pyogenic spinal infection at our hospital between May 2016 and December 2018 prior to antibiotic administration. After antibiotic administration, the values were followed up for 4 weeks at 1-week intervals. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 67.8 years, consisting of 16 men and 13 women. Twenty-five patients had lumbar infections, and 2 each had cervical and thoracic infections. The mean ESR, CRP, PCT, and WBCs decreased at week 4 of antibiotic treatment compared to their baseline values. CRP and WBCs were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of treatment compared to before treatment. The mean ESR and PCT was not statistically significant compared to pretreatment and after antibiotic treatment (p-value>0.05). CONCLUSION: Among several biomarker, CRP and WBCs are biomarkers that can aid early evaluation of the effects of antibiotic treatment in pyogenic spondylitis. Although PCT did not have statistical significance, it can be used as a biomarker that reflects the effect of antibiotic and severity of infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Calcitonin , Erythrocyte Count , Female , Humans , Leukocytes , Male , Spondylitis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759985

ABSTRACT

We encountered a very rare case of spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and a spinal intradural arachnoid cyst (AC) that were diagnosed at different sites in the same patient. These two lesions were thought to have interfered with the disease onset and deterioration. A 30-year-old man presented with sudden neck pain and orthostatic headache. Diplopia, ophthalmic pain, and headache deteriorated. CSF leakage was confirmed in C2 by radioisotope cisternography, and an epidural blood patch was performed. While his symptoms improved gradually, paraparesis suddenly progressed. Thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an upper thoracic spinal intradural AC, which was compressing the spinal cord. We removed the outer membrane of the AC and performed fenestration of the inner membrane after T3-4 laminectomy. Postoperative MRI showed complete removal of the AC and normalized lumbar subarachnoid space. All neurological deficits including motor weakness, sensory impairment, and voiding function improved to normal. We present a case of spontaneous spinal CSF leakage and consecutive intracranial hypotension in a patient with a spinal AC. Our report suggests that if spinal CSF leakage and a spinal AC are diagnosed in one patient, even if they are located at different sites, they may affect disease progression and aggravation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arachnoid , Blood Patch, Epidural , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diplopia , Disease Progression , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Membranes , Neck Pain , Paraparesis , Spinal Cord , Subarachnoid Space
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759984

ABSTRACT

This is a report of a 58-year-old female with Cushing syndrome who underwent posterior lumbar fusion and lost both her vision completely. She was diagnosed with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Cushingoid features such as buffalo hump and central obesity might have attributed in triggering posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. When laid prone for surgery, perioperative high abdominal pressure causes venous hypertension leading to increase amount of blood loss. To compensate, infusion of large quantities of intravenous fluids is necessary which leads to hemodilution which decreases ocular perfusion pressure. Hypercoagulability of Cushing syndrome is also potentially a risk factor of this condition which increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism. For there is no known effective treatment for posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, means to prevent this complication must be strategically reviewed. When performing long spine surgery on patient who has Cushing syndrome or cushingoid features, caution must be taken to avoid this devastating complication.


Subject(s)
Buffaloes , Cushing Syndrome , Female , Hemodilution , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Intraocular Pressure , Middle Aged , Obesity, Abdominal , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic , Perfusion , Risk Factors , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Thrombophilia , Venous Thromboembolism
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759974

ABSTRACT

Most cases of spinal subdural hematoma are very rare and result from iatrogenic causes, such as coagulopathy or a spinal puncture. Cases of non-traumatic spinal subdural hematoma accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage are even more rare. There are a few reports of spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma with concomitant intracranial subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage, but not with intracerebral hemorrhage. Especially in our case, the evaluation and diagnosis were delayed because the spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage accompanying the unilateral spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages caused hemiplegia. We report a case of spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, for the first time, with a relevant literature review.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Diagnosis , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal , Hemiplegia , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Spinal Puncture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759968

ABSTRACT

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a relatively well known disease. Other than trauma, this disease is mostly caused by anatomical structures that cause vascular or neural compression. The cause of thoracic outlet syndrome is diverse; however, there are only few reports of thoracic outlet syndrome caused by lipoma in the pectoralis minor space. We report a case of compression of the lower trunk of brachial plexus in which a large lipoma that developed in the pectoral minor space grew into the subclavicular space, along with a review of literature.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus , Lipoma , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Urolithiasis is one of the manifestations of gout and the risk is higher in gouty patients. On the other hand, an independent association between the urinary stone and serum uric acid (UA) level has not been established. This study examined whether the risk of urolithiasis increases with increasing serum UA level. METHODS: Among the people who visited a tertiary hospital from 2010 to 2013, 13,964 individuals who underwent both ultrasonography and a laboratory test were recruited in the study. The risk of urolithiasis on ultrasonography was analyzed in association with the serum UA level by multiple logistic regression analysis with an adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and known underlying diseases, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. RESULTS: Among the 6,743 men (48.3%) and 7,221 women (51.7%), the age was 51.3±13.5 and the serum UA level was 4.5±2.1 mg/dL. Hyperuricemia (>7 mg/dL) was observed in 1,381 cases (9.9%). Urolithiasis was detected by ultrasonography in 608 cases (4.4%). The detection rates of urolithiasis in individuals with hyperuricemia and normouricemia were 5.9% and 4.1%, respectively (p=0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with hyperuricemia had a significantly higher risk of urolithiasis (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20~1.96; p=0.001). A comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of serum UA revealed a multivariable-adjusted OR of 3.17 (95% CI, 1.98~5.11) for men and 1.79 (1.08~2.93) for women. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that individuals with a higher serum UA level have a higher risk of subclinical and clinical urolithiasis.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Gout , Hand , Humans , Hypertension , Hyperuricemia , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Tertiary Care Centers , Ultrasonography , Uric Acid , Urinary Calculi , Urolithiasis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717710

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a patient with an acute subdural hematoma (SDH) that was removed using urokinase irrigation after burr hole trephination in a limited situation where craniotomy was not possible. A 90-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a stuporous mental status. Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a chronic SDH, and a burr hole procedure was performed. The patient's postoperative progression was good until the third day after surgery when we found that the acute SDH had increased on CT scans. The patient's guardian refused further surgery, and thus we drained the blood from the hematoma by injecting urokinase through a drainage catheter. We used urokinase for two days, and removed the catheter after confirming via CT scans that the hematoma was almost alleviated. The patient recovered gradually; she was discharged with few neurological deficits.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Catheters , Craniotomy , Drainage , Female , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Humans , Stupor , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Trephining , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is attractive as a less invasive technique to address anterior spinal pathology in the treatment of adult spinal deformity. Its own uses and benefits in treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis are undefined. To investigate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of LIF, and staged LIF and posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis patients, we analyzed radiographic and clinical outcomes of adult degenerative scoliosis patients who underwent LIF and posterior spinal fusion. METHODS: Forty consecutive adult degenerative scoliosis patients who underwent LIF followed by staged PSF at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Long-standing 36” anterior-posterior and lateral radiographs were taken preoperatively, at inter-stage, 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery were reviewed. Outcomes were assessed through the visual analogue scale (VAS), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). RESULTS: Forty patients with a mean age of 66.3 (range, 49–79) met inclusion criteria. A mean of 3.8 levels (range, 2–5) were fused using LIF, while a mean of 9.0 levels (range, 3–16) were fused during the posterior approach. The mean time between stages was 1.4 days (range, 1–6). The mean follow-up was 19.6 months. Lumbar lordosis was significantly restored from 36.4º preoperatively up to 48.9º (71.4% of total correction) after LIF and 53.9º after PSF. Lumbar coronal Cobb was prominently improved from 38.6º preoperatively to 24.1º (55.8% of total correction) after LIF, 12.6º after PSF respectively. The mean pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch was markedly improved from 22.2º preoperatively to 8.1º (86.5% of total correction) after LIF, 5.9º after PSF. Correction of coronal imbalance and sagittal vertebral axis did not reach significance. The rate of perioperative complication was 37.5%. Five patients underwent revision surgery due to wound infection. No major perioperative medical complications occurred. At last follow-up, there were significant improvements in VAS, SF-36 Physical Component Summary and ODI scores. CONCLUSION: LIF provides significant corrections in the coronal and sagittal plane in the patients with adult degenerative scoliosis. However, LIF combined with staged PSF provides more excellent radiographic and clinical outcomes, with reduced perioperative risk in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Congenital Abnormalities , Follow-Up Studies , Health Surveys , Humans , Lordosis , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Scoliosis , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Wound Infection
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765231

ABSTRACT

Posttraumatic delayed vertebral collapse, known as Kummell’s disease, is increasing in number of patients. This disease is already progressive kyphosis due to vertebral collapse at the time of diagnosis and it causes intractable pain or neurologic deficit due to intravertebral instability. Treatment is very difficult after progression of the disease, and the range of treatment, in hospital day, and cost of treatment are both increased. Clinical features, pathogenesis and radiologic findings of these disease groups were reviewed to determine risk factors for delayed vertebral collapse. The purpose of this article is to suggest appropriate treatment before vertebral collapse for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture who have risk factors for posttraumatic delayed vertebral collapse.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Kyphosis , Neurologic Manifestations , Osteonecrosis , Osteoporosis , Pain, Intractable , Risk Factors
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